A one year follow up was conducted on 87 patients above 60 years of age who sustained a hip fracture following a trivial injury. All patients admitted to the University Malaya Medical Center between October 1995 and September 1996 were screened and treated according following standard treatment protocols. An activity of daily living index i.e. the Barthel Index was administered both at admission and one year later. Information was obtained either through the telephone or directly from the patient at the clinic. The one year mortality rate was 26% while that at six months was 22%, with patients in the above 80 years group showing a 50% mortality. We found no correlation between the mortality rate and the duration of hospital stay, delay before surgery, ASA grade premorbid medical conditions, type of fracture or premorbid activity level. There was no deterioration of dependency after three months following discharge. The mortality rate was similar to other studies. The level of disability following fracture suggests ongoing home is needed and that domiciliary rehabilitation within the first six months of discharge may needed.
A total of 80 Kuwaiti children with alopecia areata (AA), without clinical evidence of thyroid disease, were screened for the presence of thyroid abnormalities, and 50 unrelated children with AA were tissue typed for human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I and class II antigens. Thyroid abnormalities were detected in 14 children (17.5%). Among these, 11 children (14%) had thyroid autoantibodies. These observations highlight the significance of screening for thyroid abnormalities in children with chronic, recurrent, and/or extensive disease. The Kuwaiti children with AA were observed to have a significant association with HLA B21 (OR 18.850, 95% CI 4.404-80.677), B40 (OR 6.767, 95% CI 1.818-25.181), and HLA B12 (OR 4.833, 95% CI 1.198-19.505) antigens. These findings differed from those reported elsewhere.
A novel coordination polymer of mixed-valence copper(I,II) with 4,4'-bipyridine and in situ oxidized isophthalate, [Cu2(ipO)(4,4'-bpy)] (ipOH = 2-hydroxyisophthalate), was hydrothermally synthesized and crystallographically characterized to be a laminated structure via weak copper(II)--oxygen interactions.
Objectives: To determine the prevalence of self-reported depression among Malaysian patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and to study the correlates and independent predictors for depression. Methods: The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) questionnaire wasused to assess depressive symptoms. Disease activity was determined by theduration of morning stiffness, visual analogue scale for pain and fatigue, numberof swollen/tender joint and the modified disease activity score (DAS). The Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ) was used to assess the patients' functionalstatus. Results: Depression was recorded in 17.2% of the 93 patients. Painful joints(p<0.001), active disease (p<0.001) and poor joint function (p<0.001) correlatedsignificantly with depression. Poor functional status assessed by the HAO was themost significant Independent predictor for depression in RA patients, (OR=5.4,p=0.028). Conclusion: The prevalence of depression In this cohort of Asian RA patients was17.2%. Painful joints and functional disability were associated with a higherIncidence of depression. RA Patients with severe functional disability should beassessed for depression that may need to be treated Independently.
MeSH terms: Anxiety; Arthritis, Rheumatoid; Mental Disorders; Cross-Sectional Studies; Depression; Fatigue; Humans; Malaysia; Pain; Prevalence; Asian Continental Ancestry Group
The serology result of parasitic infections of 260 foreign workers who were seen at the University of Malaya Medical Center, during 7 months period is reported here. The 260 foreign workers comprised 114 Indonesians, 142 Bangladeshis, 2 Myanmarese and 2 Pakistanis.
We describe the results of serology for parasitic infection of 698 foreign workers. The 698 foreign workers participated included 115 Indonesians, 387 Bangladeshis, 101 Burmese, 81 Pakistanis, 6 Indians, 3 Thais, 3 Filipinoes and 2 others. Blood samples were taken from these workers and eight tests (Amoebiasis, Echinococcosis, Filariasis (bm and wb), Leishmaniasis, Malaria, Schistosomiasis and Trypanosomiasis) were performed on serum separated from the blood. Among the 698 sera tested, 38.1% were found to be positive for at least one parasitic infection. The most common antibody detected in the positive sera was antibody for amoebiasis (28.1%), followed by malaria (26.9%), echinococcosis (18.1%) and schistosomiasis (11.6%). Other tests showed a low percentage of infection with leshmaniasis (6.5%), filariasis (Brugia malayi (3%) and Wuchereria bancrofti (1%)) and trypanosomiasis (1%).
MeSH terms: Humans; Infection; Malaysia; Transients and Migrants
The majority of migrant workers studied in this survey were males Muslims from Bangladesh. The mean age was 30 and the majority were aged between 21-30 years. Although almost all of them had 7-13 years of schooling, the majority were working in the service industry. More than two thrids of the migrant workers were provided with various forms of housing by their employers. Majority of them stated that they had better amenities, such as piped drinking water and sanitary toilets, in Malaysia compared to those in their home countries. From their reports, it appears that the majority did not engage in risk behaviours such as, smoking, alcohol and drug abuse.
Comparison and evaluation of physicochemical properties of the six betamethasone·17-valerate creams available locally were studied. Tests that were conducted include stiffness/hardness, grittiness. colour, odour, homogeneity (phase separation), pH, weight of loss, tackiness (stickiness) and microscopic examination. A point grading system was used 10 assess and compare the products. Results revealed that BetnovateT and CamnovaleT to be the most superior followed by BeavateT, SetrosoneT, BetasoneT and UniflexT
This study is aimed at determining whether there exists a correlation between the relative dimensions of the nose and the face. Through this study, we hoped to give a normal range for the different races in Malaysia. We randomly chose 100 Malay, 50 Chinese and 50 Indian subjects. We chose equal numbers of male and female subjects, mainly in their 20's and 30's. There is a correlation between the length of the nose and the face among Malays, with 78% of the subjects measured having a nose:face ratio of less than 0.27. There is also a correlation between the breadth of the nose and the face among Malays, with 670/0 of the subjects having a ratio of less than 0.28. Similar correlations were found with Chinese and Indian subjects. The length and breadth of the nose in relation to the face is greater in males than in females. Further research is required before conclusive evidence is found for the existence or non existence of a correlation between the length and breadth of the nose and face in the different races in Malaysia. KEYWORDS: Correlation, length, breadth, nose, nace, different races.
Reproductive health is "a state of complete, mental and social well-being in all matters relating to the reproductive system and to its functions and processes. Implicit in this is the right of men and women to be informed and to have access to safe, effective and affordable and acceptable methods of family planning of their choice, as well as other methods of their choice for regulation of fertility, which are not against the law, and the right of access to health-care services that enable women to go safely through pregnancy and childbirth." The survey on Health Problems of Migrant Workers included a section on Women's Health covering aspects of reproductive health. This was based on concerns over reproductive health needs of migrant women workers, particularly since the large majority are in the reproductive age-group, and the utilisation of government healthcare facilities. The latter has implications for the potential burden on public healthcare services in terms of resources and costs. Specifically, the Women's Health section included questions on pregnancy, place of delivery of last baby (born in Malaysia), postnatal care related to this delivery, and mode of payment. For those currently pregnant, questions were asked of sources of antenatal care, postnatal care and respective modes of payment for thsoe services. This section also included questions on current contraceptive practices, source of supplies, and mode of payment for contraceptive methods.
MeSH terms: Contraception; Fertility; Health Status; Malaysia; Men; Postnatal Care; Pregnancy; Prenatal Care; Women; Women's Health; Reproductive Health
Sexual health is defined as part of reproductive health and includes healthy sexual development; equitable and responsible relationships and sexual fulfillment; and freedom from illness, disease, disability, violence and other harmful practices related to sexuality. For this project on Health Problems of Migrant Workers, a section on sexual health was incorporated based on a special concern over sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), and high-risk behaviours. Access to healthcare is recognised to be a problem with minority or marginalised groups, including adolescents and migrant populations, especially undocumented migrants. This exacerbates the issue of control and management of STDs. The Sexual Health section covered experience with sexual interourse, and a limited number of questions related to sex partners and condom use among those who are sexually experienced.
MeSH terms: Coitus; Humans; Malaysia; Male; Transients and Migrants; Reproductive Health
Increased consumerism ilfid diversity of economic activities have led to an increase in pressure from the increase and diversification in waste. Environmental stewardship has become essential to reduce the toxicological risk by an active involvement in waste disposal like planning of landfills for ensuring impedance at source. The risks from waste disposal practices in Malaysia are examined along with the essential considerations (or secure sites to prevent environmental hazards 10 health. KEYWORDS: Waste disposal, environmental stewardship, adequacy of disposal sites, collective analysis of considerations.
During the period from January 1992 up to the end of July 2001, the Burns Unit in King Khalid C Hospital treated 1735 cases of burns. The burns cases were of varying causes, age groups, degree, depth and extent. The formula used in lTeating these burns patients was a modification of Parkland fonnula. The fluid used was Ringer lactate solution. This fluid was administered for the first 3 days post burn until the general condilion of the palient was sfabilized. Early oral intake was encouraged in aU patients and was started as early as the second or the third day. Colloids were given by the end of the third or even the fourth day and according to the individual patients' needs. The results of this treatment regime significantly avoided renal complications and ensured patient rehydration. KEYWORDS; Major burns, fluids resuscitation
MeSH terms: Burns; Colloids; Malaysia; Resuscitation; Saudi Arabia
Cleft palate has been recorded for many cenhuies. Until the 16th century attempts at closure were by covering or filling the clefts using artificial materials. By the 18th century sutures were used to close the palate after cauterization. By the 19th century lateral relaxing incisions were used to close the cleft at mid line. In 1861 Von Langenbeck (9,22) introduced his technique for dosing the palate. Veau(9) recommended his technique to elongate the palate and to narrow the velopharyngeal space. Many specialties are involved in rectifying this problem. They comprise maxillofacial, orthodontic. ENT surgeons, as well as speech therapists.(9) However, none of these methods succeeded to provide a satisfactory solution for the problem of complete deft palate. In this study, 618 cases of cleft palate of varying degrees were operated during the period from January 1992 to July 2001. From these 618 cases, 48 cases (7.07%) had complete cleft lip and palate. Only 18 cases (37.5%) had bilateral complete cleft lip and palate, and 30 cases (62.5%), had unilateral complete deft lip and palate. The results of the corrective surgical procedures were very promising. In this series of 618 cases only six cases developed residual fistula. The used technique was simple and similar to the Von Langenbeck technique but differs in some steps. The timing of the surgical intervention was a very important factor which influenced the outcome of the closure. KEYWORDS; New technique and tinling for treating complete cleft palate.
MeSH terms: Cleft Palate; Hospitals; Humans; Malaysia