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  1. Zailinawati AH, Teng CL, Kamil MA, Achike FI, Koh CN
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2006 Jun;61(2):162-7.
    PMID: 16898306 MyJurnal
    The prevalence of pain complaints as a reason for patient-doctor encounters in the local primary care setting is unknown. We performed a cross-sectional survey of such encounters in one public primary care clinic (KK) and 17 general practice clinics (GP), from the city of Seremban, Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia. Reasons for visits were recorded by doctors in KK and medical students in GP using a structured questionnaire. Morbidity data was coded using the International Classification of Primary Care (ICPC-2). A total of 2234 encounters were recorded (80.9% from KK, 19.1% from GP). The overall prevalence of pain complaints was 31.9% with a significant difference between the two cohorts (KK 28.7% and GP 45.2%, p<0.001). Musculoskeletal pain complaints were more common in KK than GP (40.9% versus 29.7%, p<0.05). Of the 3 main ethnic groups in Malaysia (Malay, Chinese and Indian) the Indian patients at KK had the highest prevalence of pain complaints and the Chinese at the GP had the lowest. Thus pain was a common complaint in the two different primary care settings studied. Some of the differences observed are probably due to the differences in the healthcare seeking behaviour of patients consulting at these two settings as well as differences in the payment systems.
    Matched MeSH terms: Primary Health Care/methods*
  2. Wong SL, Lee PY, Ng CJ, Hanafi NS, Chia YC, Lai PS, et al.
    Singapore Med J, 2015 Sep;56(9):518-22.
    PMID: 26451055 DOI: 10.11622/smedj.2015137
    INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to determine the extent to which primary care doctors assessed patients newly diagnosed with hypertension for the risk factors of cardiovascular disease (CVD) during the patients' first clinic visit for hypertension. The study also aimed to examine the trend of assessment for CVD risk factors over a 15-year period.
    METHODS: This retrospective study was conducted between January and May 2012. Data was extracted from the paper-based medical records of patients with hypertension using a 1:4 systematic random sampling method. Data collected included CVD risk factors and a history of target organ damage (TOD), which were identified during the patient's first visit to the primary care doctor for hypertension, as well as the results of the physical examinations and investigations performed during the same visit.
    RESULTS: A total of 1,060 medical records were reviewed. We found that assessment of CVD risk factors during the first clinic visit for hypertension was poor (5.4%-40.8%). Assessments for a history of TOD were found in only 5.8%-11.8% of the records, and documented physical examinations and investigations for the assessment of TOD and secondary hypertension ranged from 0.1%-63.3%. Over time, there was a decreasing trend in the percentage of documented physical examinations performed, but an increasing trend in the percentage of investigations ordered.
    CONCLUSION: There was poor assessment of the patients' CVD risk factors, secondary causes of hypertension and TOD at their first clinic visit for hypertension. The trends observed in the assessment suggest an over-reliance on investigations over clinical examinations.
    Matched MeSH terms: Primary Health Care/methods*
  3. Riji HM
    PMID: 1341838
    The Primary Health Care approach in Malaysia was first tried out in Sarawak, East Malaysia in 1982. In 1984, the Vector Borne Disease Control Program, Kelantan decided to adopt the Primary Health Care approach as an additional strategy in its effort to control malaria in the state, which then experienced an increase in malaria cases. Much effort was directed at creating the awareness and stimulating the interest of health staff and communities to adopt the strategy. Kelantan was made the model state. The paper gives an outline of the process involved and some characteristics of PHC workers. A study was carried out among health workers, community members and health staff on their knowledge and involvement in PHC in three states, including Kelantan. In view of the overall success of this approach, and the weaknesses which have been identified possible solutions have been suggested and should be acted upon.
    Matched MeSH terms: Primary Health Care/methods*
  4. Arabi Z, Syed Abdul Rahman SA, Hazmi H, Hamdin N
    BMC Geriatr, 2016 11 30;16(1):202.
    PMID: 27903242 DOI: 10.1186/s12877-016-0384-1
    BACKGROUND: Early Dementia Questionnaire (EDQ) was developed as a screening tool to detect patients with early dementia in primary care. It was developed based on 20 symptoms of dementia. From a preliminary study, EDQ had been shown to be a promising alternative for screening of early dementia. This study was done to further test on EDQ's reliability and validity.

    METHODS: Using a systematic random sampling, 200 elderly patients attending primary health care centers in Kuching, Sarawak had consented to participate in the study and were administered the EDQ. Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) was used to exclude patients with depression. Those who scored >21 MMSE, were retested using the EDQ. Reliability was determined by Cronbach's alpha for internal consistency and construct validity was assessed using confirmatory factor analysis (principle component with varimax rotation). Test retest Intraclass Correlation Coeeficient (ICC) was used to determine the reliability of the scale.

    RESULTS: The result showed that the sensitivity and specificity for EDQ was 71.2% and 59.5%. The overall Cronbach's alpha coefficient was good which was 0.874. Confirmatory factor analysis on 4 factors indicated that the Cronbach's alpha for each domain were acceptable with memory (0.741), concentration (0.764), emotional and physical symptoms (0.754) and lastly sleep and environment (0.720). The Intraclass Correlation Coefficient between the first EDQ score and the retest EDQ score among those with MMSE of >21 showed a very strong overall agreement, ICC = 0.764, N = 160, P <0.001.

    CONCLUSIONS: The results of the validation study showed that Early Dementia Questionnaire (EDQ) is a valid and reliable tool to be used as a screening tool to detect early dementia in primary care.
    Matched MeSH terms: Primary Health Care/methods*
  5. Narasimhan M, Allotey P, Hardon A
    BMJ, 2019 Apr 01;365:l688.
    PMID: 30936087 DOI: 10.1136/bmj.l688
    Matched MeSH terms: Primary Health Care/methods
  6. Devaraj NK, Aneesa AR, Abdul Hadi AM, Shaira N
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2019 04;74(2):187-189.
    PMID: 31079135
    Topical corticosteroids are common medications prescribed for skin problems encountered in the primary care or dermatology clinic settings. As skin conditions comprise of around 20% of cases seen in primary care, this article written to guide readers, especially non-dermatologists on the appropriate potency of topical corticosteroids to be chosen for skin problems of patients and to list the side effects both local and systemic.
    Matched MeSH terms: Primary Health Care/methods
  7. Ng CW, How CH, Ng YP
    Singapore Med J, 2016 Nov;57(11):591-597.
    PMID: 27872937 DOI: 10.11622/smedj.2016174
    Major depression is a common condition seen in the primary care setting, often presenting with somatic symptoms. It is potentially a chronic illness with considerable morbidity, and a high rate of relapse and recurrence. Major depression has a bidirectional relationship with chronic diseases, and a strong association with increased age and coexisting mental illnesses (e.g. anxiety disorders). Screening can be performed using clinical tools for major depression, such as the Patient Health Questionaire-2, Patient Health Questionaire-9 and Beck Depression Inventory, so that timely treatment can be initiated. An accurate diagnosis of major depression and its severity is essential for prompt treatment to reduce morbidity and mortality. This is the first of a series of articles that illustrates the approach to the management of major depression in primary care. Our next articles will cover suicide risk assessment in a depressed patient and outline the basic principles of management and treatment modalities.
    Matched MeSH terms: Primary Health Care/methods*
  8. Ariffin F, Ramli AS, Daud MH, Haniff J, Abdul-Razak S, Selvarajah S, et al.
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2017 04;72(2):106-112.
    PMID: 28473673 MyJurnal
    INTRODUCTION: Non-communicable diseases (NCD) is a global health threat. the Chronic Care Model (CCM) was proven effective in improving NCD management and outcomes in developed countries. Evidence from developing countries including Malaysia is limited and feasibility of CCM implementation has not been assessed. this study intends to assess the feasibility of public primary health care clinics (PHC) in providing care according to the CCM.

    METHODOLOGY: A cross-sectional survey was conducted to assess the public PHC ability to implement the components of CCM. All public PHC with Family Medicine Specialist in Selangor and Kuala Lumpur were invited to participate. A site feasibility questionnaire was distributed to collect site investigator and clinic information as well as delivery of care for diabetes and hypertension.

    RESULTS: there were a total of 34 public PHC invited to participate with a response rate of 100%. there were 20 urban and 14 suburban clinics. the average number of patients seen per day ranged between 250-1000 patients. the clinic has a good mix of multidisciplinary team members. All clinics had a diabetic registry and 73.5% had a hypertensive registry. 23.5% had a dedicated diabetes and 26.5% had a dedicated hypertension clinic with most clinic implementing integrated care of acute and NCD cases.

    DISCUSSION: the implementation of the essential components of CCM is feasible in public PHCs, despite various constraints. Although variations in delivery of care exists, majority of the clinics have adequate staff that were willing to be trained and are committed to improving patient care.
    Matched MeSH terms: Primary Health Care/methods
  9. Mohd Sidik S, Arroll B, Goodyear-Smith F
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2012 Jun;67(3):309-15.
    PMID: 23082424 MyJurnal
    OBJECTIVE: This study was conducted to determine the validity of the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) (Malay version) as a case-finding instrument for depression among women in a primary care clinic.
    METHODS: A cross sectional study was conducted in a primary care clinic in Malaysia. Consecutive adult women patients who attended the clinic during data collection were given self-administered questionnaires, which included the PHQ-9 (Malay version). Systematic weighted random sampling was used to select participants for Composite International Diagnostic Interviews (CIDI). The PHQ-9 was validated against the CIDI reference standard.
    RESULTS: The response rate was 87.5% for the questionnaire completion (895/1023), and 96.8% for the CIDI interviews (151/156). The prevalence of depression was 12.1% (based on PHQ-9 scores of 10 and above). The PHQ-9 had a sensitivity of 87% (95% confidence interval 71% to 95%), a specificity of 82% (74% to 88%), positive LR 4.8 (3.2 to 7.2) and negative LR 0.16 (0.06 to 0.40).
    CONCLUSIONS: The Malay version of the PHQ-9 was found to be a valid and reliable case-finding instrument for depression in this study. Together with its brevity, it is a suitable case-finding instrument to be used in Malaysian primary care clinics.
    Questionnaire: Patient Health Questionnaire; PHQ-9; General Health Questionnaire; GHQ-12; Composite International Diagnostic Interview; CIDI; Generalized Anxiety Disorder scale; GAD-7
    Matched MeSH terms: Primary Health Care/methods*
  10. Mohd-Sidik S, Arroll B, Goodyear-Smith F, Zain AM
    Int J Psychiatry Med, 2011;41(2):143-54.
    PMID: 21675346 DOI: 10.2190/PM.41.2.d
    OBJECTIVE: To determine the diagnostic accuracy of the two questions with help question (TQWHQ) in the Malay language. The two questions are case-finding questions on depression, and a question on whether help is needed was added to increase the specificity of the two questions.
    METHOD: This cross sectional validation study was conducted in a government funded primary care clinic in Malaysia. The participants included 146 consecutive women patients receiving no psychotropic drugs and who were Malay speakers. The main outcome measures were sensitivity, specificity, and likelihood ratios of the two questions and help question.
    RESULTS: The two questions showed a sensitivity of 99% (95% confidence interval 88% to 99.9%) and a specificity of 70% (62% to 78%), respectively. The likelihood ratio for a positive test was 3.3 (2.5 to 4.5) and the likelihood ratio for a negative test was 0.01 (0.00 to 0.57). The addition of the help question to the two questions increased the specificity to 95% (89% to 98%).
    CONCLUSION: The two qeustions on depression detected most cases of depression in this study. The questions have the advantage of brevity. The addition of the help question increased the specificity of the two questions. Based on these findings, the TQWHQ can be strongly recommended for detection of depression in government primary care clnics in Malaysia. Translation did not apear to affect the validity of the TQWHQ.
    Matched MeSH terms: Primary Health Care/methods*
  11. Chew BH, Vos R, Mohd-Sidik S, Rutten GE
    PLoS ONE, 2016;11(3):e0152095.
    PMID: 27002728 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0152095
    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) brings about an increasing psychosocial problem in adult patients. Prevalence data on and associated factors of diabetes related distress (DRD) and depression have been lacking in Asia. This study aimed to examine the prevalence of DRD and depression, and their associated factors in Asian adult T2DM patients. This study was conducted in three public health clinics measuring DRD (Diabetes Distress Scale, DDS), and depression (Patient Health Questionnaire, PHQ). Patients who were at least 30 years of age, had T2DM for more than one year, with regular follow-up and recent laboratory results (< 3 months) were consecutively recruited. Associations between DRD, depression and the combination DRD-depression with demographic and clinical characteristics were analysed using generalized linear models. From 752 invited people, 700 participated (mean age 56.9 years, 52.8% female, 52.9% Malay, 79.1% married). Prevalence of DRD and depression were 49.2% and 41.7%, respectively. Distress and depression were correlated, spearman's r = 0.50. Patients with higher DRD were younger (OR 0.995, 95% CI 0.996 to 0.991), Chinese (OR 1.2, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.29), attending Dengkil health clinic (OR 1.1, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.22) and had higher scores on the PHQ (OR 1.1, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.06). Depression was less likely in the unmarried compared to divorced/separately living and those attending Dengkil health clinic, but more likely in patients with microvascular complications (OR 1.4, 95% CI 1.06 to 1.73) and higher DDS (OR 1.03, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.03). For the combination of DRD and depression, unemployment (OR 4.7, 95% CI 1.02 to 21.20) had positive association, whereas those under medical care at the Salak health clinics (OR 0.28, 95% CI 0.12 to 0.63), and those with a blood pressure > 130/80 mmHg (OR 0.53, 95% CI 0.32 to 0.89) were less likely to experience both DRD and depression. DRD and depression were common and correlated in Asian adults with T2DM at primary care level. Socio-demographic more than clinical characteristics were related to DRD and depression.
    Matched MeSH terms: Primary Health Care/methods
  12. Ambigapathy R, Chia YC, Ng CJ
    BMJ Open, 2016 Jan 04;6(1):e010063.
    PMID: 26729393 DOI: 10.1136/bmjopen-2015-010063
    OBJECTIVE: Shared decision-making has been advocated as a useful model for patient management. In developing Asian countries such as Malaysia, there is a common belief that patients prefer a passive role in clinical consultation. As such, the objective of this study was to determine Malaysian patients' role preference in decision-making and the associated factors.
    DESIGN: A cross-sectional study.
    SETTING: Study was conducted at an urban primary care clinic in Malaysia in 2012.
    PARTICIPANTS: Patients aged >21 years were chosen using systematic random sampling.
    METHODS: Consenting patients answered a self-administered questionnaire, which included demographic data and their preferred and actual role before and after consultation. Doctors were asked to determine patients' role preference. The Control Preference Scale was used to assess patients' role preference.
    PRIMARY OUTCOME: Prevalence of patients' preferred role in decision-making.
    SECONDARY OUTCOMES: (1) Actual role played by the patient in decision-making. (2) Sociodemographic factors associated with patients' preferred role in decision-making. (3) Doctors' perception of patients' involvement in decision-making.
    RESULTS: The response rate was 95.1% (470/494). Shared decision-making was preferred by 51.9% of patients, followed by passive (26.3%) and active (21.8%) roles in decision-making. Higher household income was significantly associated with autonomous role preference (p=0.018). Doctors' perception did not concur with patients' preferred role. Among patients whom doctors perceived to prefer a passive role, 73.5% preferred an autonomous role (p=0.900, κ=0.006).
    CONCLUSIONS: The majority of patients attending the primary care clinic preferred and played an autonomous role in decision-making. Doctors underestimated patients' preference to play an autonomous role.
    Study site: Primary care clinic, University Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
    Matched MeSH terms: Primary Health Care/methods*
  13. Swarna Nantha Y
    J Prim Care Community Health, 2014 Oct;5(4):263-70.
    PMID: 24879656 DOI: 10.1177/2150131914536988
    Objectives: The average consumption of sugar in the Malaysian population has reached an alarming rate, exceeding the benchmark recommended by experts. This article argues the need of a paradigm shift in the management of sugar consumption in the country through evidence derived from addiction research.
    Methods: “Food addiction” could lead to high levels of sugar consumption. This probable link could accelerate the development of diabetes and obesity in the community. A total of 94 reports and studies that describe the importance of addiction theory–based interventions were found through a search on PubMed, Google Scholar, and Academic Search Complete.
    Results: Research in the field of addiction medicine has revealed the addictive potential of high levels of sugar intake. Preexisting health promotion strategies could benefit from the integration of the concept of sugar addiction. A targeted intervention could yield more positive results in health outcomes within the country.
    Conclusion: Current literature seems to support food environment changes, targeted health policies, and special consultation skills as cost-effective remedies to curb the rise of sugar-related health morbidities.
    Keywords. sugar addiction, food environment, health promotion, non communicable diseases, dietary habits, health policies
    Matched MeSH terms: Primary Health Care/methods*
  14. Ramli AS, Lakshmanan S, Haniff J, Selvarajah S, Tong SF, Bujang MA, et al.
    BMC Fam Pract, 2014;15:151.
    PMID: 25218689 DOI: 10.1186/1471-2296-15-151
    Chronic disease management presents enormous challenges to the primary care workforce because of the rising epidemic of cardiovascular risk factors. The chronic care model was proven effective in improving chronic disease outcomes in developed countries, but there is little evidence of its effectiveness in developing countries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the EMPOWER-PAR intervention (multifaceted chronic disease management strategies based on the chronic care model) in improving outcomes for type 2 diabetes mellitus and hypertension using readily available resources in the Malaysian public primary care setting. This paper presents the study protocol.
    Matched MeSH terms: Primary Health Care/methods*
  15. Shima R, Farizah H, Majid HA
    Singapore Med J, 2015 Aug;56(8):460-7.
    PMID: 25902719 DOI: 10.11622/smedj.2015069
    INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to assess the reliability and validity of a modified Malaysian version of the Medication Adherence Reasons Scale (MAR-Scale).

    METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, the 15-item MAR-Scale was administered to 665 patients with hypertension who attended one of the four government primary healthcare clinics in the Hulu Langat and Klang districts of Selangor, Malaysia, between early December 2012 and end-March 2013. The construct validity was examined in two phases. Phase I consisted of translation of the MAR-Scale from English to Malay, a content validity check by an expert panel, a face validity check via a small preliminary test among patients with hypertension, and exploratory factor analysis (EFA). Phase II involved internal consistency reliability calculations and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA).

    RESULTS: EFA verified five existing factors that were previously identified (i.e. issues with medication management, multiple medications, belief in medication, medication availability, and the patient's forgetfulness and convenience), while CFA extracted four factors (medication availability issues were not extracted). The final modified MAR-Scale model, which had 11 items and a four-factor structure, provided good evidence of convergent and discriminant validities. Cronbach's alpha coefficient was > 0.7, indicating good internal consistency of the items in the construct. The results suggest that the modified MAR-Scale has good internal consistencies and construct validity.

    CONCLUSION: The validated modified MAR-Scale (Malaysian version) was found to be suitable for use among patients with hypertension receiving treatment in primary healthcare settings. However, the comprehensive measurement of other factors that can also lead to non-adherence requires further exploration.

    Matched MeSH terms: Primary Health Care/methods
  16. Mafauzy M
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2005 Jun;60(2):212-7.
    PMID: 16114163 MyJurnal
    This Diabcare-Asia project was initiated to study the status of diabetes care and prevalence of diabetic complications in Asia and this study was done to evaluate the above in primary private healthcare in Malaysia. A total of 49 private clinics participated in this study from which a total of 438 patients were included and analysed. The majority of patients (96.5%) had type 2 diabetes mellitus and 81.4% had BMI > or =23 kg/m2. Only 12.0% of the patients had their HbA1c measured in the preceding 12 months. As for glycaemic control only 20% of the patients had HbA1c <7% and 11% had FPG < 6.7 mmol/L. As for lipid levels, only 12.3% of the patients had total cholesterol < 4.8 mmol/L; 30.9% had HDL-cholesterol > 1.2 mmol/L and 49.8% had triglycerides < 1.7 mmol/L. Despite the high proportion of patients having dyslipidaemia. only 12.4% of the patients were on lipid lowering therapy. As for blood pressure, 55.9% of the patients had systolic pressure > or =140 mmHg and 40.9% had diastolic pressure > or =90 mmHg. However, only 32.4% of the patients were on antihypertensive medication. Only 37.4% of the patients admitted to adhering to diabetic diet regularly and 32.0% exercised regularly. As for glucose monitoring only 6.9% of the patients did home blood glucose monitoring and 6.2% did home urine glucose. There was also a high complication rate with the commonest being neuropathy (30.1%) followed by background retinopthy (23.5%), albuminuria (22.9%) and microalbuminuria (20.4%). In conclusion, the majority of diabetic patients treated at the primary care level were not satisfactorily controlled and this was associated with a high prevalence of complications. There is an urgent need to educate both patients and health care personnel on the importance of achieving the clinical targets and greater effort must be made to achieve these targets.
    Matched MeSH terms: Primary Health Care/methods*
  17. Ramli AS, Selvarajah S, Daud MH, Haniff J, Abdul-Razak S, Tg-Abu-Bakar-Sidik TM, et al.
    BMC Fam Pract, 2016 11 14;17(1):157.
    PMID: 27842495
    BACKGROUND: The chronic care model was proven effective in improving clinical outcomes of diabetes in developed countries. However, evidence in developing countries is scarce. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of EMPOWER-PAR intervention (based on the chronic care model) in improving clinical outcomes for type 2 diabetes mellitus using readily available resources in the Malaysian public primary care setting.

    METHODS: This was a pragmatic, cluster-randomised, parallel, matched pair, controlled trial using participatory action research approach, conducted in 10 public primary care clinics in Malaysia. Five clinics were randomly selected to provide the EMPOWER-PAR intervention for 1 year and another five clinics continued with usual care. Patients who fulfilled the criteria were recruited over a 2-week period by each clinic. The obligatory intervention components were designed based on four elements of the chronic care model i.e. healthcare organisation, delivery system design, self-management support and decision support. The primary outcome was the change in the proportion of patients achieving HbA1c care setting.

    TRIAL REGISTRATION: Registered with: ClinicalTrials.gov.: NCT01545401 . Date of registration: 1st March 2012.
    Matched MeSH terms: Primary Health Care/methods*
  18. Pannir Selvam SB, Khoo EM, Chow SY, Wong PF, Mohsin SS, Abdullah A, et al.
    Sex Transm Dis, 2019 02;46(2):143-145.
    PMID: 30278029 DOI: 10.1097/OLQ.0000000000000918
    Management of sexually transmitted diseases and human immunodeficiency virus is challenging due to the social stigma attached. We describe the development of a client-friendly sexually transmitted disease service in a primary care clinic in Malaysia with a special focus on key populations. Challenges and key lessons learnt from its development and implementation are discussed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Primary Health Care/methods*
  19. Lim MT, Lim YMF, Teh XR, Lee YL, Ismail SA, Sivasampu S
    Int J Qual Health Care, 2019 Aug 01;31(7):37-43.
    PMID: 30608582 DOI: 10.1093/intqhc/mzy252
    OBJECTIVE: To determine the extent of self-management support (SMS) provided to primary care patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and hypertension and its associated factors.

    DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey conducted between April and May 2017.

    SETTING: Forty public clinics in Malaysia.

    PARTICIPANTS: A total of 956 adult patients with T2D and/or hypertension were interviewed.

    MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Patient experience on SMS was evaluated using a structured questionnaire of the short version Patient Assessment of Chronic Illness Care instrument, PACIC-M11. Linear regression analysis adjusting for complex survey design was used to determine the association of patient and clinic factors with PACIC-M11 scores.

    RESULTS: The overall PACIC-M11 mean was 2.3(SD,0.8) out of maximum of 5. The subscales' mean scores were lowest for patient activation (2.1(SD,1.1)) and highest for delivery system design/decision support (2.9(SD,0.9)). Overall PACIC-M11 score was associated with age, educational level and ethnicity. Higher overall PACIC-M11 ratings was observed with increasing difference between actual and expected consultation duration [β = 0.01; 95% CI (0.001, 0.03)]. Better scores were also observed among patients who would recommend the clinic to friends and family [β = 0.19; 95% CI (0.03, 0.36)], when health providers were able to explain things in ways that were easy to understand [β = 0.34; 95% CI (0.10, 0.59)] and knew about patients' living conditions [β = 0.31; 95% CI (0.15, 0.47)].

    CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicated patients received low levels of SMS. PACIC-M11 ratings were associated with age, ethnicity, educational level, difference between actual and expected consultation length, willingness to recommend the clinic and provider communication skills.

    Matched MeSH terms: Primary Health Care/methods
  20. Chia YC, Ching SM
    BMC Nephrol, 2012;13:173.
    PMID: 23259489 DOI: 10.1186/1471-2369-13-173
    BACKGROUND: Little is known about the rate of progression to chronic kidney disease (CKD) among hypertensive patients, particularly at the primary care level. This study aims to examine risk factors associated with new onset CKD among hypertensive patients attending a primary care clinic.
    METHODS: This is a 10-year retrospective cohort study of 460 patients with hypertension who were on treatment. Patient information was collected from patient records. CKD was defined as a glomerular filtration rate <60 ml/min per 1.73 m2 (Cockcroft-Gault equation). Multiple logistic regression statistics was used to test the association in newly diagnosed CKD.
    RESULTS: The incidence of new CKD was 30.9% (n = 142) with an annual rate of 3%. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, factors associated with development of new onset of CKD among hypertensive patients were older age (odds ratio [OR] 1.123, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.078-1.169), presence of diabetes (OR 2.621, 95% CI 1.490-4.608), lower baseline eGFR (OR 1.041, 95% CI 0.943-0.979) and baseline hyperuricaemia (OR 1.004, 95% CI 1.001-1.007).
    CONCLUSIONS: The progression to new onset CKD is high among urban multiethnic hypertensive patients in a primary care population. Hence every effort is needed to detect the presence of new onset CKD earlier. Hypertensive patients who are older, with underlying diabetes, hyperuricaemia and lower baseline eGFR are associated with the development of CKD in this population.

    Study site: Primary Care Medicine Clinic at the University of Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC)
    Matched MeSH terms: Primary Health Care/methods
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