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  1. Shahidah KN, Merican I
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2005 Jul;60 Suppl B:35-8.
    PMID: 16108171
    Matched MeSH terms: Lamivudine/therapeutic use
  2. Lau GK
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2005 Jul;60 Suppl B:57-62.
    PMID: 16108175
    Matched MeSH terms: Lamivudine/therapeutic use*
  3. Gane E
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2005 Jul;60 Suppl B:88-9.
    PMID: 16108183
    Matched MeSH terms: Lamivudine/therapeutic use
  4. Leng LK, Pancharoen C, Bunupuradah T, Thisyakorn U, Trinavarat P, Sosothikul D, et al.
    J Med Assoc Thai, 2007 Sep;90(9):1937-42.
    PMID: 17957942
    This report documents a case of infiltrating cervical spinal mass, most likely a spinal tumor, in a girl with HIV infection that regressed following HAART and without treatment of the tumor or any anti-infectives.
    Matched MeSH terms: Lamivudine/therapeutic use
  5. Guan R
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2005 Jul;60 Suppl B:52-6.
    PMID: 16108174
    In the Asia Pacific region Human Immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is often acquired in individuals already infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV). The immune suppression caused by HIV infection reduces cellular immune response against HBV and liver inflammation may improve, but the risk of developing cirrhosis is not. HBV infection does not affect the progression of HIV disease. Anti-retroviral agents may be directly hepatotoxic and cause ALT elevations in patients with chronic hepatitis. Highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) improves immunity and as cytotoxic lymphocyte responses improve, hepatitis flares can occur, usually r within 3 months of initiation of HAART. These hepatitis flares may be followed by normalization of ALT and clearance of HBVDNA. If lamivudine is included in the HAART regime, hepatitis flares may not occur till late and these late flares signal the development of lamivudine resistant HBV strains (90% of HBV/HIV co-infection). Treatment options for chronic HBV infection include interferon (IFN), and nucleoside analogues. Lamivudine, adefovir dipivoxil, tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (DF) are nucleoside analogues with activity against both HBVDNA polymerase and HIV reverse transcriptase. The latter two compounds have added activity against lamivudine resistant HBVDNA. Lamivudine should be avoided in the initial treatment of both hepatitis B as well as HIV because of the high incidence of resistance. Interferon should be considered first for treatment of HBV in HIV co-infected individuals and is usually unsuccessful in the later stages of HIV infection when immune suppression is extreme. As new and improved agents in HAART continue to prolong survival, the use of liver transplantation for cirrhotic patients co-infected with HIV and HBV may increase.
    Matched MeSH terms: Lamivudine/therapeutic use*
  6. Leung N
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2005 Jul;60 Suppl B:22-7.
    PMID: 16108169
    Nucleot(s)ide analogues are making milestones in the treatment of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) as safe oral therapy. FDA approved lamivudine in adult patients in 1998, adefovir dipivoxil in 2002, and entecavir in March 2005. Lamivudine is effective in viral suppression, ALT normalization, and improvement in histology in both HBeAg positive and HBeAg negative / HBV DNA positive patients. HBeAg seroconversion rates correlate directly with pretreatment ALT levels at 18-30% after one year of therapy. Hepatitis flares may occur if lamivudine is stopped before HBeAg seroconversion. Lamivudine resistant YMDD mutants emerge at a rate of 15-20% per year of therapy; often associated with the rebound viraemia, relapse of hepatitis or even hepatic decompensation. Durability of response off lamivudine therapy is not satisfactory and may be dependent on duration of therapy post-seroconversion. Lamivudine is well tolerated with few serious adverse events, even in patients with decompensated cirrhosis. Long term therapy in viraemic patients with advanced fibrosis or cirrhosis delays clinical progression. Adefovir dipivoxil is an oral prodrug of adefovir. 10 mg daily is effective in suppressing both wild-type HBV and YMDD mutants, normalising ALT and improving histology. Adefovir dipivoxil has been shown to be well tolerated in longterm therapy. Renal toxicity reported in higher dosages is rarely seen except among patients with creatinine clearance less than 50 ml/min. Adefovir resistance may emerge and the overall rate is much lower than lamivudine, reaching 18% after 4 years of therapy. Adefovir-resistant mutants (rt N236T) are susceptible to lamivudine and entecavir. Little data is available for durability of response off therapy. Entecavir is an oral nucleoside analogue with a recommended dosage of 0.5 mg daily for nucleoside-naive patients, and 1 mg daily for lamivudine-refractory patients. It is a potent antiviral and may also reduced intrahepatitic cccDNA. Entecavir resistance so far has only been detected in lamivudine resistant patients in the one-year studies. Patient counseling is very important to decide on the choice among available therapeutic options. The assessment of the risks/benefits of each option should be carefully explained to individual patient.
    Matched MeSH terms: Lamivudine/therapeutic use*
  7. Naing C, Poovorawan Y, Tong KS
    BMC Infect. Dis., 2018 Nov 14;18(1):564.
    PMID: 30428847 DOI: 10.1186/s12879-018-3506-x
    BACKGROUND: There are randomized trials assessing a variety of antiviral drugs for hepatitis B virus (HBV), but the relative effectiveness of these drugs in the treatment of patients co-infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) remains unclear. The objectives of the current study were to estimate and rank the relative effectiveness of antiviral drugs for treating HBV and HIV co-infected patients.

    METHODS: Randomized trials, assessing the efficacy of antiviral drugs for HBV and HIV co-infected patients were searched in health-related databases. The methodological quality of the included trials was evaluated using the Cochrane risk of bias tool. Main outcome in this meta-analysis study was the success of treatment by antivirals as determined by virologic response. We performed pairwise and network meta-analysis of these trials and assessed the quality of evidence using the GRADE approach.

    RESULTS: Seven randomized trials (329 participants) were included in this network meta-analysis study. A network geometry was formed with six treatment options including four antiviral drugs, adefovir (ADV), emtricitabine (FTC), lamivudine (LMV) and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF), combination treatment of TDF plus LMV, and placebo. The weighted percentage contributions of each comparison distributed fairly equally in the entire network of evidence. An assumption of consistency required for network meta-analysis was not violated (the global Wald test for inconsistency: Chi2(4) = 3.63, p = 0.46). The results of estimates showed no differences between the treatment regimens in terms of viral response for treating HBV and HIV co-infected patients, which spanned both benefit and harm (e.g. LMV vs TDF plus LMV: OR: 0.37, 95%CI: 0.06-2.41). Overall, the certainty of evidence was very low in all comparisons (e.g. LMV vs TDF plus LMV: 218 fewer per 1000,121 more to 602 fewer, very low certainty). Therefore, we remained uncertain to the true ranking of the antiviral treatments in HBV/ HIV co-infected patients.

    CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest that the evidence is insufficient to provide guidance to the relative effectiveness of currently available antiviral drugs with dual activity in treating co-infection of HBV/HIV. Well-designed, large clinical trials in this field to address other important outcomes from different epidemiological settings are recommended.

    Matched MeSH terms: Lamivudine/therapeutic use
  8. George C, Yesoda A, Jayakumar B, Lal L
    J Clin Pharm Ther, 2009 Feb;34(1):33-40.
    PMID: 19125901 DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2710.2008.00988.x
    This prospective, observational, study evaluates the clinical outcomes, drug utilization patterns, and adherence to treatment of patients on highly active anti retroviral therapy (HAART) at a government institution in Kerala, India.
    Matched MeSH terms: Lamivudine/therapeutic use
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