In predicting palm oil mill effluent (POME) degradation efficiency, previous developed quadratic model quantitatively evaluated the effects of O2 flowrate, TiO2 loadings and initial concentration of POME in labscale photocatalytic system, which however suffered from low generalization due to the overfitting behaviour. Evidently, high RMSE (131.61) and low R2 (-630.49) obtained indicates its insufficiency in describing POME degradation at unseen factor ranges, hence verified the fact of poor generalization. To overcome this issue, several models were developed via machine learning-assisted techniques, namely Gaussian Process Regression (GPR), Linear Regression (LR), Decision Tree (DT), Supported Vector Machine (SVM) and Regression Tree Ensemble (RTE), subsequently being assessed systematically. To achieve high generalization, all models were subjected to 'train-all-test-all' strategy, 5-fold and 10-fold cross validation. Specifically, GPR model was furnished with high accuracy in 'train-all-test-all' strategy, judging from its low RMSE (1.0394) and high R2 (0.9962), which however menaced by the risk of overfitting. In contrast, despite relatively poorer RMSE and R2 (1.7964 and 0.9886) obtained in 5-fold cross validation, GPR model was rendered with highest generalization, while sufficiently preserving its accuracy in development process. Besides, SVM and RTE models were also demonstrated promising R2 (0.9372 and 0.9208), which however shadowed by their high RMSEs (4.2174 and 4.7366). Furthermore, the extraordinary generalization of GPR model was coincidentally verified in 10-fold cross validation. The lowest RMSE (2.1624) and highest R2 (0.9835) obtained with feature number of 36 asserted its sufficiency in both generalization and accuracy prospect. Other models were all rendered with slight lower R2 (> 0.9), plausibly due to the higher RMSE (> 4.0). According to GPR model, optimized POME degradation (52.52%) can be obtained at 70 mL/min of O2, 70.0 g/L of TiO2 and 250 ppm of POME concentration, with only ∼3% error as compared to the actual data.
The technical feasibility of TiO2-photocatalysis towards palm oil mill effluent (POME) treatment is well-proven in previous studies. As a continuity, current study evaluated the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT) in a concise manner, subsequently discussed its practicality in palm oil industry of Malaysia. Indeed, TiO2-photocatalysis displays a promising technical feasibility in treating POME, but its wide application is economically-suppressed. It is positing that biological-based treatments (including the existing open-ponding system) are more likely to be employed as the major treating approach for POME over TiO2-photocatalysis. This is particularly true as biological-based treatments offer better performance index for concentrated POME with comparatively lower treatment cost and technicality needed. Furthermore, it is also prevailed with high biogas generability, therefore being irreplaceably benchmarked for POME treatment in Malaysia. Instead of replacing biological treatment entirely, the adoption of TiO2-photocatalysis as complementing tertiary treatment for biological-treated-POME is more practical, bestowed to its robust organic-mineralizing feature for low concentration POME. Such integrated system is expected to augment the POME degradation efficiency, hence effectively preserve the environment from POME pollution.
Malaysia is one of the countries that is well known for its palm oil based products and exports all over the world. Over the years, palm oil mill has been rising at alarming rate in Malaysia, causing palm oil-based wastes to increase especially palm oil mill effluent (POME). POME in Malaysia are channelled into water bodies such as rivers after treated mostly with conventional biological method. However, with current technologies and knowledge, conventional POME treatments are seen to be outdated and require major improvements as greenhouse gaseous are emitted to the environment as well as being less cost effective. Integrated systems that combine two or more conventional methods are introduced and reviewed to provide insights on the advantages and disadvantages of the system if it is to be implemented in real life plant. Integrated systems that focus on combining conventional methods are compiled and reviewed specifically for POME treatment. Among the integrated methods that are reviewed includes biological with membrane, adsorption with magnetic field exposure, adsorption with membrane and electrocoagulation with membrane. The systems are seen to give excellent color, chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total suspended solids (TSS) removal with average of higher than 90%. Reduction in space utilization, improved treatment time as well as simplified operating system were reported when integrated systems are applied as compared to conventional treatment of POME.
There is a pressing need for efficient biological treatment systems for the removal of organic compounds in greywater given the rapid increase in household wastewater produced as a consequence of rapid urbanisation. Moreover, proper treatment of greywater allows its reuse that can significantly reduce the demand for freshwater supplies. Herein, we demonstrate the possibility of enhancing the removal efficiency of solid contaminants from greywater using MHz-order surface acoustic waves (SAWs). A key distinction of the use of these high frequency surface acoustic waves, compared to previous work on its lower frequency (kHz order) bulk ultrasound counterpart for wastewater treatment, is the absence of cavitation, which can inflict considerable damage on bacteria, thus limiting the intensity and duration, and hence the efficiency enhancement, associated with the acoustic exposure. In particular, we show that up to fivefold improvement in the removal efficiency can be obtained, primarily due to the ability of the acoustic pressure field in homogenizing and reducing the size of bacterial clusters in the sample, therefore providing a larger surface area that promotes greater bacteria digestion. Alternatively, the SAW exposure allows the reduction in the treatment duration to achieve a given level of removal efficiency, thus facilitating higher treatment rates and hence processing throughput. Given the low-cost of the miniature chipscale platform, these promising results highlight its possibility for portable greywater treatment for domestic use or for large-scale industrial wastewater processing through massive parallelization.
Discharge of household greywater into water bodies can lead to an increase in contamination levels in terms of the reduction in dissolved oxygen resources and rapid bacterial growth. Therefore, the quality of greywater has to be improved before the disposal process. The present review aimed to present a hybrid treatment system for the greywater generated from households. The hybrid system comprised a primary stage (a natural filtration unit) with a bioreactor system as the secondary treatment combined with microalgae for greywater treatment, as well as the natural flocculation process. The review discussed the efficiency of each stage in the removal of elements and nutrients. The hybrid system reviewed here represented an effective solution for the remediation of household greywater.
Fluid flow in UASB reactors is usually described by multicompartment models consisting of separate ideally mixed zones, plug flow zones, and stagnant zones linked with bypassing flows and back-mixing flows. A closer look at UASB reactor behavior indicates that this complexity is unnecessary. Our study on the startup and steady-state operation of a UASB reactor shows that its fluid flow can be explained just as well with a simple axial dispersion model. The physical transitions, which occur in different zones of the UASB reactor as the microorganisms acclimate to the wastewater, are adequately described by the model. Further, the number of parameters, which is six in standard UASB reactor models, is reduced to four in the case of the axial dispersion model.
The present work investigates the feasibility of aerobic granulation for the treatment of low-medium strength domestic wastewater for long-term operation and effects of a static mixer on the properties and removal performances of the aerobic granules formed. The static mixer was installed in a sequential batch reactor to provide higher hydrodynamic shear force in enhancing the formation of the aerobic granules. Aerobic granules were successfully formed in the domestic wastewater, and the granulation treatment system was sustained for a period of 356 days without granules disintegration. Subsequent to the installation, aerobic granules with a low SVI30 of 41.37 mL/gTSS, average diameter 1.11 mm, granular strength with integrity coefficient 10.4% and regular shape with minimum filamentous outgrowth were formed. Mineral concentrations such as Fe, Mg, Ca and Na as well as composition of protein and polysaccharide in tightly bound-extracellular polymeric substance of the aerobic granules were found to be higher under the effect of the static mixer. However, no significant improvement was observed on the TCOD, NH4+-N and TSS removal performance. Good TCOD and TSS removal performance of above 85% and 90%, respectively and moderate NH4+-N removal performance of about 60% were observed throughout the study. Higher simultaneous nitrification and denitrification (SND) efficiency of 56% was observed after the installation of the static mixer, as compared to 21% prior. Therefore, it may be concluded that the installation of the static mixer significantly improved the properties of aerobic granules formation and SND efficiency but not the TCOD, NH4+-N and TSS removal performance.
This study presents an examination on the correlation of sonication operating condition, sludge property, formation and behaviour of cavitation bubbles in sludge disruption under low-frequency ultrasound sonication. The influence of sonication time, sonication density, type of sludge and solids content on the disruption was evaluated. The most vigorous particle disruption was achieved in the initial period of sonication, which subsided subsequently. The explosive effect was likely due to the rapid cavitation arising from powerful transient bubbles generated in fractions of microseconds. A rating for the type of sludge was derived based on the finding that particles in secondary sludge were more readily disrupted than both primary sludge and mixed sludge. While sonication density exhibited the most significant role in cavitation bubble formation and behaviour, particle disruption could be optimised for energy input by sonicating at higher sonication density and shorter sonication time. Based on theoretical consideration, it was deduced that within an optimum sludge solids content ranging between 2.3% and 3.2%, superior particle disruption could be accomplished within a minute for secondary sludge sonicated at a density of 0.52 W/mL. Useful guidelines for sonication system installation, equipment protection and process reliability could be established from knowledge derived from a good understanding on the influence of solids content on sludge sonication.
Palm oil mill effluent (POME) is highly polluted wastewater that is to the environment if discharged directly to water source without proper treatment. Thus, a highly efficient treatment with reasonable cost is needed. This study reports the coagulation treatment of POME using integrated copperas and calcium hydroxide. The properties of copperas were determined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and X-ray fluorescence (XRF). Coagulation was conducted using jar test experiments for various coagulant formulations and dosages (1000-5000 mg/L), initial pH (4-10), stirring speed (100-300 rpm), and sedimentation time (30-180 min). The characterisation results show that copperas has a compact gel network structure with strong O-H stretching and monoclinic crystal structure. The effectiveness of integrated copperas and calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) with the formulation of 80:20 removed 77.6%, 73.4%, and 57.0% of turbidity, colour, and chemical oxygen demand (COD), respectively. Furthermore, the integration of copperas and Ca(OH)2 produced heavier flocs (ferric hydroxide), which improved gravity settling. The coagulation equilibrium analysis shows that the Langmuir model best described the anaerobic POME sample as the process exhibited monolayer adsorption. The results of this study show that copperas with the aid of Ca(OH)2 demonstrated high potential in the removal of those parameters from POME with acceptable final pH for discharge. The utilisation of this by-product as a coagulant in effluent treatment can unlock the potential of copperas for wider applications, improve its marketability, and reduce gypsum waste generation from the TiO2 industry.
Palm oil processing is a multi-stage operation which generates large amount of effluent. On average, palm oil mill effluent (POME) may contain up to 51, 000 mg/L COD, 25,000 mg/L BOD, 40,000 TS and 6000 mg/L oil and grease. Due to its potential to cause environmental pollution, palm oil mills are required to treat the effluent prior to discharge. Biological treatments using open ponding system are widely used for POME treatment. Although these processes are capable of reducing the pollutant concentrations, they require long hydraulic retention time and large space, with the effluent frequently failing to satisfy the discharge regulation. Due to more stringent environmental regulations, research interest has recently shifted to the development of polishing technologies for the biologically-treated POME. Various technologies such as advanced oxidation processes, membrane technology, adsorption and coagulation have been investigated. Among these, advanced oxidation processes have shown potentials as polishing technologies for POME. This paper offers an overview on the POME polishing technologies, with particularly emphasis on advanced oxidation processes and their prospects for large scale applications. Although there are some challenges in large scale applications of these technologies, this review offers some perspectives that could help in overcoming these challenges.
A high-resolution 3-D model was developed to assess the impact of a diversion outfall at the Tarumi Sewage Treatment Plant (TSTP) on an adjacent seaweed farm in Osaka Bay, Japan. The model was extensively validated to ensure a reasonable agreement with in situ observations. The western part of the farm is largely influenced by tidal currents, whereas the eastern area is mainly affected by subtidal residual currents that are primarily due to surface wind stress. The released effluent is transported by counterclockwise residual circulation formed off the TSTP. The model reveals that the diversion adequately suppresses the influence on the farm. While the instantaneous effluent concentration is diminished by about 50%, the effluent accumulated on the farm decreased from 2.83 × 104 m3 to 2.01 × 104 m3 due to the diversion, demonstrating an approximately 28% reduction of the effluent from the TSTP by the diversion outfall.
Inaccessible hygiene water sources and sanitation are one of the sustainability issues that need to be solved. An attempt to solve this problem is to change the conventional system used in the water supply and sewage treatment to sustainable water and waste management. To transform the system, companies initially need to map their business value chain. However, this process is often not receiving a full attention by the organisation. In an academic perspective, there are limited studies that map the value chains of water and waste systems. To overcome this limitation, the present study aims to map the value chain processes of the water and wastewater utility companies towards a sustainability solution. A review of related studies is used to conduct this study. Khuzestan Urban Water and Sewage company in Iran has been selected as case studies. The mapping results indicate a lack of sustainability integration in a water management system that leads to ineffective and inefficient water management. Value chain mapping process is significant for practitioners, particularly in the water and sewage companies, as a starting point for transforming their conventional water management systems towards sustainability. Experts at the company stated that value chain mapping as part of value chain analysis enables organisations to increase operational efficiency and eliminate waste by 57%.
The main limitation of a conventional palm oil mill effluent (POME) ponding system lies in its inability to completely decolourise effluent. Decolourisation of effluent is aesthetically and environmentally crucial. However, determination of the optimum process parameters is becoming more complex with the increase of the number of coagulants and responses. The primary objective of this study is to determine the optimum polymeric coagulant in the coagulation-flocculation process of palm oil mill effluent by considering all output responses, namely lignin-tannin, low molecular mass coloured compounds (LMMCC), chemical oxygen demand (COD), ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N), pH and conductivity. Here, multiple-objective optimisation on the basis of ratio analysis (MOORA) is employed to discretely measure multiple response characteristics of five different types of coagulants as a function of assessment value. The optimum coagulant is determined based on the highest assessment value and was identified as QF25610 (cationic polyacrylamide). On the other hand, the lowest assessment value was represented by AN1800 (anionic polyacrylamide). This study highlights the simplicity of MOORA approach in handling various input and output parameters, and it may be useful in other wastewater treatment processes as well.
Biogranulation technology is an emerging biological process in treating various wastewater. However, the development of biogranules requires an extended period of time when treating wastewaters with high oil and grease (O&G) content. A study was therefore conducted to assess the formation of biogranules through bioaugmentation with the Serratia marcescens SA30 strain, in treating real anaerobically digested palm oil mill effluent (AD-POME), with O&G of about 4600 mg/L. The biogranules were developed in a lab-scale sequencing batch reactor (SBR) system under alternating anaerobic and aerobic conditions. The experimental data were assessed using the modified mass transfer factor (MMTF) models to understand the mechanisms of biosorption of O&G on the biogranules. The system was run with variable organic loading rates (OLR) of 0.69-9.90 kg/m3d and superficial air velocity (SAV) of 2 cm/s. After 60 days of being bioaugmented with the Serratia marcescens SA30 strain, the flocculent biomass transformed into biogranules with excellent settleability with improved treatment efficiency. The biogranules showed a compact structure and good settling ability with an average diameter of about 2 mm, a sludge volume index at 5 min (SVI5) of 43 mL/g, and a settling velocity (SV) of 81 m/h after 256 days of operation. The average removal efficiencies of O&G increased from 6 to 99.92%, respectively. The application of the MMTF model verified that the resistance to O&G biosorption is controlled via film mass transfer. This research indicates successful bioaugmentation of biogranules using the Serratia marcescens SA30 strain for enhanced biodegradation of O&G and is capable to treat real AD-POME.
Treatment of industrial waste water (e.g. textile waste water, phenol waste water, pharmaceutical etc) faces limitation in conventional treatment procedures. Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) do not suffer from the limits of conventional treatment processes and consequently degrade toxic pollutants more efficiently. Complexity is faced in eradicating the restrictions of AOPs such as sludge formation, toxic intermediates formation and high requirement for oxidants. Increased mass-transfer in AOPs is an alternate solution to this problem. AOPs combined with Fluidized bed reactor (FBR) can be a potential choice compared to fixed bed or moving bed reactor, as AOP catalysts life-span last for only maximum of 5-10 cycles. Hence, FBR-AOPs require lesser operational and maintenance cost by reducing material resources. The time required for AOP can be minimized using FBR and also treatable working volume can be increased. FBR-AOP can process from 1 to 10 L of volume which is 10 times more than simple batch reaction. The mass transfer is higher thus the reaction time is lesser. For having increased mass transfer sludge production can be successfully avoided. The review study suggests that, optimum particle size, catalyst to reactor volume ratio, catalyst diameter and liquid or gas velocity is required for efficient FBR-AOP systems. However, FBR-AOPs are still under lab-scale investigation and for industrial application cost study is needed. Cost of FBR-AOPs highly depends on energy density needed and the mechanism of degradation of the pollutant. The cost of waste water treatment containing azo dyes was found to be US$ 50 to US$ 500 per 1000 gallons where, the cost for treating phenol water was US$ 50 to US$ 800 per 1000 gallons. The analysis for FBR-AOP costs has been found to depend on the targeted pollutant, degradation mechanism (zero order, 1st order and 2nd order) and energy consumptions by the AOPs.
Palm oil industry is the most important agro-industry in Malaysia, but its by-product-palm oil mill effluent (POME), posed a great threat to water environment. In the past decades, several treatment and disposal methods have been proposed and investigated to solve this problem. A two-stage pilot-scale plant was designed and constructed for POME treatment. Anaerobic digestion and aerobic biodegradation constituted the first biological stage, while ultrafiltration (UF) and reverse osmosis (RO) membrane units were combined as the second membrane separation stage. In the anaerobic expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) reactor, about 43% organic matter in POME was converted into biogas, and COD reduction efficiency reached 93% and 22% in EGSB and the following aerobic reactor, respectively. With the treatment in the first biological stage, suspended solids and oil also decreased to a low degree. All these alleviated the membrane fouling and prolonged the membrane life. In the membrane process unit, almost all the suspended solids were captured by UF membranes, while RO membrane excluded most of the dissolved solids or inorganic salts from RO permeate. After the whole treatment processes, organic matter in POME expressed by BOD and COD was removed almost thoroughly. Suspended solids and color were not detectable in RO permeate any more, and mineral elements only existed in trace amount (except for K and Na). The high-quality effluent was crystal clear and could be used as the boiler feed water.
A pilot scale membrane plant was constructed and monitored in Shah Alam, Malaysia for municipal wastewater reclamation for industrial application purposes. The aim of this study was to verify its suitability under the local conditions and environmental constraints for secondary wastewater reclamation. Immersed-type crossflow microfiltration (IMF) was selected as the pretreatment step before reverse osmosis filtration. Secondary wastewater after chlorine contact tank was selected as feed water. The results indicated that the membrane system is capable of producing a filtrate meeting the requirements of both WHO drinking water standards and Malaysian Effluent Standard A. With the application of an automatic backwash process, IMF performed well in hydraulic performance with low fouling rate being achieved. The investigations showed also that chemical cleaning is still needed because of some irreversible fouling by microorganisms always remains. RO treatment with IMF pretreatment process was significantly applicable for wastewater reuse purposes and promised good hydraulic performance.
Biochemical products have been widely used for treatment of various types of wastewater. The treatment processes with the addition of biochemical products are quite attractive because of their simplicity, minimal use of equipment, they are environmentally friendly and are suitable for the removal of organic pollutants. The purpose of these products is to enhance the activities of beneficial microbes in order to improve treatment performance. This study was carried out to determine the potential of applying biochemical products in assisting and improving the performance of sewage treatment plants. In this study, four biochemical products, namely: Zeolite, Bio-C, Eco-B and Was-D, were applied to the sewage treatment plant. Analyses were carried out on several water quality parameters such as biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), suspended solids (SS), oil & grease (O&G), phosphorus (P), ammoniacal nitrogen (AN) and sludge thickness (ST). From the results obtained, it can be seen that the overall performance of the treatment plant improved with most of the parameters studied were found to fulfill the DOE Standard B requirements. The performance of Bio-C was found to give better results than other products.
Electrocoagulation (EC) is employed to investigate the energy consumption (EnC) of synthetic wastewater. In order to find the best process conditions, the influence of various parameters including initial pH, initial dye concentration, applied voltage, initial electrolyte concentration, and treatment time are investigated in this study. EnC is considered the main criterion of process evaluation in investigating the effect of the independent variables on the EC process and determining the optimum condition. Evolutionary polynomial regression is combined with a multi-objective genetic algorithm (EPR-MOGA) to present a new, simple and accurate equation for estimating EnC to overcome existing method weaknesses. To survey the influence of the effective variables, six different input combinations are considered. According to the results, EPR-MOGA Model 1 is the most accurate compared to other models, as it has the lowest error indices in predicting EnC (MARE = 0.35, RMSE = 2.33, SI = 0.23 and R2 = 0.98). A comparison of EPR-MOGA with reduced quadratic multiple regression methods in terms of feasibility confirms that EPR-MOGA is an effective alternative method. Moreover, the partial derivative sensitivity analysis method is employed to analyze the EnC variation trend according to input variables.
Cattle slaughterhouses generate wastewater that is rich in organic contaminant and nutrients, which is considered as high strength wastewater with a high potential for energy recovery. Work was undertaken to evaluate the efficiency of the 12 L laboratory scale conventional and a modified upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors (conventional, R1 and modified, R2), for treatment of cattle slaughterhouse wastewater (CSWW) under mesophilic condition (35 ± 1 °C). Both reactors were acclimated with synthetic wastewater for 30 days, then continuous study with real CSWW proceeds. The reactors were subjected to the same loading condition of OLR, starting from 1.75, 3, 5 10, 14, and 16 g L-1d-1, corresponding to 3.5, 6, 10, 20, 28, and 32 g COD/L at constant hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 24 h. The performance of the R1 reactor drastically dropped at OLR 10 g L-1d-1, and this significantly affected the subsequent stages. The steady-state performance of the R2 reactor under the same loading condition as the R1 reactor revealed a high COD removal efficiency of 94% and biogas and methane productions were 27 L/d and 89%. The SMP was 0.21 LCH4/gCOD added, whereas the NH3-N alkalinity ratio stood at 651 mg/L and 0.2. SEM showed that the R2 reactor was dominated by Methanosarcina bacterial species, while the R1 reactor revealed a disturb sludge with insufficient microbial biomass.