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  1. Yadzir ZH, Misnan R, Murad S
    PMID: 23082569
    IgE-mediated allergic reaction to squid is one of the most frequent molluscan shellfish allergies. Previously, we have detected a 36 kDa protein as the major allergen of Loligo edulis (white squid) by immunoblotting using sera from patients with squid allergy. The aim of this present study was to further identify this major allergen using a proteomics approach. The major allergen was identified by a combination of two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE), immunoblotting, mass spectrometry and bioinformatics tools. The 2-DE gel fractionated the cooked white squid proteins to more than 50 different protein spots between 10 to 38 kDa and isoelectric point (pI) from 3.0 to 10.0. A highly reactive protein spot of a molecular mass of 36 kDa and pI of 4.55 was observed in all of the patients' serum samples tested. Mass spectrometry analysis led to identification of this allergen as tropomyosin. This finding can contribute to advancement in component-based diagnosis, management of squid allergic patients, to the development of immunotherapy and to the standardization of allergenic test products as tools in molecular allergology.
    Matched MeSH terms: Food Hypersensitivity/immunology*
  2. Gendeh BS, Mujahid SH, Murad S, Rizal M
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2004 Oct;59(4):522-9.
    PMID: 15779586 MyJurnal
    Atopy is defined as the genetic propensity to develop immunoglobulin E antibodies in response to exposure to allergens and assessed by skin prick test (SPT) responses to common allergens, which may contribute to the development of the clinical disorders (phenotype). Although it is generally agreed that atopy is an important risk factor for allergic diseases such as asthma, rhinitis, and eczema, the extent to which atopy accounts for these diseases is controversial. One hundred forty one children (up to 12 years) were skin prick tested to evaluate 16 foods common to the Malaysian diet and 4 common aeroallergens. Eighty-five percent of patients had positive SPT reactivity. The most commonly implicated aeroallergen and food allergen was house dust mite (HDM) and Prawn. Seventy percent had positive SPT reactivity results to HDM and 24.8% to prawns. Fifty five percent were positive to more than one allergen and 17.7% positive to single aeroallergen. The prevalence of atopy in children with history of eczema was 90%. The incidence of HDM and food allergy especially crabs and prawns, is significantly greater in Malaysian Children with rhinitis symptoms.
    Matched MeSH terms: Food Hypersensitivity/immunology
  3. Yadzir ZH, Misnan R, Abdullah N, Arip M, Murad S
    PMID: 21710860
    The aim of this study was to identify the major allergens of wildflower honey in local patients with atopic disease. SDS-PAGE revealed ten protein bands of 25 to 110 kDa, with a heavy cluster in region of 40-75 kDa. Immunoblotting demonstrated seven IgE-binding bands of 39 to 110 kDa. The 60 kDa protein had the highest frequency of IgE-binding (100%) followed by 54 kDa protein (95%), thus identified as the major allergens of wildflowerhoney. Our findings indicate that the allergen extract used for diagnosis of honey allergy contains both the 54 kDa and 60 kDa proteins.
    Matched MeSH terms: Food Hypersensitivity/immunology*
  4. Yadzir ZH, Misnan R, Abdullah N, Bakhtiar F, Arip M, Murad S
    PMID: 20578555
    Allergy to different classes of mollusks, including squid, which are members of the class Cephalopods has been reported. Tropomyosin, a major muscle protein, is the only well-recognized allergen in squid. The aim of this study was to characterize IgE-binding proteins of local Loligo edulis (white squid) consumed in Malaysia. Protein profiles and IgE-binding proteins were detected by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel-electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and immunoblotting using sera from 23 patients with positive skin prick test to raw squid extract. SDS-PAGE of the raw extract exhibited 21 protein bands (10-170 kDa) but those ranging from 19 to 29 kDa and 41 to 94 kDa were not found in the cooked extract. Immunoblotting of raw extract demonstrated 16 IgE-binding bands, ranging from 13 to 170 kDa. A heat-resistant 36 kDa protein, corresponding to squid tropomyosin, was identified as the major allergen of both extracts. In addition, a 50 kDa heat-sensitive protein was shown to be a major allergen of the raw extract. Our findings indicate that the allergen extract used for diagnosis of squid allergy should contain both the 36 kDa and 50 kDa proteins.
    Matched MeSH terms: Food Hypersensitivity/immunology*
  5. Misnan R, Murad S, Jones M, Taylor G, Rahman D, Arip M, et al.
    Asian Pac. J. Allergy Immunol., 2008 Dec;26(4):191-8.
    PMID: 19317337
    The purpose of this study was to characterize major allergens of Indian scad (Decapterus russelli) which is among the most commonly consumed fish in Malaysia. Raw and cooked extracts of the fish were prepared. Protein profiles and IgE binding patterns were produced by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and immunoblotting using sera from subjects with fish allergy. The major allergens of the fish were then identified by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE), followed by mass spectrometry of the peptide digests. The SDS-PAGE of the raw extract revealed 27 protein fractions over a wide molecular weight range, while the cooked extract demonstrated only six protein fractions. The 1-DE immunoblotting detected 14 IgE-binding proteins, with a molecular weight range from 90 to < 6.5 kDa. Three protein fractions with molecular weights of approximately 51, 46 and 12 kDa were identified as the major allergens of this fish. The approximately 12 kDa band was a heat-resistant protein while the approximately 51 and 46 kDa proteins were sensitive to heat. The 2-DE gel profile of the raw extract demonstrated > 100 distinct protein spots and immunoblotting detected at least 10 different major IgE reactive spots with molecular masses as expected and isoelectric point (pI) values ranging from 4.0 to 7.0. A comparison of the major allergenic spot sequences of the 12 kDa proteins with known protein sequences in databases revealed extensive similarity with fish parvalbumin. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that a parvalbumin which is similar to Gad c 1 is the major allergen of Indian scad. Interestingly, we also detected heat-sensitive proteins as major allergenic components in our fish allergy patients.
    Matched MeSH terms: Food Hypersensitivity/immunology*
  6. Rosmilah M, Shahnaz M, Masita A, Noormalin A, Jamaludin M
    Trop Biomed, 2005 Dec;22(2):171-7.
    PMID: 16883284 MyJurnal
    Fish has been recognized as a source of potent allergens both in food and occupational allergy. Lutjanus argentimaculatus (red snapper) and Lutjanus johnii (golden snapper) locally known as merah and jenahak, respectively, are among the most commonly consumed fish in Malaysia. The objective of this study is to identify the IgE-binding proteins and major allergens of these species of fishes. Extracts of both fish species were prepared and fractionated by sodium dodecyl polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). IgE binding patterns were then demonstrated by immunoblotting using sera from patients allergic to the fishes. The raw extracts of both fish produced 26 protein bands. Both species of fishes had similar protein profiles. In cooked extracts, several protein bands in the range of about 40 to 90 kD which were present in the uncooked extracts appeared to be denatured and formed high molecular weight complexes. The immunoblotting of golden snapper and red snapper revealed 16 and 15 various IgE-binding bands, in the range of 151 to 12-11 kD, respectively. A 51 kD protein was identified as a major allergen for both fishes. A 46 kD protein was also demonstrated as a major allergen in golden snapper and a 42 kD protein was also seen as a major allergen in red snapper. A heat-resistant protein of ~12 kD which is equivalent in size with fish parvalbumin was demonstrated only as minor allergen for both fishes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Food Hypersensitivity/immunology
  7. Yadav M, Iyngkaran N, Seow IKG
    Med. J. Malaysia, 1983 Dec;38(4):266-71.
    PMID: 6599980
    Infants, one to 56-weeks-old, presenting with persistent diarrhoea were placed on a diet free of cow's milk protein which improved their clinical condition. Six weeks later, 67 infants were challenged with a low-lactose cow's milk formula and jejunal biopsy was taken before and 24-hours after challenge. On the basis of histological changes in the intestinal mucosa and development of clinical symptoms the infants were categorised into three groups: Group 1 (n = 16) with no clinical or mucosal abnormality, Group 2 (n = 20) with mucosal abnormality but lacking clinical symptoms, and Group 3 (n 31) with manifestation of mucosal abnormality and clinical symptoms. In addition to the total IgE the radioallergosorbent test (RAST) was performed on sera from the infants taken before and after milk provocation. The mean total serum IgE level ranged from 288 to 560 IU/ml. In Groups 2 and 3 the prechallenge serum IgE levels were significantly higher than the postchallenge levels but in Group 1 the levels remained unchanged on challenge. A positive RAST to milk proteins was observed in five infants (7.4%), that is, one in Group 2 and four in Group 3, of 67 infants studied. In a survey of 405 consecutive paediatric-age patients admitted for a variety of symptoms, 90 were positive for RAST specific for milk proteins. Interestingly the majority of the patients positive for RAST presented with gastrointestinal ailments. The measurement of specific IgE appears not to be a useful adjunct in the diagnosis of CMPSE in Malaysian children.
    Matched MeSH terms: Food Hypersensitivity/immunology*
  8. Yadav M, Iyngkaran N
    Med. J. Malaysia, 1982 Sep;37(3):239-44.
    PMID: 7177005
    Eighteen infants clinically suspected to be intolerant of cow's milk were placed on a milk-free formula and six to eight weeks later were orally challenged with cow's milk. Following challenge three groups were recognised. Group A: Four infants tolerated oral feeds ofcow's milk and lacked mucosal abnormality or clinical symptoms. Group B: Seven infants had mucosal deterioration but lacked clinical symptoms and tolerated cow's milk. Group C: Seven infants had mucosal abnormality, developed clinical symptoms and were intolerant of cow's milk. The intestinal transudation of IgA was increased in Group A and unchanged in Group Band C : the IgM levels in the duodenal juice was increased in Group A and B but unchanged in Group C : the IgG levels in the juice were increased in all Groups following challenge. It appears that increased transmission of IgA and IgM or IgM alone in the duodenal juice is associated with lack of development of clinical symptoms. Symptoms are present in infants in whom the IgA and IgM levels in duodenal juice remained unchanged after challenge. It is suggested that patients responding to cow's millt challenge with intestinal production of IgA and IgM (or IgM alone) are able to counter balance the deleterious mechanisms leading to clinical cow's milk intolerance whereas those who, for some unknown reason, do not mount a secretory immune response become ill.
    Matched MeSH terms: Food Hypersensitivity/immunology*
  9. Ashley SE, Tan HT, Vuillermin P, Dharmage SC, Tang MLK, Koplin J, et al.
    Allergy, 2017 Sep;72(9):1356-1364.
    PMID: 28213955 DOI: 10.1111/all.13143
    BACKGROUND: A defective skin barrier is hypothesized to be an important route of sensitization to dietary antigens and may lead to food allergy in some children. Missense mutations in the serine peptidase inhibitor Kazal type 5 (SPINK5) skin barrier gene have previously been associated with allergic conditions.

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether genetic variants in and around SPINK5 are associated with IgE-mediated food allergy.

    METHOD: We genotyped 71 "tag" single nucleotide polymorphisms (tag-SNPs) within a region spanning ~263 kb including SPINK5 (~61 kb) in n=722 (n=367 food-allergic, n=199 food-sensitized-tolerant and n=156 non-food-allergic controls) 12-month-old infants (discovery sample) phenotyped for food allergy with the gold standard oral food challenge. Transepidermal water loss (TEWL) measures were collected at 12 months from a subset (n=150) of these individuals. SNPs were tested for association with food allergy using the Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel test adjusting for ancestry strata. Association analyses were replicated in an independent sample group derived from four paediatric cohorts, total n=533 (n=203 food-allergic, n=330 non-food-allergic), mean age 2.5 years, with food allergy defined by either clinical history of reactivity, 95% positive predictive value (PPV) or challenge, corrected for ancestry by principal components.

    RESULTS: SPINK5 variant rs9325071 (A⟶G) was associated with challenge-proven food allergy in the discovery sample (P=.001, OR=2.95, CI=1.49-5.83). This association was further supported by replication (P=.007, OR=1.58, CI=1.13-2.20) and by meta-analysis (P=.0004, OR=1.65). Variant rs9325071 is associated with decreased SPINK5 gene expression in the skin in publicly available genotype-tissue expression data, and we generated preliminary evidence for association of this SNP with elevated TEWL also.

    CONCLUSIONS: We report, for the first time, association between SPINK5 variant rs9325071 and challenge-proven IgE-mediated food allergy.

    Matched MeSH terms: Food Hypersensitivity/immunology*
  10. Rosmilah M, Shahnaz M, Meinir J, Masita A, Noormalin A, Jamaluddin M
    Int. Arch. Allergy Immunol., 2013;162(4):299-309.
    PMID: 24193115 DOI: 10.1159/000354544
    The longtail tuna (Thunnus tonggol) is widely consumed in Asia. Parvalbumin, the main major allergen of fish, has been well identified in multiple fish species, yet little is known about the allergenic proteins in T. tonggol. Thus, the aim of this study was to characterize the major allergens of T. tonggol using a proteomics approach.
    Matched MeSH terms: Food Hypersensitivity/immunology*
  11. Misnan R, Murad S, Yadzir ZH, Abdullah N
    Asian Pac. J. Allergy Immunol., 2012 Dec;30(4):285-93.
    PMID: 23393908
    Tropomyosin and arginine kinase have been identified as the major allergens in multiple species of crab. Charybdis feriatus is an important commercial crab in this country.
    Matched MeSH terms: Food Hypersensitivity/immunology*
  12. Rosmilah M, Shahnaz M, Zailatul HM, Noormalin A, Normilah I
    Trop Biomed, 2012 Sep;29(3):467-78.
    PMID: 23018510
    Crab is an important source of food allergen. Tropomyosin represents the main crab allergen and is responsible for IgE cross-reactivity between various species of crustaceans. Recently, other new crab allergens including arginine kinase have been identified. However, information on allergens of the local Portunidcrab is not available. Thus, the aim of this study was to identify the major allergens of Portunus pelagicus (blue swimming crab) using the allergenomics approach. Raw and cooked extracts of the crab were prepared from the crab meat. Protein profile and IgE binding pattern were demonstrated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and immunoblotting using sera from 30 patients with crab allergy. The major allergens of the crab were then identified by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE), followed by mass spectrometry analysis of the peptide digests. The SDS-PAGE of raw extract revealed approximately 20 protein fractions over a wide molecular weight range, while cooked extract demonstrated fewer protein bands. The raw extract also demonstrated a higher number of IgE reactive bands than the cooked extract. A heat-resistant protein of 36 kDa has been identified as the major allergen in both raw and cooked extracts. In addition, a heat-sensitive protein of 41 kDa was also recognized as a major allergen in raw crab. The 2-DE gel profile of the raw extract demonstrated about >100 distinct proteins spots and immunoblotting of the 2-DE profile demonstrated at least 12 different major IgE reactive spots with molecular masses between 13 to 250 kDa and isoelectric point (pI) values ranging from 4.0 to 7.0. The 36 and 41 kDa proteins were identified as the crab tropomyosin and arginine kinase, respectively by mass spectrometry. Therefore, this study confirmed that tropomyosin and arginine kinase are the major allergens of the local Portunid crab, P. pelagicus.
    Matched MeSH terms: Food Hypersensitivity/immunology*
  13. Yeoh SM, Sam CK
    Asian Pac. J. Allergy Immunol., 2001 Mar;19(1):7-10.
    PMID: 11495303
    The significance of food specific serum IgG4 antibody in food allergy is unclear and this led us to investigate the relevance of specific IgG4, along with IgG and IgE antibodies to two common food allergens in Malaysia. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to measure the serum antibodies in 143 allergic rhinitis patients' sera, of which 47 were from patients with clinical indication of shrimp allergy, 46 with clinical indication of crab allergy and 50 without indication to either allergy. Clinical indication of allergy was based on answers to a questionnaire or results of the skin prick test. We found that the elevation of specific IgE or IgG4 is associated with shrimp and crab allergies but elevation of specific IgG is not associated with either allergy. However, the clinical utility of elevated specific IgG and IgG4 levels is pending further investigation.
    Study site: Allergic rhinitis clinic, University Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
    Matched MeSH terms: Food Hypersensitivity/immunology*
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