• 1 Department of Chemical Engineering, College of Engineering, Jazan University, P.O. Box. 706, Jazan, Saudi Arabia
  • 2 Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Jodhpur, Jodhpur, Rajasthan, India
  • 3 School of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Engineering Campus, Nibong Tebal, Penang, Malaysia
  • 4 Department of Physics, College of Science, Jazan University, P.O. Box. 114, Jazan, Saudi Arabia
  • 5 Department of Biology, College of Science, Imam Mohammad Ibn Saud Islamic University (IMSIU), Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
  • 6 Department of Biochemistry, College of Medicine, Imam Mohammad Ibn Saud Islamic University (IMSIU), Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
  • 7 State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China
Luminescence, 2023 Jul;38(7):1064-1086.
PMID: 36378274 DOI: 10.1002/bio.4408


The penicillin derivative amoxicillin (AMX) plays an important role in treating various types of infections caused by bacteria. However, excessive use of AMX may have negative health effects. Therefore, it is of utmost importance to detect and quantify the AMX in pharmaceutical drugs, biological fluids, and environmental samples with high sensitivity. Therefore, this review article provides valuable and up-to-date information on nanostructured material-based optical and electrochemical sensors to detect AMX in various biological and chemical samples. The role of using different nanostructured materials on the performance of important optical sensors such as colorimetric sensors, fluorescence sensors, surface-enhanced Raman scattering sensors, chemiluminescence/electroluminescence sensors, optical immunosensors, optical fibre-based sensors, and several important electrochemical sensors based on different electrode types have been discussed. Moreover, nanocomposites, polymer, and MXenes-based electrochemical sensors have also been discussed, in which such materials are being used to further enhance the sensitivity of these sensors. Furthermore, nanocomposite-based photo-electrochemical sensors and the market availability of biosensors including AMX have also been discussed briefly. Finally, the conclusion, challenges, and future perspectives of the above-mentioned sensing techniques for AMX detection are presented.

* Title and MeSH Headings from MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.