The management of suspended solids and associated contaminants in rivers requires knowledge of sediment sources. In-situ sampling can only describe the integrated impact of the upstream sources. Empirical models that use surface reflectance from satellite images to estimate total suspended solid (TSS) concentrations can be used to supplement measurements and provide spatially continuous maps. However, there are few examples, especially in narrow, shallow and hydrologically dynamic rivers found in mountainous areas. A case study of the Didipio catchment in Philippines was used to address these issues. Four 5-m resolution RapidEye images, from between the years 2014 and 2016, and near-simultaneous ground measurements of TSS concentrations were used to develop a power law model that approximates the relationship between TSS and reflectance for each of four spectral bands. A second dataset using two 2-m resolution Pleiades-1A and a third using a 6-m resolution SPOT-6 image along with ground-based measurements, were consistent with the model when using the red band data. Using that model, encompassing data from all three datasets, gave an R2 value of 65% and a root mean square error of 519mgL-1. A linear relationship between reflectance and TSS exists from 1mgL-1 to approximately 500mgL-1. In contrast, for TSS measurements between 500mgL-1 and 3580mgL-1 reflectance increases at a generally lower and more variable rate. The results were not sensitive to changing the pixel location within the vicinity of the ground sampling location. The model was used to generate a continuous map of TSS concentration within the catchment. Further ground-based measurements including TSS concentrations that are higher than 3580mgL-1 would allow the model to be developed and applied more confidently over the full relevant range of TSS.
A worldwide review of the genus Callilanguria is presented. Three new species are described: C. weiweii Huang Yang, sp. nov. from Sabah, Malaysia; C. helleri Huang Yang, sp. nov. from Panay, the Philippines; and C. nigripes Huang Yang, sp. nov. from Samar Island, the Philippines. Callilanguria scrupulosa Heller, 1918 is transferred to the genus Doubledaya. The other species are C. eximia Fowler, 1885; C. gorhami Villiers, 1945; C. asymmetrica Heller, 1900; C. ruficeps Achard, 1923; C. milloti Villiers, 1945; C. stenosoma (Harold, 1879); C. flaviventris Fowler, 1886; C. wallacii Crotch, 1876; and C. luzonica Crotch, 1876. In total, twelve species are recognized in the genus Callilanguria, and a key to the described species of the genus is provided.
The adults of Calochromini with male flabellate antennae were studied. Two new Calochromus Guérin-Méneville, 1833 species with flabellate antennae, C. kelantanensis spec. nov. and C. harauensis spec. nov. are described. Dumbrellia Lea, 1909 (Calochromini) is proposed as a new junior synonym of Plateros Bourgeois, 1879 (Lycinae: Platerodini). Flabellochromus Pic, 1925 is transferred to Calochromus from synonymy with Dumbrellia based on the similar shape of the pronotum. Consequently, Calochromus lamellatus Kleine, 1926, comb. nov. from Sarawak and Flabellochromus pallidus Pic, 1925, comb. nov. (=Calochromus (Flabellochromus) pallidus Pic, 1925) from Luzon are returned to Calochromus. New combinations are proposed for three Australian species previously classified in Dumbrellia: Plateros brevicornis (Lea, 1898), comb. nov. (=Calochromus brevicornis Lea, 1898), P. pilosicornis (Lea, 1898), comb. nov. (=C. pilosicornis Lea, 1898) and P. melancholica (Lea, 1921), comb. nov. Plateros barronensis nom. nov. is proposed to replace Plateros pilosicornis (Lea, 1898), a junior secondary homonym of P. pilosicornis (Blanchard, 1853) (=Lycus pilosicornis Blanchard, 1853).
Sistem arus di ionosfera khatulistiwa terdiri daripada elektrojet khatulistiwa (EEJ) dan suria senyap (Sq). Arus EEJ merupakan satu jalur arus yang mengalir ke arah timur sepanjang kawasan dip khatulistiwa. Arus Sq pula adalah gegelung arus yang mengalir di hemisfera utara dan selatan bumi pada arah yang bertentangan. Kajian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis kesan aktiviti matahari terhadap profil latitud sistem arus, khususnya di kawasan Asia Tenggara. Data yang digunakan dalam kajian ini merangkumi data geomagnet daripada lima stesen magnetometer dalam rangkaian MAGDAS iaitu stesen Muntinlupa (MUT), Cebu (CEB), Davao (DAV), Manado (MND) dan Pare Pare (PRP). Keamatan arus EEJ yang paling tinggi adalah pada waktu tengah hari sekitar 1000 dan 1100 LT semasa solar minimum dan kajian ini telah menganalisis sistem arus daripada 1000 hingga 1400 LT. Analisis menunjukkan bahawa ribut geomagnet yang berlaku pada 23 April 2008 adalah disebabkan oleh letusan jirim korona (CME) yang memberikan peningkatan kepada nilai arus pada hari tersebut. Peningkatan yang ketara dapat dilihat pada arus di stesen hemisfera selatan, iaitu stesen MND dan PRP. Berdasarkan analisis yang dilakukan, ia turut mendapati bahawa ribut geomagnet memberikan peningkatan kepada nilai arus walaupun di luar waktu puncak. Selain itu, profil arus ini turut dibandingkan dengan profil arus pada hari senyap iaitu pada 21 April 2008.
Two new intertidal oribatid mite species from the Indo-pacific region are described. Indopacifica iohanna sp. n. was found on the coasts of the Philippines and can be distinguished from its congeners by the lack of a ventral tooth on the claws. The larva and nymphs of this species show the same type of plication and setation typical for juveniles of other selenoribatid mites. Indopacifica mauritiana sp. n. was discovered on the coast of Mauritius and can be separated from its congeners by possessing only vestigial lamellar setae. A morphometric comparison of these two species and Indopacifica pantai from Thailand and Malaysia showed a clear separation between the three species. The known distribution of the genus Indopacifica stretches now from Mauritius in the West to the Philippines in the East and further occurrences within this area should be expected.
The genus Carlschoenherria Bezděk, 2016 (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Melolonthinae: Melolonthini) in the Philippines is reviewed. Three new species: Carlschoenherria adoradae Calcetas, new species, C. hadsallae Calcetas, new species, and C. gapudi Calcetas, new species are described, figured and compared with their close relatives. The following new combinations are proposed: Carlschoenherria palawana (Moser, 1915) new combination, C. philippinica (Brenske, 1894) new combination, C. argus (Burmeister, 1855) new combination, C. hastata (Arrow, 1938) new combination and C. vervex (Sharp, 1876) new combination. A new C. adoradae species-subgroup is proposed under the broader C. sulcipennis species-group. A key of the Carlschoenherria of the Philippines Islands, Malay Peninsula, Sumatra and Java is provided.
The genus Theopea Baly, 1864 is redefined. Seventeen species from Sundaland and the Philippines are recognized and classified into four species groups (including seven new species): T. impressa (Fabricius, 1801), T. longicollis (Jacoby, 1896), T. louwerensi Jolivet, 1951, T. lunduensis Mohamedsaid, 1998, T. chungi sp. nov. in the T. impressa group; T. flavipalpis Laboissère, 1940, T. guoi sp. nov., T. lui sp. nov., T. sabahensis sp. nov. in the T. flavipalpis group; T. elegantula Baly, 1864, T. pulchella Baly, 1864, T. fairmairei Duvivier, 1885, T. kedenburgi Weise, 1922, T. houjayi sp. nov., T. tsoui sp. nov., T. yuae sp. nov. in the T. pulchella group; and T. costata (Allard, 1889) in the T. costata group. The following new synonyms are established: Theopea pulchella Baly, 1864 = T. nigricollis Jacoby, 1892 syn. nov.; Theopea impressa (Fabricius, 1801) = T. impressa flavicornis Laboissère, 1940 syn. nov. and T. impressa malaccana Laboissère, 1940 syn. nov.; T. lunduensis Mohamedsaid, 1998 = T. sepilokensis Mohamedsaid, 2000 syn. nov. Lectotypes are designated for Crioceris impressa Fabricius, 1801, Ozomena longicollis Jacoby, 1896, Theopea elegantula Baly, 1864, T. fairmairei Duvivier, 1885, T. nigricollis Jacoby, 1892, and T. pulchella Baly, 1864. Theopea obliterata Jacoby, 1884, T. variabilis (Jacoby, 1887), T. incostata (Allard, 1889), T. clypeata Jacoby, 1896, T. modiglianii Jacoby, 1896, T. dohrni (Jacoby, 1899), T. viridipennis (Jacoby, 1899), and T. weberi (Weise, 1913) are removed from Theopea and regarded as species incertae sedis.
Within recorded history, most Southeast Asian peoples have been of "southern Mongoloid" physical type, whether they speak Austroasiatic, Tibeto-Burman, Austronesian, Tai-Kadai, or Hmong-Mien languages. However, population distributions suggest that this is a post-Pleistocene phenomenon and that for tens of millennia before the last glaciation ended Greater Mainland Southeast Asia, which included the currently insular world that rests on the Sunda Shelf, was peopled by short, dark-skinned, frizzy-haired foragers whose descendants in the Philippines came to be labeled by the sixteenth-century Spanish colonizers as "negritos," a term that has since been extended to similar groups throughout the region. There are three areas in which these populations survived into the present so as to become part of written history: the Philippines, the Malay Peninsula, and the Andaman Islands. All Philippine negritos speak Austronesian languages, and all Malayan negritos speak languages in the nuclear Mon-Khmer branch of Austroasiatic, but the linguistic situation in the Andamans is a world apart. Given prehistoric language shifts among both Philippine and Malayan negritos, the prospects of determining whether disparate negrito populations were once a linguistically or culturally unified community would appear hopeless. Surprisingly, however, some clues to a common negrito past do survive in a most unexpected way.
A rare electrophoretic variant of superoxide dismutase (SOD) was found in one Filipino of 146 Filipinos, 1382 Malaysians and 816 Indonesians examined. The variant consists of two usual bands and two slower migrating bands similar to those reported earlier. Superoxide dismutase variants are common among people of certain localized regions in Europe, however, this is the first report of such a variant occurring in people of non-European origin.
Riegeriana gen. nov. is described to accommodate Physopelta apicalis Walker, 1873. A lectotype of Ph. apicalis is de-signated. Iphita fasciata Stehlík & Jindra, 2008, syn. nov., is recognized as a new junior subjective synonym of Riegeriana apicalis. In addition, Iphita lata sp. nov. is described from southern India and a check-list of the species of the genus Iphita Stål, 1873 is provided. The etymology of Iphita nigris Ahmad & Abbas, 1992 and the lectotype designation of Dindymellus coimbatorensis Distant, 1919 are discussed. The following new or confirmed country records are provided: Iphita coimbatorensis (Distant, 1919) from India (Karnataka, Orissa); I. dubia (Breddin, 1901) from Indonesia (Papua); I. limbata Stål, 1870 from Cambodia, China (Hainan), India (Arunachal Pradesh), Indonesia (Sumatra, Kalimantan), Malaysia (Pahang: Tioman Island), and Vietnam; I. lycoides (Walker, 1873) from the Philippines (Panay Island).
Linyphiid spiders collected from the Indo-Malayan Region and kept at three European Museums are studied. Twenty-three known species are newly recorded from continental or insular parts of Southeastern Asia and from the Oriental area of India. Seven new species are described: Asiagone komannai n. sp. (from Thailand), Erigone apophysalis n. sp. and E. sumatrana n. sp. (Sumatra, Indonesia), Gnathonarium luzon n. sp. (Philippines), Ketambea acuta n. sp. (Thailand, Myanmar), Oedothorax myanmar n. sp. (Myanmar) and Theoa malaya n. sp. (West Malaysia).
Eutropis rugifera has long been identified as a widespread species complex distributed in Nicobar, Peninsular Malaysia, Greater Sundaic Islands, Bali, Sulawesi and the Philippines. This skink was described by Stoliczka in 1870 from Nicobar Island based on a single specimen (holotype by monotypy). Later, Peters (1871), Bartlett (1895) and Werner (1896) described three more species which were morphologically similar to Euprepes percarinatus (from Java), Mabuia rubricollis (Borneo) and M. quinquecarinata (Sumatra) respectively, which are currently considered junior objective synonyms of Eutropis rugifera. We examined all the available synonym types and voucher specimens of Eutropis rugifera deposited at several museums. A morphological examination of the types of this species and mtDNA analysis (584 bp of 16S rRNA) of the samples from different biogeographic regions revealed that Eutropis rugifera from Nicobar Island, Bali Island, and Bawean Island are composed of a monophyletic species. However, the taxonomic status of the above population requires further clarification, and the population in Bawean Island may represent a cryptic species. Finally, we provide a complete redescription of E. rugifera based on its holotype.
New additions to the knowledge of the subfamily Eumeninae are provided. Eight new species of Eumeninae are described: Antepipona gibbosissima Selis, sp. nov. (Namibia: Warmbad); Antepipona tricolorata Selis, sp. nov. (India: Sikkim); Ectopioglossa luzonica Selis, sp. nov. (Philippines: Luzon); Lissodynerus unicus Selis, sp. nov. (India: Sikkim); Pararrhynchium aurigaster Selis, sp. nov. (Malaysia: Johor); Symmorphus (Symmorphus) incisus Selis, sp. nov. (India: Sikkim); Symmorphus (Symmorphus) palawanensis Selis, sp. nov. (Philippines: Palawan); Zethus (Zethus) intermedius Selis, sp. nov. (Burkina Faso). The male of Synagris (Paragris) biplagiata Gusenleitner, 2005 is described. New distributional data for other species are provided.
Sarawak has experienced several earthquakes of local origin and was also affected by long-distance earthquake that originated from Southern Philippine and the Straits of Macassar, Sulu Sea and Celebes Sea. The objectives for this study were to conduct site specific ground response analysis and develop design response spectra for Bakun area by using 1-D equivalent linear ground response analysis. The site characterisation was carried out utilising the soil profile and soil property data of the selected site. Local surface fault ruptures were investigated for possible hazards due to intraplate earthquakes. Earthquake ground motion records were selected based on characteristics of the controlling earthquakes for an area and the maximum magnitude faults were considered for risk assessment. The site-specific response spectra represent the predicted surface ground motions that reflect the levels of strong motion amplitude and frequency content at a particular site. The site-specific ground response analysis for Bakun site found that the peak ground acceleration at bedrock was amplified from 0.16 g to 0.33 g at the ground surface.