Researchers frequently use two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE) prior to mass spectrometric analysis in a proteomics approach. The i2D-PAGE method, which 'inverts' the dimension of protein separation of the conventional 2D-PAGE, is presented in this publication. Protein lysate of Channa striata, a freshwater snakehead fish, was separated based on its molecular weight in the first dimension and its isoelectric point in the second dimension. The first-dimension separation was conducted on a gel-free separation device, and the protein mixture was fractionated into 12 fractions in chronological order of increasing molecular weight. The second-dimension separation featured isoelectric focusing, which further separated the proteins within the same fraction according to their respective isoelectric point. Advantages of i2D-PAGE include better visualisation of the isolated protein, easy identification on protein isoforms, shorter running time, customisability and reproducibility. Erythropoietin standard was applied to i2D-PAGE to show its effectiveness for separating protein isoforms. Various staining methods such as Coomassie blue staining and silver staining are also applicable to i2D-PAGE. Overall, the i2D-PAGE separation method effectively separates protein lysate and is suitable for application in proteomics research.
Malayan cobra (Naja naja sputatrix) venom was found to exhibit an in vitro anticoagulant activity that was much stronger than most common cobra (genus Naja) venoms. The most potent anticoagulants of the venom are two lethal phospholipase A2 enzymes with pI's of 6.15 and 6.20, respectively. The anticoagulant activity of the venom is due to the synergistic effect of the venom phospholipase A2 enzymes and polypeptide anticoagulants. Bromophenacylation of the two phospholipase A2 enzymes reduced their enzymatic activity with a concomitant drop in both the lethal and anticoagulant activities.
Genetic variation of orosomucoid (ORM) in the genus Macaca was investigated. Plasma samples were subjected to isoelectric focusing in a pH range of 4-6.5, followed by immunoprinting with anti-human ORM antibodies. A total of 25 alleles were identified in 231 Asian macaques belonging to 13 species from 23 populations and 22 members belonging to a family of M. fascicularis. Family data presented evidence for a codominant mode of inheritance with multi-alleles at a single autosomal locus. A population study revealed enormous intra- and interspecies variations. The heterozygosity values varied from 0.855 in M. fascicularis (Malaysia) to 0.000 in M. radiata (India), M. silenus (India) and M. arctoides (Malaysia).
The distribution of serum alpha 1-protease inhibitor (PI) or alpha 1-antitrypsin (alpha 1AT) subtypes was determined by thin-layer isoelectric focusing in a group of 1233 individuals from six Mongoloid populations of East Asia and Dravidian Indians. The sample comprised 385 Chinese from Singapore and 151 Chinese from the Fujien province; 126 Malays; 243 Filipinos; 112 Thais; 56 Koreans and 160 Dravidian Indians. The frequency of PiM1 ranged from 0.65 in the Thais to 0.81 in the Fujien Chinese. The highest frequency of PiM2 was found in the Dravidian Indians (0.28) followed by the Thais (0.25). The frequency of PiM3 was found to vary from 0.03 to 0.07 in these populations. A low frequency of PiF (0.01 to 0.02) and PiS (0.01 to 0.04) was also observed in the Mongoloid populations but absent in the Indians. The PiZ allele was completely absent in all these populations. The phenotypic distribution of PI subtypes was at Hardy-Weinburg equilibrium in all the populations.
Actinopyga lecanora, as a rich protein source was hydrolysed to generate antibacterial bioactive peptides using different proteolytic enzymes. Bromelain hydrolysate, after 1 h hydrolysis, exhibited the highestantibacterial activities against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas sp., Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Two dimensional fractionation strategies, using a semi-preparative RP-HPLC and an isoelectric-focusing electrophoresis, were applied for peptide profiling. Furthermore, UPLC-QTOF-MS was used for peptides identification; 12 peptide sequences were successfully identified. The antibacterial activity of purified peptides from A. lecanora on P. aeruginosa, Pseudomonas sp., E. coli and S. aureus was investigated. These identified peptides exhibited growth inhibition against P. aeruginosa, Pseudomonas sp., E. coli and S. aureus with values ranging from 18.80 to 75.30%. These results revealed that the A. lecanora would be used as an economical protein source for the production of high value antibacterial bioactive peptides.
Orthodontic treatment has been shown to induce inflammation, followed by bone remodelling in the periodontium. These processes trigger the secretion of various proteins and enzymes into the saliva. This study aims to identify salivary proteins that change in expression during orthodontic tooth movement. These differentially expressed proteins can potentially serve as protein biomarkers for the monitoring of orthodontic treatment and tooth movement. Whole saliva from three healthy female subjects were collected before force application using fixed appliance and at 14 days after 0.014'' Niti wire was applied. Salivary proteins were resolved using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE) over a pH range of 3-10, and the resulting proteome profiles were compared. Differentially expressed protein spots were then identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF tandem mass spectrometry. Nine proteins were found to be differentially expressed; however, only eight were identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF. Four of these proteins-Protein S100-A9, immunoglobulin J chain, Ig alpha-1 chain C region, and CRISP-3-have known roles in inflammation and bone resorption.
The distribution of plasma coagulation factor XXIIB polymorphism was determined by PAG isoelectric focusing and immunoblotting in a group of 670 subjects comprising 375 Chinese, 110 Malays and 185 Indians. The frequencies of FXIIIB*1, FXIIIB*2, and FXIIIB*3 were found to be 0.27, 0.03 and 0.70 in the Chinese; 0.33, 0.05 and 0.64 in the Malays and 0.58, 0.08 and 0.33 in the Indians. The phenotypic distribution of FXIIIB alleles was at Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in all three populations. A two-dimensional principal-components analysis on the basis of three common alleles at the FXIIIB locus among 19 populations, so far studied, clearly differentiates the Negroid, Mongoloid and Caucasoid populations into three major groups with the exception of Amerindians (Minnesota) and US Blacks showing some Caucasoid influence.
1. Glutathione transferases from the liver, lung and kidney tissues of the buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) and the Kedah-Kelantan cattle (Bos indicus) were partially purified by ammonium sulphate precipitation and Sephadex G-75 gel filtration. 2. Liver tissue contains the highest enzyme activity when compared to the lung and kidney tissues. 3. The activity in cattle is higher than that in the buffalo. 4. Isoelectric focusing separates the activities into the acidic, near neutral and basic fractions. 5. The focused patterns are different for each of the tissues and in each of the species investigated.
Vitamin D-binding protein (DBP) of crab-eating macaques (Macaca fascicularis) was examined by means of three electrophoretic methods. DBP phenotypes were observed to be one or two bands in each method. All of DBP molecular variants could be detected by the simultaneous typing with these three methods. Family analysis suggested that DBP variants followed the mode of autosomal codominant inheritance. A total of 17 phenotypes governed by at least 11 alleles were observed in the populations of Malaysia, Indonesia, and the Philippines. The genetic variability was high in Malaysian and Indonesian populations but low in the Philippine population.
The distribution of group-specific component (Gc) subtypes was determined by isoelectric focussing in thin layer polyacrylamide gels of pH range 4 to 6.5, in a group of 2412 individuals from 10 Mongoloid populations of East Asia. The sample comprised 959 Chinese from different localities (Singapore, 249; Malaysia, 347; Taiwan, 246; Hong Kong, 57; Fuzhou mainland, 60), 338 Koreans, 277 Filipinos, 484 Thais, 330 Malays and 24 Indonesians. The Filipinos and Malays had lower frequencies of Gc2 (0.15 and 0.18) compared to other Mongoloid populations (0.23 to 0.32) and the Chinese (0.24 to 0.32). The frequencies of Gc1F varied from 0.39 to 0.49 in the Chinese and 0.35 to 0.52 in other Mongoloid populations. Low frequency of rarer variants was observed in most of the populations. The average frequency of Gc2 was higher in the Japanese (0.26 +/- 0.01) than in the Chinese (0.24 +/- 0.02), and in Mongoloids of East Asia (0.23 +/- 0.01) and South-East Asia (0.17 +/- 0.01). The average frequencies of Gc1F and Gc1S were similar in the Chinese and Japanese, whereas the Mongoloids of South-East Asia had a much higher frequency of Gc1F and a lower frequency of Gc1S than the Chinese, Japanese and East Asian Mongoloid populations.
One of the most cited limitations of capillary (and microchip) electrophoresis is the poor sensitivity. This review continues to update this series of biennial reviews, first published in Electrophoresis in 2007, on developments in the field of on-line/in-line concentration methods in capillaries and microchips, covering the period July 2014-June 2016. It includes developments in the field of stacking, covering all methods from field amplified sample stacking and large volume sample stacking, through to isotachophoresis, dynamic pH junction, and sweeping. Attention is also given to on-line or in-line extraction methods that have been used for electrophoresis.
We report a novel hemoglobin (Hb) variant with a β chain amino acid substitution at codon 78 (CTG>CCG) (HBB: c.236T>C), detected through prenatal screening via capillary electrophoresis (CE) in an otherwise healthy and asymptomatic 38-year-old female of Southeast Asian ancestry. The variant, named Hb Penang after the proband's Malaysian city of origin, underwent further characterization through high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), reversed phase HPLC, Sanger sequencing, isopropanol stability testing and isoelectric focusing (IEF).
Malays, Chinese, and Indians from Peninsular Malaysia; Ibans and Bidayuh from Sarawak State; Kadazans from Sabah State, Northern Borneo; and Bataks, Minangkabau, and Javanese from North Sumatra, Indonesia, were subtyped for transferrin C by polyacrylamide gel isoelectric focusing. All nine populations studied are polymorphic for two alleles, TfCl and TfC2, TfC3 was polymorphic in six populations and present as a rare variant in the other three. The frequency of TfC1 ranged from 0.855 in Bidayuh to 0.711 in Javanese, that of TfC2 from 0.231 in Indians to 0.113 in Bidayuh, and that of TfC3 from 0.030 in Javanese and Chinese to 0.008 in Bidayuh. TfDchi is polymorphic in all the populations that we studied except in Minangkabau, in whom it is present as a rare variant, and in Indians, in whom it is absent.
The technique of isoenzyme electrophoresis was applied to Japanese wild populations of Taenia taeniaeformis (isolated from Norway rats) and three laboratory reared isolates (KRN isolated from a Malaysian Norway rat, BMM from a Belgian house mouse and ACR from a Japanese gray red-backed vole). The average heterozygosities of Japanese wild populations were fairly small and total genetic variability was 0.0499. The genetic make-up of T. taeniaeformis in Norway rats was rather uniform in the whole of Japan. In KRN isolate, each of all 10 loci examined possessed the allele which was predominant in Japanese wild populations. Similarly, each of 9 loci in BMM isolate possessed the same alleles, but one of 2 alleles at HK locus was different from that in the others. T. taeniaeformis parasitizing house mice and rats were considered to be genetically closely related to each other. In ACR isolate, 7 out of 10 loci possessed different alleles from those in the other populations. It was considered that ACR isolate was genetically distant and its phylogenetic origin in Japan should be different from worms parasitizing Norway rats.
A. niger produced alpha-glucosidase, alpha-amylase and two forms of glucoamylase when grown in a liquid medium containing raw tapioca starch as the carbon source. The glucoamylases, which formed the dominant components of amylolytic activity manifested by the organism, were purified to homogeneity by ammonium sulfate precipitation, ion-exchange and two cycles of gel filtration chromatography. The purified enzymes, designated GA1 and GA2, a raw starch digesting glucoamylase, were found to have molar masses of 74 and 96 kDa and isoelectric points of 3.8 and 3.95, respectively. The enzymes were found to have pH optimum of 4.2 and 4.5 for GA1 and GA2, respectively, and were both stable in a pH range of 3.5-9.0. Both enzymes were thermophilic in nature with temperature optimum of 60 and 65 degrees C, respectively, and were stable for 1 h at temperatures of up to 60 degrees C. The kinetic parameters Km and V showed that with both enzymes the branched substrates, starch and amylopectin, were more efficiently hydrolyzed compared to amylose. GA2, the more active of the two glucoamylases produced, was approximately six to thirteen times more active towards raw starches compared to GA1.
The L-amino acid oxidase of Malayan pit viper (Calloselasma rhodostoma) venom was purified to electrophoretic homogeneity. The molecular weight of the enzyme was 132,000 as determined by Sephadex G-200 gel filtration chromatography and 66,000 as determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. It is a glycoprotein, has an isoelectric point of 4.4, and contains 2 mol of flavin mononucleotide per mole of enzyme. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of the enzyme was A-D-D-R-N-P-L-A-E-E-F-Q-E-N-N-Y-E-E-F-L. Kinetic studies suggest the presence of a alkyl side-chain binding site in the enzyme and that the binding site comprises at least four hydrophobic subsites. The characteristics of the binding site differ slightly from those of cobra venom L-amino acid oxidases.
Three new variants of acidic proline-rich proteins (At, Au, Aw) were found in human parotid saliva by isoelectric focusing and basic gel electrophoresis. Electrophoretic comparison of the purified proteins and their tryptic peptides suggested minor charge and size differences from other acidic PRPs. Genetic and biochemical studies indicate that the At and Aw proteins are allelic products of the PRH1 locus. Gene frequencies of the At productive allele (PRH1(6)) in Japanese, Chinese, and Malays were 0.008, 0.012, and 0.004, respectively. The Au protein was also found in Japanese (2 in 746 samples), Chinese (1 in 215 samples), and Malays (1 in 220 samples), however, the Aw protein was found only in one Japanese (n = 746). These three proteins were not found in 106 Indian subjects.
A superoxide dismutase (SOD) gene of Lactococcus lactis M4 was cloned and expressed in a prokaryotic system. Sequence analysis revealed an open reading frame of 621 bp which codes for 206 amino acid residues. Expression of sodA under T7 promoter exhibited a specific activity of 4967 U/mg when induced with 1 mM of isopropyl-β-D-thiogalactopyranoside. The recombinant SOD was purified to homogeneity by immobilised metal affinity chromatography and Superose 12 gel filtration chromatography. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and western blot analyses of the recombinant SOD detected a molecular mass of approximately 27 kDa. However, the SOD was in dimer form as revealed by gel filtration chromatography. The purified recombinant enzyme had a pI of 4.5 and exhibited maximal activity at 25°C and pH 7.2. It was stable up to 45°C. The insensitivity of this lactococcal SOD to cyanide and hydrogen peroxide established that it was a MnSOD. Although it has 98% homology to SOD of L. lactis IL1403, this is the first elucidated structure of lactococcal SOD revealing active sites containing the catalytic manganese coordinated by four ligands (H-27, H-82, D-168, and H-172).