Browse publications by year: 2009

  1. Ko Y, Liu CW, Chen CY, Maruthasalam S, Lin CH
    Plant Dis., 2009 Jul;93(7):764.
    PMID: 30764368 DOI: 10.1094/PDIS-93-7-0764A
    Mango (Mangifera indica L.) is grown on approximately 20,000 ha in Taiwan. It is an economically important crop and the income of many fruit farmers comes primarily from mango production. During 2006 and 2007, a stem-end rot disease was observed 1 week after harvest on 28 to 36% of stored mangoes picked from six orchards in the Pingtung, Tainan, and Kaoshiung regions. Two popular mango cultivars, Keitt and Irwin, showed greater susceptibility to this disease, while 'Haden' was found to be moderately susceptible. In storage, symptoms initially appeared as light-to-dark brown lesions surrounding peduncles. Rot symptoms advanced slowly but eventually penetrated the mesocarp, which consequently reduced the commercial value of fruits. The fungus formed abundant pycnidia (0.1 to 0.6 mm in diameter) on infected fruits in advanced stages of symptom development. Pieces of symptomatic fruits plated on acidified potato dextrose agar (PDA) and incubated at 25 ± 1°C consistently yielded the same fungus. A single conidial isolate was cultured. Pycnidia developed on PDA after continuous exposure to light for 9 to 14 days. On the basis of morphological characteristics, the fungus was identified as Phomopsis mangiferae L. (2,3). Pycnidia released two types of conidia: α-conidia (5 to 10 × 2.3 to 4.0 μm) were hyaline and oval to fusoid; and β-conidia (15.0 to 37.5 × 1.3 to 2.5 μm) were hyaline and filiform with characteristic curves. Conidiophores were hyaline, filiform, simple or branched, septate, and 15 to 75 μm long. Cultures incubated under continuous fluorescent light (185 ± 35 μE·m-2·s-1) at 25°C for 3 days were used as inoculum for pathogenicity tests. Five fruits from 'Keitt' were wounded with a sterilized scalpel and each wound (2 × 2 × 2 mm) was inoculated with either a 5-mm mycelium agar plug or a 0.5-ml spore suspension (105 conidia per ml) of the fungus. Five wounded fruits inoculated with 5-mm PDA plugs or sterile water alone served as controls. Inoculated areas were covered with moist, sterile cotton. Fruits were enclosed in plastic bags and incubated at 24°C for 3 days. The test was performed three times. The same symptoms were observed on all inoculated fruits, whereas no decay was observed on control fruits. Reisolations from the inoculated fruits consistently yielded P. mangiferae, thus fulfilling Koch's postulates. This disease has previously been reported in Australia, Brazil, China, Cuba, India, Malaysia, and the United States (1). To our knowledge, this is the first report of P. mangiferae causing stem-end rot disease on mangoes in Taiwan. Our report necessitates taking preventive strategies in the field, prior to or after harvest, to contain postharvest losses in mangoes. References: (1) G. I. Johnson. Page 39 in: Compendium of Tropical Fruit Diseases. R. C. Ploetz et al., eds. The American Phytopathological Society. St. Paul, MN, 1994. (2) R. C. Ploetz, ed. Page 354 in: Diseases of Tropical Fruit Crops. CABI Publishing. Wallingford, UK, 2003. (3) E. Punithalingam. No. 1168 in: Descriptions of Pathogenic Fungi and Bacteria. CMI, Kew, Surrey, UK, 1993.
  2. Hawa MM, Salleh B, Latiffah Z
    Plant Dis., 2009 Sep;93(9):971.
    PMID: 30754569 DOI: 10.1094/PDIS-93-9-0971C
    Red-fleshed dragon fruit (Hylocereus polyrhizus [Weber] Britton & Rose) is a newly introduced and potential crop in the Malaysian fruit industry. Besides its nutritious value, the fruit is being promoted as a health crop throughout Southeast Asia. In April of 2007, a new disease was observed in major plantations of H. polyrhizus throughout five states (Kelantan, Melaka, Negeri Sembilan, Penang, and Perak) in Malaysia with 41 and 25% disease incidence and severity, respectively. Stems of H. polyrhizus showed spots or small, circular, faint pink-to-beige necrotic lesions that generally coalesced as symptoms progressed. Symptom margins of diseased stem samples were surface sterilized with a 70% alcohol swab, cut into small blocks (1.5 × 1.5 × 1.5 cm), soaked in 1% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCI) for 3 min, and rinsed in several changes of sterile distilled water (each 1 min). The surface-sterilized tissues were placed onto potato dextrose agar (PDA) and incubated under alternating 12-h daylight and black light for 7 days. A fungus was consistently isolated from the stems of symptomatic H. polyrhizus and identified as Curvularia lunata (Wakker) Beodijn (1-3) that showed pale brown multicelled conidia (phragmoconidia; three to five celled) that formed apically through a pore (poroconidia) in sympodially, elongating, geniculated conidiophores. Conidia are relatively fusiform, cylindrical, or slightly curved, with one of the central cells being larger and darker (26.15 ± 0.05 μm). All 25 isolates of C. lunata obtained from diseased H. polyrhizus are deposited at the Culture Collection Unit, Universiti Sains Malaysia and available on request. Isolates were tested for pathogenicity by injecting conidial suspensions (1 × 106 conidia/ml) and pricking colonized toothpicks on 25 healthy H. polyrhizus stems. Controls were treated with sterile distilled water and noncolonized toothpicks. All inoculated plants and controls were placed in a greenhouse with day and night temperatures of 30 to 35°C and 23 to 30°C, respectively. Development of external symptoms on inoculated plants was observed continuously every 2 days for 2 weeks. Two weeks after inoculation, all plants inoculated with all isolates of C. lunata developed stem lesions similar to those observed in the field. No symptoms were observed on the control plants and all remained healthy. C. lunata was reisolated from 88% of the inoculated stems, completing Koch's postulates. The pathogenicity test was repeated with the same results. To our knowledge, this is the first report of C. lunata causing a disease on H. polyrhizus. References: (1) M. B. Ellis. Dematiaceous Hyphomycetes. Commonwealth Mycological Institute, Kew, Surrey, England, 1971. (2) R. R. Nelson and F. A. Hassis. Mycologia 56:316, 1964. (3) C. V. Subramanian. Fungi Imperfecti from Madras V. Curvularia. Proc. Indian Acad. Sci. 38:27, 1955.
  3. Pangsuban S, Bamroongrugsa N, Kanchanapoom K, Nualsri C
    Trop Life Sci Res, 2009 Dec;20(2):89-108.
    PMID: 24575182
    Various aspects of the reproductive success of Garcinia atroviridis Griff. were studied. Controlled pollination experiments were carried out in an orchard located in Songkhla province, southern Thailand, from February to July 2003. Floral longevity, stigma receptivity, and pollen viability were examined before carrying out the experiments. Three pollination treatments were compared: open pollination, manual pollination with bags, and bags without pollination (apogamy). Although there was no significant difference in the initial fruit set, bagged and manual pollination produced a significantly greater fruit drop rate than apogamy or natural pollination at one week after the flowers had been pollinated. On the other hand, the apogamy treatment had a greater fruit drop rate than natural and manual pollination treatments before fruit maturation. In addition, unpollinated bagged flowers bore fewer and smaller fruit than naturally and manually cross-pollinated flowers. Although the fruits from unpollinated flowers were capable of asexual seed formation, they produced fewer seeds and had poorer seed quality (defined as average fresh weight and germination rate) than those from the other treatments. The occurrence of asexual and sexual reproduction was also studied using Random Amplification of Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis and by comparing the patterns of bands produced from DNA extracted from the offspring of the naturally cross-pollinated fruits. On average, 58% of the offspring had a genetic constitution identical to that of the maternal parent (ranging from 36% to 87%), indicating that some offspring were produced without prior fertilisation. However, the remainder showed polymorphism, demonstrating the occurrence of sexual reproduction. These findings indicate that facultative apomixis occurred in the study population. However, a residual sexuality was important for fruit production, fruit size, normal seed set and seed quality.
    MeSH terms: DNA; Fruit; Pollen; Reproduction; Seeds; Thailand; Germination; Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Technique; Sexuality; Garcinia; Flowers; Pollination; Apomixis
  4. Veiga MI, Asimus S, Ferreira PE, Martins JP, Cavaco I, Ribeiro V, et al.
    Eur. J. Clin. Pharmacol., 2009 Apr;65(4):355-63.
    PMID: 18979093 DOI: 10.1007/s00228-008-0573-8
    AIM: The aim of this study was to obtain pharmacogenetic data in a Vietnamese population on genes coding for proteins involved in the elimination of drugs currently used for the treatment of malaria and human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    METHOD: The main polymorphisms on the cytochrome P450 (CYP) genes, CYP2A6, CYP2B6, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, CYP3A4 and CYP3A5, and the multi-drug resistance 1 gene (MDR1) were genotyped in 78 healthy Vietnamese subjects. Pharmacokinetic metrics were available for CYP2A6 (coumarin), CYP2C19 (mephenytoin), CYP2D6 (metoprolol) and CYP3As (midazolam), allowing correlations with the determined genotype.

    RESULTS: In the CYP2 family, we detected alleles CYP2A6*4 (12%) and *5 (15%); CYP2B6*4 (8%), *6 (27%); CYP2C19*2 (31%) and *3 (6%); CYP2D6*4, *5, *10 (1, 8 and 44%, respectively). In the CYP3A family, CYP3A4*1B was detected at a low frequency (2%), whereas CYP3A5 *3 was detected at a frequency of 67%. The MDR1 3435T allele was present with a prevalence of 40%. Allele proportions in our cohort were compared with those reported for other Asian populations. CYP2C19 genotypes were associated to the S-4'-OH-mephenytoin/S-mephenytoin ratio quantified in plasma 4 h after intake of 100 mg mephenytoin. While CYP2D6 genotypes were partially reflected by the alpha-OH-metroprolol/metoprolol ratio in plasma 4 h after dosing, no correlation existed between midazolam plasma concentrations 4 h post-dose and CYP3A genotypes.

    CONCLUSIONS: The Vietnamese subjects of our study cohort presented allele prevalences in drug-metabolising enzymes that were generally comparable with those reported in other Asian populations. Deviations were found for CYP2A6*4 compared to a Chinese population (12 vs. 5%, respectively; P = 0.023), CYP2A6*5 compared with a Korean population (15 vs. <1%, respectively; P < 0.0001), a Malaysian population (1%; P < 0.0001) and a Chinese population (1%; P < 0.0001); CYP2B6*6 compared with a Korean population (27 vs. 12%; P = 0.002) and a Japanese population (16%; P = 0.021). Pharmacokinetic metrics versus genotype analysis reinforces the view that the predictive value of certain globally common variants (e.g. CYP2D6 single nucleotide polymorphisms) should be evaluated in a population-specific manner.

    MeSH terms: Aryl Hydrocarbon Hydroxylases/genetics*; Gene Frequency; Genotype; Humans; Oxidoreductases, N-Demethylating/genetics*; Pharmacogenetics; Polymorphism, Genetic*; Vietnam; P-Glycoproteins; Cytochrome P-450 CYP2D6/genetics*; P-Glycoprotein/genetics*; Asian Continental Ancestry Group/genetics*; Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A/genetics*; Cytochrome P-450 CYP2A6; Cytochrome P-450 CYP2B6; Cytochrome P-450 CYP2C19
  5. Harris N P
    Malays Fam Physician, 2009;4(1):6-7.
    Note by TCL: The Rajakumar Movement is the Wonca Asia Pacific Region Working Party for Young and Future Family Doctors. It was named in honour of Dr M K Rajakumar.
    MeSH terms: Asia; Movement; Names; Physicians, Family
  6. Lim V, Stubbs JW, Nahar N, Amarasena N, Chaudry ZU, Weng SCK, et al.
    Lancet, 2009 Sep 19;374(9694):973.
    PMID: 19762076 DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(09)61641-X
    MeSH terms: Forecasting; Humans; Leadership; Physician's Role*; Politics*; Global Health*; Greenhouse Effect*
  7. Rosli Y, Maddess T, Dawel A, James AC
    Clin Neurophysiol, 2009 Dec;120(12):2100-2108.
    PMID: 19846337 DOI: 10.1016/j.clinph.2009.09.006
    OBJECTIVE: To examine the feasibility of a multifocal visual evoked potential (mfVEP) binocularly, using a variant of the multifocal frequency-doubling (FD) pattern-electroretinogram (MFP).

    METHODS: Stimuli were presented in both monocular and dichoptic conditions at eight visual field locations/eye. The incommensurate stimulus frequencies ranged from 15.45 to 21.51 Hz. Five stimulus conditions differing in spatial frequency and orientation were examined for three viewing conditions. The resulting 15 stimulus conditions were examined in 16 normal subjects who repeated all conditions twice.

    RESULTS: Several significant independent effects were identified. Response amplitudes were reduced for dichoptic viewing (by 0.85 times, p<4 x 10(-11)); offset by increases in responses for between eye differences of one octave of spatial frequency: lower (1.15 times, 0.1 cpd); higher (1.29 times, 0.4 cpd), both p<1.8 x 10(-7). Crossed orientations produced significant effects upon response phase (p=0.023) but not amplitude (p=0.062).

    CONCLUSIONS: The results indicated that dichoptic evoked potentials using multifocal frequency-doubling illusion stimuli are practical. The use of crossed orientation, or differing spatial frequencies, in the two eyes reduced binocular interactions.

    SIGNIFICANCE: The results indicate a method wherein several spatial or temporal and frequencies per visual field region can be tested in reasonable time using a multifocal VEP using spatial frequency-doubling stimuli.

    MeSH terms: Adult; Evoked Potentials, Visual/physiology*; Female; Humans; Male; Middle Aged; Pattern Recognition, Visual/physiology*; Photic Stimulation/methods*; Vision, Binocular/physiology; Young Adult
  8. Chew FLM, Subrayan V, Chong PP, Goh MC, Ng KP
    Jpn. J. Ophthalmol., 2009 Nov;53(6):657-659.
    PMID: 20020251 DOI: 10.1007/s10384-009-0722-3
    MeSH terms: Accidents, Traffic; Adult; Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use; Base Sequence; Cladosporium/classification; Cladosporium/genetics; Cladosporium/isolation & purification*; Corneal Diseases/diagnosis; Corneal Diseases/drug therapy; Corneal Diseases/microbiology*; DNA, Fungal/analysis; Eye Injuries/diagnosis; Eye Injuries/drug therapy; Eye Injuries/microbiology*; Humans; Male; Molecular Sequence Data; Mycoses/diagnosis; Mycoses/drug therapy; Mycoses/microbiology*; Natamycin/therapeutic use; Wound Infection/diagnosis; Wound Infection/drug therapy; Wound Infection/microbiology*; Eye Infections, Fungal/diagnosis; Eye Infections, Fungal/drug therapy; Eye Infections, Fungal/microbiology*; Polymerase Chain Reaction; Mycological Typing Techniques; Lacerations/diagnosis; Lacerations/drug therapy; Lacerations/microbiology; Corneal Injuries*
  9. Viprakasit V, Lee-Lee C, Chong QT, Lin KH, Khuhapinant A
    Int. J. Hematol., 2009 Nov;90(4):435-445.
    PMID: 19862602 DOI: 10.1007/s12185-009-0432-0
    Worldwide, thalassemia is the most commonly inherited hemolytic anemia, and it is most prevalent in Asia and the Middle East. Iron overload represents a significant problem in patients with transfusion-dependent beta-thalassemia. Chelation therapy with deferoxamine has traditionally been the standard therapeutic option but its usage is tempered by suboptimal patient compliance due to the discomfort and demands associated with the administration regimen. Therefore, a great deal of attention has been focused on the development of oral chelating agents. Deferiprone, even though available for nearly two decades in Asia with recent encouraging data on cardiac iron removal and long-term efficacy, has serious adverse effects including agranulocytosis and neutropenia which has impeded it from routine clinical practice. A novel oral chelator; deferasirox is effective throughout a 24 h dosing period and both preclinical and clinical data indicate that it successfully removes both hepatic and cardiac iron. In Asia, optimal management of severe thalassemia patients and the availability and access to oral iron chelators still presents a major challenge in many countries. In this regard, the development and implementation of consensus guidelines for management of Asian patients with transfusion-dependent thalassemia will be a major step towards improving and maintaining the continuity of patient care.
    MeSH terms: Asia/epidemiology; Cross-Cultural Comparison; Drug Administration Routes; Humans; Iron Chelating Agents/administration & dosage; Iron Chelating Agents/pharmacology; Iron Chelating Agents/therapeutic use*; Thalassemia/economics; Thalassemia/epidemiology; Thalassemia/therapy*; Chelation Therapy*; Prevalence; Health Care Costs; beta-Thalassemia/economics; beta-Thalassemia/epidemiology; beta-Thalassemia/therapy; Practice Guidelines as Topic; Iron Overload/drug therapy*; Transfusion Reaction
  10. Krishnan S, Rohen JW, Lütjen-Drecoll E, Carmichael SW, Nicholson HD, Trotman P, et al.
    Surg Radiol Anat, 2009 Sep;31 Suppl 1:43-8.
    PMID: 27392490 DOI: 10.1007/BF03371484
  11. Pereda J, Niimi G, Kaul JM, Mishra S, Pangtey B, Peri D, et al.
    Surg Radiol Anat, 2009 Sep;31 Suppl 1:49-93.
    PMID: 27392491 DOI: 10.1007/BF03371485
  12. Aksu F, Topacoglu H, Arman C, Atac A, Tetik S, Hasanovic A, et al.
    Surg Radiol Anat, 2009 Sep;31 Suppl 1:95-229.
    PMID: 27392492 DOI: 10.1007/BF03371486
    Conference abstracts: Malaysia in affiliation
    IN THE GROWING BODY. Marina Yurievna Kapitonova, Syed Baharom Syed Ahmad Fuad, Flossie Jayakaran; Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Shah Alam, Malaysia
    MASTOID NOTCH OF THE SKULL. ISrijit Das, 2Normadiah Kassim, lAzian Latiff, IFarihah Suhaimi, INorzana Ghafar, lKhin Pa Pa Hlaing, lIsraa Maatoq, IFaizah Othman; I Department of Anatomy, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; 2 Department of Anatomy, Universiti Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. das_sri
    CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS. Srijit Das, Azian Latiff, Parihah Suhaimi, Norzana Ghafar, Khin Pa Pa Hlaing, Israa Maatoq, Paizah Othman; Department of Anatomy, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
    MESENCHYMAL CELLS. lSeyed Noureddin Nematollahi-Mahani, lMastafa Latifpour, 2Masood Deilami, 3Behzad Soroure-Azimzadeh, lSeyed
    Hasan Eftekharvaghefi, 4Fatemeh Nabipour, 5Hamid
    Najafipour, 6Nouzar Nakhaee, 7Mohammad Yaghoobi, 8Rana Eftekharvaghefi, 9Parvin Salehinejad, IOHasan Azizi; 1 Department of Anatomy, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran; 2 Department of Cardiosurgery, Hazrat-e Zahra Hospital, Kerman, Iran; 3 Department of Cardiology, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran; 4 Department of Pathology, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran; 5 Department of Physiology, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran; 6 Department of Neuroscience Research Center, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran; 7 Department
    of Biotechnology, Research Institute of Environmental Science, International Center for Science, High Technology & Environmental Science, Kerman, Iran; 8 Students Research Center, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran; 9 Institute of Bioscience, University Putra Malaysia,
    Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; 10 Department of Stem Cell, Cell Science Research Center, Royan Institute, ACECR, Tehran, Iran.
    MeSH terms: Academies and Institutes; Biotechnology; Faculty; Humans; Iran; Malaysia; Mastoid; Research; Stem Cells; Students; Umbilical Cord; Universities; Osteology
  13. Chai, L.C., Fatimah, C.A., Norhisyam, M.S., Rozila, A., Nadzirah, A.S., Natasha, L.H.Y.
    The objective of the present study was to develop a rapid, reliable and yet inexpensive protocol for genomic DNA extraction from frozen and ethanol-preserved Asian green-lipped mussels for random amplified microsatelite (RAM) analysis. The procedure comprised of three major steps: (1) Tissue degradation by boiling in 6% Chelex 100 resin in TE buffer; (2) Protein digestion by Proteinase K; and (3) DNA precipitation by adding 2 volumes of cold absolute ethanol. The entire procedure can be completed within two hours. The resulting RAM profiles were clear and reproducible. Our results demonstrate that the combined protocol of Chelex 100-Proteinase K-ethanol precipitation is a powerful yet economical DNA isolation method for population genetic studies involving a large sample size.
    MeSH terms: Ethanol; DNA; Genetics, Population; Resins, Plant; Resins, Synthetic; Sample Size; Endopeptidase K; Genomics; Bivalvia; Proteolysis
  14. Irwandi, J., Farida, O.
    A study was conducted to quantitate the concentrations of heavy metals, such as Hg, Pb and Cd in eight species of marine fin fish caught off the coast of Langkawi Island in Malaysia, as well as in its waters. The same fish were also used to determine the content of nutritional minerals, such as copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), calcium (Ca), and manganese (Mn).Fish and water samples were collected from four different areas, namely (1) Main Jetty Pulau Tuba (MJPT), (2) Teluk Cempedak Jetty (TCJ), (3) Simpang Tiga Chian Lian (STCL) and (4) Main Jetty Kuah (MJK) around Langkawi Island. Results showed that for the vital elements, all species had higher concentration of Zn compared to other elements. For the toxic elements, lead (Pb) and mercury (Hg) were found to have lower concentration of the mean values than the permissible limits set by FAO/WHO (1984). However, cadmium (Cd) level was slightly higher than the permissible limit but was still acceptable according to the Malaysian Food Regulation (1985). It can be concluded that all fish species studied are safe to be consumed.
    MeSH terms: Animals; Cadmium; Calcium, Dietary; Copper; Fishes; Malaysia; Manganese; Mercury; Minerals; Water; Zinc; Metals, Heavy; Islands
  15. Sujeewa, A.K.W., Norrakiah, A.S., Laina, M.
    Vibrio parahaemolyticus is prevalent in tropical marine environment in all seasons and can cause seafood-borne gastroenteritis. A total of 251 suspected isolates were tested including 60 from frozen shrimp, 50 from cultured live shrimp, 67 from sediments of culture ponds and 74 from water were subjected to polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting the toxR gene for confirmation as V. parahaemolyticus. Of the 128 toxR positive isolates, 15% of the isolates from culture environment (from live shrimp, sediments and water) and 7% of frozen shrimp samples were positive for the tdh and trh genes. Since urease production could be a marker of trh but not tdh in V. parahaemolyticus, a total of 189 of the 251 suspected V. parahaemolyticus isolates were tested for urease production and 41% of the isolates were found to be positive for urease production. However not all urease positive strains of V. parahaemolyticus were positive for either tdh or trh genes. Detection of virulent strains in shrimp culture environment in Malaysia suggests a probable risk for health of people consuming raw shrimp.
    MeSH terms: Gastroenteritis; Malaysia; Seasons; Shellfish; Urease; Vibrio parahaemolyticus; Water; Prevalence; Polymerase Chain Reaction; Seafood; Ponds
  16. Abbas F.M.A., Saifullah, R., Azhar, M.E.
    Cavendish (Musa paradisiaca L, cv cavendshii) and Dream (Musa acuminata colla. AAA, cv ‘Berangan’) banana flours were prepared from ripe fruits collected from eleven markets located in Penang, Malaysia. The mineral composition (Na, K, Ca, Mg, Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn) of the flour were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrophotometer and the data obtained were analyzed using logistic regression model. Ripe banana flours were rich source of K and a fair source of other minerals, however logistic regression model identified Mg as an indicator to discriminate between the two types of banana flour affording 100 % correct assignation. Based on this result, mineral analysis may be suggested as a method to authenticate ripe banana flour. This study also presents the usefulness of logistic regression technique for analysis and interpretation of complex data.
    MeSH terms: Flour; Fruit; Malaysia; Minerals; Regression Analysis; Sodium, Dietary; Spectrophotometry, Atomic; Zinc; Logistic Models; Musa
  17. Ting, A.S.Y, DeCosta, J.L.
    Different probiotic strains are incorporated into cultured-milk drinks by respective manufacturers with the common aim of providing health benefits to the consumers. Four common cultured-milk products (brands N, S, V and Y) were evaluated for their quality of probiotic strains used, based on the susceptibility of the probiotics to various pH levels simulated to mimic the gastrointestinal system. Results showed that brands Y and V have higher initial probiotic inoculum compared to brands N and S although probiotics from brands N and S were more tolerant to pH 3. Generally, all probiotic strains preferred higher pH with highest viability of Lactobacillus spp., Bifidobacterium spp., and Streptococcus thermophilus observed at pH 8.1. Our study also discovered that among the four brands tested, brand V contained probiotic strains which are most likely to remain viable after passage through the gastrointestinal system.
    MeSH terms: Animals; Bifidobacterium; Disease Susceptibility; Lactobacillus; Probiotics; Gastrointestinal Tract; Cultured Milk Products; Streptococcus thermophilus
  18. Zulkifli, Y., Alitheen, N.B., Raha, A.R., Yeap, S.K., Marlina, Son, R., et al.
    Vibrio parahaemolyticus is one of the most widely recognized pathogenic Vibrio species due to numerous outbreaks and its’ wide occurrence in marine environment. In this study, 32 isolates of V. parahaemolyticus isolated from cockles were tested for sensitivity to 16 antibiotics and the presence of plasmids. All the isolates were multi-resistance, defined as resistant to atleast three different antibiotics with multiple antibiotic resistance indexes ranging from 0.31 to 0.69, indicating the isolates originate from high risk sources of contamination where antibiotics are often used. In the plasmid profiling test, only 15 isolates (47%) harbored plasmid DNA, which ranged in size from 2.7 to 56.2 kb, separating the isolates into 14 plasmid profiles. Hence, food contaminated with antibiotic resistant V. parahaemolyticus could be a major threat to public health due to the distinct possibility that they can be a significant reservoir of genes encoding antibiotic resistance determinants that can be transferred intra or interspecies. As in many developing countries, raw food hygiene and antimicrobial resistance epidemiology is still in the infancy stage in the locality of the study and thus our data provide a current baseline profile of antimicrobial resistance and plasmid of V. parahaemolyticusfrom cockles in Padang, Indonesia.
    MeSH terms: Animals; Anti-Infective Agents; Anti-Bacterial Agents; Developing Countries; Disease Outbreaks; DNA; Drug Resistance, Microbial; Hygiene; Indonesia; Plasmids; Public Health; Shellfish; Vibrio parahaemolyticus; Cardiidae; Raw Foods
  19. Azizah, A.H., Wee, K.C., Azizah, O., Azizah, M.
    Effect of various cooking methods on antioxidant content and radical scavenging activity of pumpkin was evaluated. Pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata) was boiled and stir-fried for 2, 4 and 6 minutes respectively. Beta-carotene and lycopene were determined using HPLC and total phenolics measured using Folin-Ciocalteu method. The free radical scavenging activity of the samples was determined using 1, 1-diphenyl-2 picrylhydrazyl assay. Interestingly, result of the study showed an increase in both beta-carotene (2 to 4 times) and lycopene (17 to 40 times) content of pumpkin after cooking for 2, 4 and 6 minutes. However, the treatment resulted in 18 to 54% losses of total phenolics content of the pumpkin. Nevertheless, the free radical scavenging activity exhibited by cooked pumpkins was found to be high, in the range of 81.1% to 94.6% with IC50 of 1.41 to 1.62 mg ml-1
    MeSH terms: Antioxidants; Biphenyl Compounds; Carotenoids; Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid; Cooking; Free Radicals; Plant Extracts; beta Carotene; Inhibitory Concentration 50; Cucurbita
  20. Tan, Y.F., Haresh, K.K., Chai, L.C., Son R.
    A study to determine the antibiotic sensitivity pattern and genotyping using RAPD-PCR was performed on 50 C. jejuni isolated from sushi retailed in different supermarkets. With less than half of the isolates susceptible to the antibiotics tested, resistant to two or more antibiotics were observed in most of the isolates. The banding patterns obtained from RAPD-PCR revealed that no predominant clone exists and the bacterial population is rather diverse. Hence, the resistance of the C. jejuni to different classes of antibiotic as well as their diverse genotypes suggests that these C. jejuni isolates were generated from different sources in the contaminated supermarkets where sushi were retailed. Our data showed that C. jejuni can be an important reservoir for resistance genes and that study with comprehensive collections of samples are urgently required to establish better measures to reduce or eliminate the risk from antibiotic resistant and pathogenic bacteria originating from minimally processed ready-to-eat food.
    MeSH terms: Anti-Bacterial Agents; Bacteria; Genotype; Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Technique; Drug Resistance, Bacterial
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