OBJECTIVE: To test if SNPs associated with other traits may also affect the risk of aggressive prostate cancer.
DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: SNPs implicated in any phenotype other than prostate cancer (p≤10(-7)) were identified through the catalog of published GWAS and tested in 2891 aggressive prostate cancer cases and 4592 controls from the Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3). The 40 most significant SNPs were followed up in 4872 aggressive prostate cancer cases and 24,534 controls from the Prostate Cancer Association Group to Investigate Cancer Associated Alterations in the Genome (PRACTICAL) consortium.
OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for aggressive prostate cancer were estimated.
RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: A total of 4666 SNPs were evaluated by the BPC3. Two signals were seen in regions already reported for prostate cancer risk. rs7014346 at 8q24.21 was marginally associated with aggressive prostate cancer in the BPC3 trial (p=1.6×10(-6)), whereas after meta-analysis by PRACTICAL the summary OR was 1.21 (95% CI 1.16-1.27; p=3.22×10(-18)). rs9900242 at 17q24.3 was also marginally associated with aggressive disease in the meta-analysis (OR 0.90, 95% CI 0.86-0.94; p=2.5×10(-6)). Neither of these SNPs remained statistically significant when conditioning on correlated known prostate cancer SNPs. The meta-analysis by BPC3 and PRACTICAL identified a third promising signal, marked by rs16844874 at 2q34, independent of known prostate cancer loci (OR 1.12, 95% CI 1.06-1.19; p=4.67×10(-5)); it has been shown that SNPs correlated with this signal affect glycine concentrations. The main limitation is the heterogeneity in the definition of aggressive prostate cancer between BPC3 and PRACTICAL.
CONCLUSIONS: We did not identify new SNPs for aggressive prostate cancer. However, rs16844874 may provide preliminary genetic evidence on the role of the glycine pathway in prostate cancer etiology.
PATIENT SUMMARY: We evaluated whether genetic variants associated with several traits are linked to the risk of aggressive prostate cancer. No new such variants were identified.
METHODS: To this end, we undertook a pilot genome-wide CNV analysis approach in 36 subjects (18 patients with high-grade PCa and 18 controls that were matched by age and ethnicity) in search of more accurate biomarkers that could potentially explain susceptibility toward high-grade PCa. We conducted this study using the array comparative genomic hybridization technique. Array results were validated in 92 independent samples (46 high-grade PCa, 23 benign prostatic hyperplasia, and 23 healthy controls) using polymerase chain reaction-based copy number counting method.
RESULTS: A total of 314 CNV regions were found to be unique to PCa subjects in this cohort (P<0.05). A log2 ratio-based copy number analysis revealed 5 putative rare or novel CNV loci or both associated with susceptibility to PCa. The CNV gain regions were 1q21.3, 15q15, 7p12.1, and a novel CNV in PCa 12q23.1, harboring ARNT, THBS1, SLC5A8, and DDC genes that are crucial in the p53 and cancer pathways. A CNV loss and deletion event was observed at 8p11.21, which contains the SFRP1 gene from the Wnt signaling pathway. Cross-comparison analysis with genes associated to PCa revealed significant CNVs involved in biological processes that elicit cancer pathogenesis via cytokine production and endothelial cell proliferation.
CONCLUSION: In conclusion, we postulated that the CNVs identified in this study could provide an insight into the development of advanced PCa.
METHODS: Genomic DNAs were extracted from the blood samples followed by whole-genome sequencing. The reads were aligned to the reference human genome hg19 and variants in the CYP2D6 gene were analyzed. CYP2D6*5 and duplication of CYP2D6 were analyzed using previously established methods.
RESULTS: A total of 72 single nucleotide polymorphisms were identified. CYP2D6*1, *2, *4, *5, *10,*41, and duplication of the gene were found in the Orang Asli, whereby CYP2D6*2 and *41 alleles are reported for the first time in the Malaysian population.
CONCLUSION: The findings in this study provide insights into the genetic polymorphisms of CYP2D6 in the Orang Asli of Peninsular Malaysia.