Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 125 in total

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  1. Nor Hashim NA, Ramzi NH, Velapasamy S, Alex L, Chahil JK, Lye SH, et al.
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2012;13(12):6005-10.
    PMID: 23464394
    BACKGROUND: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is endemic in Southern Chinese and Southeast Asian populations. Geographical and ethnic clustering of the cancer is due to genetic, environmental, and lifestyle risk factors. This case-control study aimed to identify or confirm both genetic and non-genetic risk factors for NPC in one of the endemic countries, Malaysia.

    MATERIALS AND METHOD: A panel of 768 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) previously associated with various cancers and known non-genetic risk factors for NPC were selected and analyzed for their associations with NPC in a case-control study.

    RESULTS: Statistical analysis identified 40 SNPs associated with NPC risk in our population, including 5 documented previously by genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and other case-control studies; the associations of the remaining 35 SNPs with NPC were novel. In addition, consistent with previous studies, exposure to occupational hazards, overconsumption of salt-cured foods, red meat, as well as low intake of fruits and vegetables were also associated with NPC risk.

    CONCLUSIONS: In short, this study confirmed and/or identified genetic, environmental and dietary risk factors associated with NPC susceptibility in a Southeast Asian population.

    Matched MeSH terms: Genome-Wide Association Study*
  2. Hoh BP, Deng L, Julia-Ashazila MJ, Zuraihan Z, Nur-Hasnah M, Nur-Shafawati AR, et al.
    Hum. Genomics, 2015 Jul 22;9:16.
    PMID: 26194999 DOI: 10.1186/s40246-015-0039-x
    Fine scale population structure of Malays - the major population in Malaysia, has not been well studied. This may have important implications for both evolutionary and medical studies. Here, we investigated the population sub-structure of Malay involving 431 samples collected from all states from peninsular Malaysia and Singapore. We identified two major clusters of individuals corresponding to the north and south peninsular Malaysia. On an even finer scale, the genetic coordinates of the geographical Malay populations are in correlation with the latitudes (R(2) = 0.3925; P = 0.029). This finding is further supported by the pairwise FST of Malay sub-populations, of which the north and south regions showed the highest differentiation (FST [North-south] = 0.0011). The collective findings therefore suggest that population sub-structure of Malays are more heterogenous than previously expected even within a small geographical region, possibly due to factors like different genetic origins, geographical isolation, could result in spurious association as demonstrated in our analysis. We suggest that cautions should be taken during the stage of study design or interpreting the association signals in disease mapping studies which are expected to be conducted in Malay population in the near future.
    Matched MeSH terms: Genome-Wide Association Study*
  3. Sullivan P, 96 Psychiatric Genetics Investigators
    Mol. Psychiatry, 2012 Jan;17(1):2-3.
    PMID: 21826059 DOI: 10.1038/mp.2011.94
    Matched MeSH terms: Genome-Wide Association Study*
  4. Apalasamy YD, Mohamed Z
    Hum. Genet., 2015 Apr;134(4):361-74.
    PMID: 25687726 DOI: 10.1007/s00439-015-1533-x
    Obesity is a complex and multifactorial disease that occurs as a result of the interaction between "obesogenic" environmental factors and genetic components. Although the genetic component of obesity is clear from the heritability studies, the genetic basis remains largely elusive. Successes have been achieved in identifying the causal genes for monogenic obesity using animal models and linkage studies, but these approaches are not fruitful for polygenic obesity. The developments of genome-wide association approach have brought breakthrough discovery of genetic variants for polygenic obesity where tens of new susceptibility loci were identified. However, the common SNPs only accounted for a proportion of heritability. The arrival of NGS technologies and completion of 1000 Genomes Project have brought other new methods to dissect the genetic architecture of obesity, for example, the use of exome genotyping arrays and deep sequencing of candidate loci identified from GWAS to study rare variants. In this review, we summarize and discuss the developments of these genetic approaches in human obesity.
    Matched MeSH terms: Genome-Wide Association Study
  5. S, MARAN, LEE, Y. Y., ZILFALIL BA, NOORIZAN AM
    MyJurnal
    Genome Wide Association (GWA) Studies of complex diseases represents a new paradigm in the
    post-genomic era. Since then, the eld of human genetics has been revolutionized by the GWA Studies approach (Yang and Hibberd 2009). Adding to this, the completion of human genome sequence had enabled a systemic identi cation of genetic loci that determines
    the etiology of complex diseases.
    Matched MeSH terms: Genome-Wide Association Study
  6. Drange OK, Smeland OB, Shadrin AA, Finseth PI, Witoelar A, Frei O, et al.
    Front Neurosci, 2019;13:220.
    PMID: 30930738 DOI: 10.3389/fnins.2019.00220
    Background: Alzheimer's disease (AD) and bipolar disorder (BIP) are complex traits influenced by numerous common genetic variants, most of which remain to be detected. Clinical and epidemiological evidence suggest that AD and BIP are related. However, it is not established if this relation is of genetic origin. Here, we applied statistical methods based on the conditional false discovery rate (FDR) framework to detect genetic overlap between AD and BIP and utilized this overlap to increase the power to identify common genetic variants associated with either or both traits. Methods: We obtained genome wide association studies data from the International Genomics of Alzheimer's Project part 1 (17,008 AD cases and 37,154 controls) and the Psychiatric Genetic Consortium Bipolar Disorder Working Group (20,352 BIP cases and 31,358 controls). We used conditional QQ-plots to assess overlap in common genetic variants between AD and BIP. We exploited the genetic overlap to re-rank test-statistics for AD and BIP and improve detection of genetic variants using the conditional FDR framework. Results: Conditional QQ-plots demonstrated a polygenic overlap between AD and BIP. Using conditional FDR, we identified one novel genomic locus associated with AD, and nine novel loci associated with BIP. Further, we identified two novel loci jointly associated with AD and BIP implicating the MARK2 gene (lead SNP rs10792421, conjunctional FDR = 0.030, same direction of effect) and the VAC14 gene (lead SNP rs11649476, conjunctional FDR = 0.022, opposite direction of effect). Conclusion: We found polygenic overlap between AD and BIP and identified novel loci for each trait and two jointly associated loci. Further studies should examine if the shared loci implicating the MARK2 and VAC14 genes could explain parts of the shared and distinct features of AD and BIP.
    Matched MeSH terms: Genome-Wide Association Study
  7. Gunter NV, Yap BJM, Chua CLL, Yap WH
    Front Genet, 2019;10:395.
    PMID: 31130981 DOI: 10.3389/fgene.2019.00395
    Psoriasis is multifactorial disease with complex genetic predisposition. Recent advances in genetics and genomics analyses have provided many insights into the relationship between specific genetic predisposition and the immunopathological mechanisms driving psoriasis manifestation. Novel approaches which utilize array-based genotyping technologies such as genome-wide association studies and bioinformatics tools for transcriptomics analysis have identified single nucleotide polymorphisms, genes and pathways that are associated with psoriasis. The discovery of these psoriasis-associated susceptibility loci, autoimmune targets and altered signaling pathways have provided opportunities to bridge the gap of knowledge from sequence to consequence, allowing new therapeutic strategies for the treatment of psoriasis to be developed. Here, we discuss recent advances in the field by highlighting how immune functions associated with psoriasis susceptibility loci may contribute to disease pathogenesis in different populations. Understanding the genetic variations in psoriasis and how these may influence the immunological pathways to cause disease will contribute to the efforts in developing novel and targeted personalized therapies for psoriasis patients.
    Matched MeSH terms: Genome-Wide Association Study
  8. Khor CC, Do T, Jia H, Nakano M, George R, Abu-Amero K, et al.
    Nat. Genet., 2016 May;48(5):556-62.
    PMID: 27064256 DOI: 10.1038/ng.3540
    Primary angle closure glaucoma (PACG) is a major cause of blindness worldwide. We conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) followed by replication in a combined total of 10,503 PACG cases and 29,567 controls drawn from 24 countries across Asia, Australia, Europe, North America, and South America. We observed significant evidence of disease association at five new genetic loci upon meta-analysis of all patient collections. These loci are at EPDR1 rs3816415 (odds ratio (OR) = 1.24, P = 5.94 × 10(-15)), CHAT rs1258267 (OR = 1.22, P = 2.85 × 10(-16)), GLIS3 rs736893 (OR = 1.18, P = 1.43 × 10(-14)), FERMT2 rs7494379 (OR = 1.14, P = 3.43 × 10(-11)), and DPM2-FAM102A rs3739821 (OR = 1.15, P = 8.32 × 10(-12)). We also confirmed significant association at three previously described loci (P < 5 × 10(-8) for each sentinel SNP at PLEKHA7, COL11A1, and PCMTD1-ST18), providing new insights into the biology of PACG.
    Matched MeSH terms: Genome-Wide Association Study*
  9. Rai KM, Balasubramanian VK, Welker CM, Pang M, Hii MM, Mendu V
    BMC Plant Biol., 2015;15:187.
    PMID: 26232118 DOI: 10.1186/s12870-015-0576-4
    The plant cell wall serves as a primary barrier against pathogen invasion. The success of a plant pathogen largely depends on its ability to overcome this barrier. During the infection process, plant parasitic nematodes secrete cell wall degrading enzymes (CWDEs) apart from piercing with their stylet, a sharp and hard mouthpart used for successful infection. CWDEs typically consist of cellulases, hemicellulases, and pectinases, which help the nematode to infect and establish the feeding structure or form a cyst. The study of nematode cell wall degrading enzymes not only enhance our understanding of the interaction between nematodes and their host, but also provides information on a novel source of enzymes for their potential use in biomass based biofuel/bioproduct industries. Although there is comprehensive information available on genome wide analysis of CWDEs for bacteria, fungi, termites and plants, but no comprehensive information available for plant pathogenic nematodes. Herein we have performed a genome wide analysis of CWDEs from the genome sequenced phyto pathogenic nematode species and developed a comprehensive publicly available database.
    Matched MeSH terms: Genome-Wide Association Study*
  10. Network and Pathway Analysis Subgroup of Psychiatric Genomics Consortium
    Nat. Neurosci., 2015 Feb;18(2):199-209.
    PMID: 25599223 DOI: 10.1038/nn.3922
    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of psychiatric disorders have identified multiple genetic associations with such disorders, but better methods are needed to derive the underlying biological mechanisms that these signals indicate. We sought to identify biological pathways in GWAS data from over 60,000 participants from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium. We developed an analysis framework to rank pathways that requires only summary statistics. We combined this score across disorders to find common pathways across three adult psychiatric disorders: schizophrenia, major depression and bipolar disorder. Histone methylation processes showed the strongest association, and we also found statistically significant evidence for associations with multiple immune and neuronal signaling pathways and with the postsynaptic density. Our study indicates that risk variants for psychiatric disorders aggregate in particular biological pathways and that these pathways are frequently shared between disorders. Our results confirm known mechanisms and suggest several novel insights into the etiology of psychiatric disorders.
    Matched MeSH terms: Genome-Wide Association Study/methods*
  11. Panagiotou OA, Travis RC, Campa D, Berndt SI, Lindstrom S, Kraft P, et al.
    Eur. Urol., 2015 Apr;67(4):649-57.
    PMID: 25277271 DOI: 10.1016/j.eururo.2014.09.020
    BACKGROUND: No single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) specific for aggressive prostate cancer have been identified in genome-wide association studies (GWAS).

    OBJECTIVE: To test if SNPs associated with other traits may also affect the risk of aggressive prostate cancer.

    DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: SNPs implicated in any phenotype other than prostate cancer (p≤10(-7)) were identified through the catalog of published GWAS and tested in 2891 aggressive prostate cancer cases and 4592 controls from the Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3). The 40 most significant SNPs were followed up in 4872 aggressive prostate cancer cases and 24,534 controls from the Prostate Cancer Association Group to Investigate Cancer Associated Alterations in the Genome (PRACTICAL) consortium.

    OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for aggressive prostate cancer were estimated.

    RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: A total of 4666 SNPs were evaluated by the BPC3. Two signals were seen in regions already reported for prostate cancer risk. rs7014346 at 8q24.21 was marginally associated with aggressive prostate cancer in the BPC3 trial (p=1.6×10(-6)), whereas after meta-analysis by PRACTICAL the summary OR was 1.21 (95% CI 1.16-1.27; p=3.22×10(-18)). rs9900242 at 17q24.3 was also marginally associated with aggressive disease in the meta-analysis (OR 0.90, 95% CI 0.86-0.94; p=2.5×10(-6)). Neither of these SNPs remained statistically significant when conditioning on correlated known prostate cancer SNPs. The meta-analysis by BPC3 and PRACTICAL identified a third promising signal, marked by rs16844874 at 2q34, independent of known prostate cancer loci (OR 1.12, 95% CI 1.06-1.19; p=4.67×10(-5)); it has been shown that SNPs correlated with this signal affect glycine concentrations. The main limitation is the heterogeneity in the definition of aggressive prostate cancer between BPC3 and PRACTICAL.

    CONCLUSIONS: We did not identify new SNPs for aggressive prostate cancer. However, rs16844874 may provide preliminary genetic evidence on the role of the glycine pathway in prostate cancer etiology.

    PATIENT SUMMARY: We evaluated whether genetic variants associated with several traits are linked to the risk of aggressive prostate cancer. No new such variants were identified.

    Matched MeSH terms: Genome-Wide Association Study/methods*
  12. Lau YY, Yin WF, Chan KG
    Sensors (Basel), 2014;14(8):13913-24.
    PMID: 25196111 DOI: 10.3390/s140813913
    Enterobacter asburiae L1 is a quorum sensing bacterium isolated from lettuce leaves. In this study, for the first time, the complete genome of E. asburiae L1 was sequenced using the single molecule real time sequencer (PacBio RSII) and the whole genome sequence was verified by using optical genome mapping (OpGen) technology. In our previous study, E. asburiae L1 has been reported to produce AHLs, suggesting the possibility of virulence factor regulation which is quorum sensing dependent. This evoked our interest to study the genome of this bacterium and here we present the complete genome of E. asburiae L1, which carries the virulence factor gene virK, the N-acyl homoserine lactone-based QS transcriptional regulator gene luxR and the N-acyl homoserine lactone synthase gene which we firstly named easI. The availability of the whole genome sequence of E. asburiae L1 will pave the way for the study of the QS-mediated gene expression in this bacterium. Hence, the importance and functions of these signaling molecules can be further studied in the hope of elucidating the mechanisms of QS-regulation in E. asburiae. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first documentation of both a complete genome sequence and the establishment of the molecular basis of QS properties of E. asburiae.
    Matched MeSH terms: Genome-Wide Association Study/methods
  13. Nurnberger JI, Koller DL, Jung J, Edenberg HJ, Foroud T, Guella I, et al.
    JAMA Psychiatry, 2014 Jun;71(6):657-64.
    PMID: 24718920 DOI: 10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2014.176
    IMPORTANCE: Genome-wide investigations provide systematic information regarding the neurobiology of psychiatric disorders.

    OBJECTIVE: To identify biological pathways that contribute to risk for bipolar disorder (BP) using genes with consistent evidence for association in multiple genome-wide association studies (GWAS).

    DATA SOURCES: Four independent data sets with individual genome-wide data available in July 2011 along with all data sets contributed to the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium Bipolar Group by May 2012. A prior meta-analysis was used as a source for brain gene expression data.

    STUDY SELECTION: The 4 published GWAS were included in the initial sample. All independent BP data sets providing genome-wide data in the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium were included as a replication sample.

    DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS: We identified 966 genes that contained 2 or more variants associated with BP at P

    Matched MeSH terms: Genome-Wide Association Study*
  14. Nongpiur ME, Khor CC, Jia H, Cornes BK, Chen LJ, Qiao C, et al.
    PLoS Genet., 2014 Mar;10(3):e1004089.
    PMID: 24603532 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1004089
    Anterior chamber depth (ACD) is a key anatomical risk factor for primary angle closure glaucoma (PACG). We conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) on ACD to discover novel genes for PACG on a total of 5,308 population-based individuals of Asian descent. Genome-wide significant association was observed at a sequence variant within ABCC5 (rs1401999; per-allele effect size =  -0.045 mm, P = 8.17 × 10(-9)). This locus was associated with an increase in risk of PACG in a separate case-control study of 4,276 PACG cases and 18,801 controls (per-allele OR = 1.13 [95% CI: 1.06-1.22], P = 0.00046). The association was strengthened when a sub-group of controls with open angles were included in the analysis (per-allele OR = 1.30, P = 7.45 × 10(-9); 3,458 cases vs. 3,831 controls). Our findings suggest that the increase in PACG risk could in part be mediated by genetic sequence variants influencing anterior chamber dimensions.
    Matched MeSH terms: Genome-Wide Association Study*
  15. Vaithilingam RD, Safii SH, Baharuddin NA, Ng CC, Cheong SC, Bartold PM, et al.
    J. Periodont. Res., 2014 Dec;49(6):683-95.
    PMID: 24528298 DOI: 10.1111/jre.12167
    Studies to elucidate the role of genetics as a risk factor for periodontal disease have gone through various phases. In the majority of cases, the initial 'hypothesis-dependent' candidate-gene polymorphism studies did not report valid genetic risk loci. Following a large-scale replication study, these initially positive results are believed to be caused by type 1 errors. However, susceptibility genes, such as CDKN2BAS (Cyclin Dependend KiNase 2B AntiSense RNA; alias ANRIL [ANtisense Rna In the Ink locus]), glycosyltransferase 6 domain containing 1 (GLT6D1) and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2), have been reported as conclusive risk loci of periodontitis. The search for genetic risk factors accelerated with the advent of 'hypothesis-free' genome-wide association studies (GWAS). However, despite many different GWAS being performed for almost all human diseases, only three GWAS on periodontitis have been published - one reported genome-wide association of GLT6D1 with aggressive periodontitis (a severe phenotype of periodontitis), whereas the remaining two, which were performed on patients with chronic periodontitis, were not able to find significant associations. This review discusses the problems faced and the lessons learned from the search for genetic risk variants of periodontitis. Current and future strategies for identifying genetic variance in periodontitis, and the importance of planning a well-designed genetic study with large and sufficiently powered case-control samples of severe phenotypes, are also discussed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Genome-Wide Association Study*
  16. Hu S, Qian M, Zhang H, Guo Y, Yang J, Zhao X, et al.
    Blood, 2017 06 15;129(24):3264-3268.
    PMID: 28408461 DOI: 10.1182/blood-2017-03-771162
    Matched MeSH terms: Genome-Wide Association Study*
  17. Ellulu MS, Jalambo MO
    Kathmandu Univ Med J (KUMJ), 2018 2 16;15(57):91-93.
    PMID: 29446373
    Urbanization has provided experimental settings for testing the interactive relationship between genetic background and changes in lifestyle and dietary patterns. The concept of gene-environment interaction was described by epidemic of obesity along with urbanization. Genome-wide association has identified several genes such as melanocortin-4 receptor that associates with environmental influences of obesity. Gene environment (GxE) interaction refers to modification by an environmental factor of the effect of a genetic variant on a phenotypic trait. GxE interactions can serve to modulate the adverse effects of a risk allele, or can exacerbate the genotype-phenotype relationship and increase risk.
    Matched MeSH terms: Genome-Wide Association Study/methods*
  18. Bipolar Disorder and Schizophrenia Working Group of the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium. Electronic address: douglas.ruderfer@vanderbilt.edu, Bipolar Disorder and Schizophrenia Working Group of the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium
    Cell, 2018 06 14;173(7):1705-1715.e16.
    PMID: 29906448 DOI: 10.1016/j.cell.2018.05.046
    Schizophrenia and bipolar disorder are two distinct diagnoses that share symptomology. Understanding the genetic factors contributing to the shared and disorder-specific symptoms will be crucial for improving diagnosis and treatment. In genetic data consisting of 53,555 cases (20,129 bipolar disorder [BD], 33,426 schizophrenia [SCZ]) and 54,065 controls, we identified 114 genome-wide significant loci implicating synaptic and neuronal pathways shared between disorders. Comparing SCZ to BD (23,585 SCZ, 15,270 BD) identified four genomic regions including one with disorder-independent causal variants and potassium ion response genes as contributing to differences in biology between the disorders. Polygenic risk score (PRS) analyses identified several significant correlations within case-only phenotypes including SCZ PRS with psychotic features and age of onset in BD. For the first time, we discover specific loci that distinguish between BD and SCZ and identify polygenic components underlying multiple symptom dimensions. These results point to the utility of genetics to inform symptomology and potential treatment.
    Matched MeSH terms: Genome-Wide Association Study*
  19. Schumacher FR, Al Olama AA, Berndt SI, Benlloch S, Ahmed M, Saunders EJ, et al.
    Nat. Genet., 2018 07;50(7):928-936.
    PMID: 29892016 DOI: 10.1038/s41588-018-0142-8
    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and fine-mapping efforts to date have identified more than 100 prostate cancer (PrCa)-susceptibility loci. We meta-analyzed genotype data from a custom high-density array of 46,939 PrCa cases and 27,910 controls of European ancestry with previously genotyped data of 32,255 PrCa cases and 33,202 controls of European ancestry. Our analysis identified 62 novel loci associated (P C, p.Pro1054Arg) in ATM and rs2066827 (OR = 1.06; P = 2.3 × 10-9; T>G, p.Val109Gly) in CDKN1B. The combination of all loci captured 28.4% of the PrCa familial relative risk, and a polygenic risk score conferred an elevated PrCa risk for men in the ninetieth to ninety-ninth percentiles (relative risk = 2.69; 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.55-2.82) and first percentile (relative risk = 5.71; 95% CI: 5.04-6.48) risk stratum compared with the population average. These findings improve risk prediction, enhance fine-mapping, and provide insight into the underlying biology of PrCa1.
    Matched MeSH terms: Genome-Wide Association Study/methods
  20. Lu Y, Beeghly-Fadiel A, Wu L, Guo X, Li B, Schildkraut JM, et al.
    Cancer Res., 2018 09 15;78(18):5419-5430.
    PMID: 30054336 DOI: 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-18-0951
    Large-scale genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified approximately 35 loci associated with epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) risk. The majority of GWAS-identified disease susceptibility variants are located in noncoding regions, and causal genes underlying these associations remain largely unknown. Here, we performed a transcriptome-wide association study to search for novel genetic loci and plausible causal genes at known GWAS loci. We used RNA sequencing data (68 normal ovarian tissue samples from 68 individuals and 6,124 cross-tissue samples from 369 individuals) and high-density genotyping data from European descendants of the Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx V6) project to build ovarian and cross-tissue models of genetically regulated expression using elastic net methods. We evaluated 17,121 genes for their cis-predicted gene expression in relation to EOC risk using summary statistics data from GWAS of 97,898 women, including 29,396 EOC cases. With a Bonferroni-corrected significance level of P < 2.2 × 10-6, we identified 35 genes, including FZD4 at 11q14.2 (Z = 5.08, P = 3.83 × 10-7, the cross-tissue model; 1 Mb away from any GWAS-identified EOC risk variant), a potential novel locus for EOC risk. All other 34 significantly associated genes were located within 1 Mb of known GWAS-identified loci, including 23 genes at 6 loci not previously linked to EOC risk. Upon conditioning on nearby known EOC GWAS-identified variants, the associations for 31 genes disappeared and three genes remained (P < 1.47 × 10-3). These data identify one novel locus (FZD4) and 34 genes at 13 known EOC risk loci associated with EOC risk, providing new insights into EOC carcinogenesis.Significance: Transcriptomic analysis of a large cohort confirms earlier GWAS loci and reveals FZD4 as a novel locus associated with EOC risk. Cancer Res; 78(18); 5419-30. ©2018 AACR.
    Matched MeSH terms: Genome-Wide Association Study*
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