Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 53 in total

  1. Menon RK, Gopinath D, Li KY, Leung YY, Botelho MG
    Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg, 2019 Feb;48(2):263-273.
    PMID: 30145064 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijom.2018.08.002
    The objectives of this systematic review were to investigate the efficacy of amoxicillin/amoxicillin-clavulanic acid for reducing the risk of postoperative infection after third molar surgery and to evaluate the adverse outcomes in these patients, as well as in healthy volunteers. A systematic search of four databases was performed on May 26, 2017. Eleven studies qualified for the qualitative analysis and eight were found suitable for meta-analysis. The results suggest that both amoxicillin-clavulanic acid and amoxicillin significantly reduce the risk of infection after third molar extraction (overall relative risk (RR) 0.25, P<0.001). However, with the exclusion of randomized controlled trials with a split-mouth design (due to an inadequate crossover period after antibiotic treatment), only amoxicillin-clavulanic acid was found to be effective (RR 0.21, P<0.001). The risk of adverse effects was significantly higher in the amoxicillin-clavulanic acid group (RR=4.12, P=0.023) than in the amoxicillin group (RR 1.57, P=0.405). In conclusion, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid and amoxicillin may significantly reduce the risk of infection after third molar extraction. However, their use in third molar surgery should be viewed with caution, as recent clinical trials on healthy volunteers have shown evidence of the negative impact of amoxicillin use on bacterial diversity and antibiotic resistance.
    Matched MeSH terms: Amoxicillin/therapeutic use*; Amoxicillin-Potassium Clavulanate Combination/therapeutic use*
  2. Liew KB, Loh GO, Tan YT, Peh KK
    Biomed. Chromatogr., 2014 Sep;28(9):1246-53.
    PMID: 24585432 DOI: 10.1002/bmc.3153
    The objectives of this study were to develop a new deproteinization method to extract amoxicillin from human plasma and evaluate the inter-ethnic variation of amoxicillin pharmacokinetics in healthy Malay volunteers. A single-dose, randomized, fasting, two-period, two-treatment, two-sequence crossover, open-label bioequivalence study was conducted in 18 healthy Malay adult male volunteers, with one week washout period. The drug concentration in the sample was analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography (UV-vis HPLC). The mean (standard deviation) pharmacokinetic parameter results of Moxilen® were: peak concentration (Cmax ), 6.72 (1.56) µg/mL; area under the concentration-time graph (AUC0-8 ), 17.79 (4.29) µg/mL h; AUC0-∞ , 18.84 (4.62) µg/mL h. Those of YSP Amoxicillin® capsule were: Cmax , 6.69 (1.44) µg/mL; AUC0-8 , 18.69 (3.78) µg/mL h; AUC00-∞ , 19.95 (3.81) µg/mL h. The 90% confidence intervals for the logarithmic transformed Cmax , AUC0-8 and AUC0-∞ of Moxilen® vs YSP Amoxicillin® capsule was between 0.80 and 1.25. Both Cmax and AUC met the predetermined criteria for assuming bioequivalence. Both formulations were well tolerated. The results showed significant inter-ethnicity variation in pharmacokinetics of amoxicillin. The Cmax and AUC of amoxicillin in Malay population were slightly lower compared with other populations.
    Matched MeSH terms: Amoxicillin/adverse effects*; Amoxicillin/blood; Amoxicillin/pharmacokinetics*; Amoxicillin/chemistry
  3. Raja NS
    J Pak Med Assoc, 2003 Aug;53(8):373-4.
    PMID: 14558747
    Matched MeSH terms: Amoxicillin-Potassium Clavulanate Combination/pharmacology; Amoxicillin-Potassium Clavulanate Combination/therapeutic use
  4. Chuo SC, Abd-Talib N, Mohd-Setapar SH, Hassan H, Nasir HM, Ahmad A, et al.
    Sci Rep, 2018 01 11;8(1):477.
    PMID: 29323139 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-017-18279-w
    Reverse micelles extraction of erythromycin and amoxicillin were carried out using the novel Sophorolipids biosurfactant. By replacing commonly used chemical surfactants with biosurfactant, reverse micelle extraction can be further improved in terms of environmental friendliness and sustainability. A central composite experimental design was used to investigate the effects of solution pH, KCl concentration, and sophorolipids concentration on the reverse micelle extraction of antibiotics. The most significant factor identified during the reverse micelle extraction of both antibiotics is the pH of aqueous solutions. Best forward extraction performance for erythromycin was found at feed phase pH of approximately 8.0 with low KCl and sophorolipids concentrations. Optimum recovery of erythromycin was obtained at stripping phase pH around 10.0 and with low KCl concentration. On the other hand, best forward extraction performance for amoxicillin was found at feed phase pH around 3.5 with low KCl concentration and high sophorolipids concentration. Optimum recovery of erythromycin was obtained at stripping phase pH around 6.0 with low KCl concentration. Both erythromycin and amoxicillin were found to be very sensitive toaqueous phase pH and can be easily degraded outside of their stable pH ranges.
    Matched MeSH terms: Amoxicillin/isolation & purification; Amoxicillin/chemistry
  5. Augustine Chioma Affam, Malay Chaudhuri, Shamsul Rahman Mohammed Kutty
    The study examined modified Fenton (FeGAC/H2O2) pretreatment of the antibiotics amoxicillin and cloxacillin in aqueous solution for biological treatment. The treatment was optimized by the response surface methodology (RSM). The optimum operating conditions at pH3 were H2O2/COD molar ratio 2.0, FeGAC dose 3.5 g/L and reaction time 90 min for 87.53% removal of COD, 78.01% removal of TOC, and 98.24% removal of NH3-N. Biodegradability (BOD5/COD ratio) improved from zero to 0.36, indicating the effluent was amenable to biological treatment. Meanwhile, FTIR spectra indicated degradation of the antibiotics. Compared with Fenton or photo-Fenton, modified Fenton (FeGAC/H2O2) was more effective in the pre-treatment of the antibiotics amoxicillin and cloxacillin in aqueous solution for biological treatment.
    Matched MeSH terms: Amoxicillin
  6. Puspanadan, S., Afsah-Hejri, L., Rukayadi, Y., Loo, Y.Y., Nillian, E., Kuan, C.H., et al.
    This study aims to determine the presence of extended-spectrum (ESBL) in Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated from raw vegetables by genotypic and phenotypic method. Fifty-three K. pneumoniae isolates that were obtained by plating method were confirmed by PCR. Isolates obtained were screened for their resistance to selected antibiotics. Phenotypic tests for ESBL detection is basically to confirm production of ESBL, in this study two types of antibiotics used which were amoxycillin/clavulanic Acid (AMC, 30 µg) and ceftazidime (CAZ, 30 µg), The resistance were 5/53 (9.4%) and 1/53 (1.9%), respectively. However, it was interesting to observe that none of the K. pneumoniae isolates demonstrated the presence of any of the bla genes by using genotypic method except blaTEM gene has been detected in two isolates out of 53 isolates of K. pneumoniae in this research.
    Matched MeSH terms: Amoxicillin-Potassium Clavulanate Combination
  7. Jahanfar S, Ng CJ, Teng CL
    PMID: 19160255 DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD005458.pub2
    BACKGROUND: Mastitis can be caused by ineffective positioning of the baby at the breast or restricted feeding. Infective mastitis is commonly caused by Staphylococcus Aureus. Incidence of mastitis in breastfeeding women may reach 33%. Effective milk removal, pain medication and antibiotic therapy have been the mainstays of treatment.

    OBJECTIVES: This review aims to examine the effectiveness of antibiotic therapies in relieving symptoms for breastfeeding women with mastitis with or without laboratory investigation.

    SEARCH STRATEGY: We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (December 2007), the Cochrane Central Register of Clinical Trials (The Cochrane Library 2007, Issue 4), MEDLINE (1996 to 2007) and EMBASE (January 1985 to 2007). We contacted investigators and other content experts known to us for unpublished trials and scanned the reference lists of retrieved articles

    SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomized and quasi-randomized clinical trials comparing the effectiveness of various types of antibiotic therapies or antibiotic therapy versus alternative therapies for the treatment of mastitis were selected.

    DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. When in dispute, we consulted a third author.

    MAIN RESULTS: Two trials met the inclusion criteria. One small trial (n = 25) compared amoxicillin with cephradine and found no significant difference between the two antibiotics in terms of symptom relief and abscess formation. Another, older study compared breast emptying alone as "supportive therapy" versus antibiotic therapy plus supportive therapy, and no therapy. The findings of the latter study suggested faster clearance of symptoms for women using antibiotics, although the study design was problematic.

    AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: There is insufficient evidence to confirm or refute the effectiveness of antibiotic therapy for the treatment of lactational mastitis. There is an urgent need to conduct high-quality, double-blinded randomized clinical trials to determine whether antibiotics should be used in this common postpartum condition.
    Matched MeSH terms: Amoxicillin/therapeutic use
  8. Rohela M, Jamaiah I, Amir L, Nissapatorn V
    PMID: 17547059
    Many cases of myiasis have been reported in Malaysia. This is the second reported case of auricular myiasis caused by Chrysomya bezziana. The patient was a 41-year-old, mentally retarded, Orang Asli man. He was brought to the clinic by his mother with a complaint of pain and bleeding in his right ear for 3 days. On examination, blood and multiple maggots were seen packed in the external auditory canal of the right ear. A total of 39 live maggots were removed and maintained until they developed into 3rd instar larvae, which were later processed and identified as Chrysomya bezziana. The patient was discharged with amoxicillin 500 mg three times a day for 1 week.
    Matched MeSH terms: Amoxicillin/therapeutic use
  9. Lim VKE, Bakar R, Hussin Z
    Med. J. Malaysia, 1982 Sep;37(3):235-8.
    PMID: 6757686
    Forty-two previously untreated male patients with uncomplicated gonococcal urethritis were treated with a single dose oral regimen comprising 3 gm ofamoxycillin and 125 mg of clavulanic acid. Thirty-five patients returned for follow-up and the cure rate among them was 89 percent. The cure rate for patients infected with penicillinase producing Neisseria gonorrhoeae (PPNG) was 73 percent. Further work is required to establish the optimum dosage for this particular regimen.

    Study site: Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD) clinic at the Faculty of Medicine,
    Pusat Perubatan Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (PPUKM)
    Matched MeSH terms: Amoxicillin/administration & dosage*
  10. Bojanić L, Marković-Peković V, Škrbić R, Stojaković N, Ðermanović M, Bojanić J, et al.
    Front Pharmacol, 2018;9:442.
    PMID: 29896100 DOI: 10.3389/fphar.2018.00442
    Introduction: There are increasing concerns world-wide with growing rates of antibiotic resistance necessitating urgent action. There have been a number of initiatives in the Republic of Srpska in recent years to address this and improve rational antibiotic prescribing and dispensing despite limited resources to fund multiple initiatives. Objective: Analyse antibiotic utilization patterns in the Republic of Srpska following these multiple initiatives as a basis for developing future programmes in the Republic if needed. Methods: Observational retrospective study of total outpatient antibiotic utilization from 2010 to 2015, based on data obtained from the Public Health Institute, alongside documentation of ongoing initiatives to influence utilization. The quality of antibiotic utilization principally assessed according to ESAC, ECDC, and WHO quality indicators and DU 90% (the drug utilization 90%) profile as well as vs. neighboring countries. Results: Following multiple initiatives, antibiotic utilization remained relatively stable in the Republic at 15.6 to 18.4 DIDs, with a decreasing trend in recent years, with rates comparable or lower than neighboring countries. Amoxicillin and the penicillins accounted for 29-40 and 50% of total utilization, respectively. Overall, limited utilization of co-amoxiclav (7-11%), cephalosporins, macrolides, and quinolones, as well as low use of third and fourth generation cephalosporins vs. first and second cephalosporins. However, increasing utilization of co-amoxiclav and azithromycin, as well as higher rates of quinolone utilization compared to some countries, was seen. Conclusions: Multiple interventions in the Republic of Srpska in recent years have resulted in one of the lowest utilization of antibiotics when compared with similar countries, acting as an exemplar to others. However, there are some concerns with current utilization of co-amoxiclav and azithromycin which are being addressed. This will be the subject of future research activities.
    Matched MeSH terms: Amoxicillin; Amoxicillin-Potassium Clavulanate Combination
  11. Chang AB, Fong SM, Yeo TW, Ware RS, McCallum GB, Nathan AM, et al.
    BMJ Open, 2019 04 24;9(4):e026411.
    PMID: 31023759 DOI: 10.1136/bmjopen-2018-026411
    INTRODUCTION: Early childhood pneumonia is a common problem globally with long-term complications that include bronchiectasis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. It is biologically plausible that these long-term effects may be minimised in young children at increased risk of such sequelae if any residual lower airway infection and inflammation in their developing lungs can be treated successfully by longer antibiotic courses. In contrast, shortened antibiotic treatments are being promoted because of concerns over inducing antimicrobial resistance. Nevertheless, the optimal treatment duration remains unknown. Outcomes from randomised controlled trials (RCTs) on paediatric pneumonia have focused on short-term (usually <2 weeks) results. Indeed, no long-term RCT-generated outcome data are available currently. We hypothesise that a longer antibiotic course, compared with the standard treatment course, reduces the risk of chronic respiratory symptoms/signs or bronchiectasis 24 months after the original pneumonia episode.

    METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This multicentre, parallel, double-blind, placebo-controlled randomised trial involving seven hospitals in six cities from three different countries commenced in May 2016. Three-hundred-and-fourteen eligible Australian Indigenous, New Zealand Māori/Pacific and Malaysian children (aged 0.25 to 5 years) hospitalised for community-acquired, chest X-ray (CXR)-proven pneumonia are being recruited. Following intravenous antibiotics and 3 days of amoxicillin-clavulanate, they are randomised (stratified by site and age group, allocation-concealed) to receive either: (i) amoxicillin-clavulanate (80 mg/kg/day (maximum 980 mg of amoxicillin) in two-divided doses or (ii) placebo (equal volume and dosing frequency) for 8 days. Clinical data, nasopharyngeal swab, bloods and CXR are collected. The primary outcome is the proportion of children without chronic respiratory symptom/signs of bronchiectasis at 24 months. The main secondary outcomes are 'clinical cure' at 4 weeks, time-to-next respiratory-related hospitalisation and antibiotic resistance of nasopharyngeal respiratory bacteria.

    ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The Human Research Ethics Committees of all the recruiting institutions (Darwin: Northern Territory Department of Health and Menzies School of Health Research; Auckland: Starship Children's and KidsFirst Hospitals; East Malaysia: Likas Hospital and Sarawak General Hospital; Kuala Lumpur: University of Malaya Research Ethics Committee; and Klang: Malaysian Department of Health) have approved the research protocol version 7 (13 August 2018). The RCT and other results will be submitted for publication.

    TRIAL REGISTRATION: ACTRN12616000046404.

    Matched MeSH terms: Amoxicillin; Amoxicillin-Potassium Clavulanate Combination
  12. Goh KL, Parasakthi N, Chuah SY, Toetsch M
    Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol, 1997 Nov;9(11):1091-5.
    PMID: 9431900
    OBJECTIVES: To determine the efficacy of a three times daily (t.i.d.) versus a twice daily (b.i.d.) regimen of combination amoxycillin and metronidazole and famotidine in the eradication of Helicobacter pylori and the influence of metronidazole resistance on the outcome of treatment.

    PATIENTS: Patients selected had unequivocal evidence of H. pylori infection based on the urease test, culture and histology and had either peptic ulcer disease or non-ulcer dyspepsia.

    DESIGN: The study was a comparative and double-blind study and patients were randomized to receive either amoxycillin 750 mg t.i.d. and metronidazole 500 mg t.i.d. for 12 days or amoxycillin 1000 mg b.i.d. and metronidazole 500 mg b.i.d. for 12 days. Both groups also received famotidine 40 mg for 6 weeks.

    MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Patients were assessed for successful eradication, defined as absence of bacteria in all tests, at least 4 weeks after completion of antibiotic therapy by repeat gastroscopy.

    RESULTS: One hundred and twenty-nine patients were recruited for the study. Two patients defaulted follow-up, two patients were withdrawn from the study and six patients were found to be non-compliant with medications. The eradication rates of the t.i.d. regimen was higher than the b.i.d. regimen (per protocol (PP) analysis: 83.3% (50/60) vs. 76.3% (45/59), P=0.337; intention-to-treat (ITT) analysis: 78.5% (51/65) vs. 75.0% (48/64), P=0.642). Seventy-five patients had pre-treatment cultures checked for metronidazole resistance, 33 (44.0%) were found to be resistant. Acquired resistance occurred in 3/40 (7.5%) patients. Eradication rates of metronidazole-sensitive and metronidazole-resistant patients: t.i.d. regimen - 100% (17/17) and 88.2% (15/17), b.i.d. regimen - 19/21 (90.5%) and 11/15 (73.3%). Side effects were reported in up to 70% of patients but were mild and tolerable in the majority. Two patients were withdrawn from the study because of a fixed drug eruption in one and generalized macular rash in the other.

    CONCLUSION: Combination amoxycillin and metronidazole is effective in eradicating H. pylori. There was a tendency for the t.i.d. regimen to be better than the b.i.d. regimen and for metronidazole-resistant infections to be associated with a lower eradication rate but these differences did not reach statistical significance.

    Matched MeSH terms: Amoxicillin/administration & dosage*; Amoxicillin/adverse effects
  13. Goh KL, Peh SC, Parasakthi N, Wong NW, Tan KK, Lo YL
    Am. J. Gastroenterol., 1994 Oct;89(10):1789-92.
    PMID: 7942668
    OBJECTIVES: Our objectives were to determine the effect of dual therapy with omeprazole and amoxicillin and of triple therapy with omeprazole, amoxicillin, and metronidazole in the eradication of Helicobacter pylori (HP) and to study the long-term results of eradication in these patients.
    METHODS: A prospective, randomized, controlled trial was performed. Patients who were recruited had unequivocal evidence of HP infection based on culture, histology, rapid urease test, and Gram's stain of a tissue smear. Eradication was defined as the absence of bacteria in all tests performed on both corpus and antral biopsies.
    RESULTS: The infection was eradicated in 15 of 19 (78.9%) patients randomized to receive dual therapy and in 19 of 22 (86.4%) patients who received triple therapy. We followed the course of 30 patients in whom HP had been eradicated for a prolonged term (up to 12 months). All remained clear of HP. Twenty-five of 28 patients (89.3%) with duodenal ulcers in whom HP was successfully eradicated remained healed at 12 months. Fewer side effects were reported among patients who received the dual therapy.
    CONCLUSIONS: Combination therapy with omeprazole and amoxicillin with or without metronidazole is effective in the eradication of HP. In particular, the dual therapy regimen with amoxicillin is not only effective but is also well tolerated by patients.
    Matched MeSH terms: Amoxicillin/administration & dosage*; Amoxicillin/adverse effects
  14. Perveen S, Safdar N, Chaudhry GE, Yasmin A
    World J. Microbiol. Biotechnol., 2018 Jul 14;34(8):118.
    PMID: 30008019 DOI: 10.1007/s11274-018-2500-1
    This paper describes the extracellular synthesis of silver nanoparticles from waste part of lychee fruit (peel) and their conjugation with selected antibiotics (amoxicillin, cefixim, and streptomycin). FTIR studies revealed the reduction of metallic silver and stabilization of silver nanoparticles and their conjugates due to the presence of CO (carboxyl), OH (hydroxyl) and CH (alkanes) groups. The size of conjugated nanoparticles varied ranging from 3 to 10 nm as shown by XRD. TEM image revealed the spherical shape of biosynthesized silver nanoparticles. Conjugates of amoxicillin and cefixim showed highest antibacterial activity (147.43 and 107.95%, respectively) against Gram-negative bacteria i.e. Alcaligenes faecalis in comparison with their control counterparts. The highest reduction in MIC was noted against Gram-positive strains i.e. Enterococcus faecium (75%) and Microbacterium oxydans (75%) for amoxicillin conjugates. Anova two factor followed by two-tailed t test showed non-significant results both in case of cell leakage and protein estimation between nanoparticles and conjugates of amoxicillin, cefixime and streptomycin. In case of MDA release, non-significant difference among the test samples against the selected strains. Our study found green-synthesized silver nanoparticles as effective antibacterial bullet against both Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria, but they showed a more promising effect on conjugation with selected antibiotics against Gram negative type.
    Matched MeSH terms: Amoxicillin/metabolism; Amoxicillin/pharmacology
  15. Choudhary S, Jain A, Amin MCIM, Mishra V, Agrawal GP, Kesharwani P
    Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces, 2016 May 01;141:268-277.
    PMID: 26859118 DOI: 10.1016/j.colsurfb.2016.01.048
    The study was intended to develop a new intra-gastric floating in situ microballoons system for controlled delivery of rabeprazole sodium and amoxicillin trihydrate for the treatment of peptic ulcer disease. Eudragit S-100 and hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose based low density microballoons systems were fabricated by employing varying concentrations of Eudragit S-100 and hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose, to which varying concentrations of drug was added, and formulated by stirring at various speed and time to optimize the process and formulation variable. The formulation variables like concentration and ratio of polymers significantly affected the in vitro drug release from the prepared floating device. The validation of the gastro-retentive potential of the prepared microballoons was carried out in rabbits by orally administration of microballoons formulation containing radio opaque material. The developed formulations showed improved buoyancy and lower ulcer index as compared to that seen with plain drugs. Ulcer protective efficacies were confirmed in ulcer-bearing mouse model. In conclusion, greater compatibility, higher gastro-retention and higher anti-ulcer activity of the presently fabricated formulations to improve potential of formulation for redefining ulcer treatment are presented here. These learning exposed a targeted and sustained drug delivery potential of prepared microballoons in gastric region for ulcer therapeutic intervention as corroborated by in vitro and in vivo findings and, thus, deserves further attention for improved ulcer treatment.
    Matched MeSH terms: Amoxicillin/administration & dosage; Amoxicillin/pharmacokinetics*; Amoxicillin/chemistry
  16. Sharouny H, Omar RB
    Iran Red Crescent Med J, 2014 Sep;16(9):e7882.
    PMID: 25593739 DOI: 10.5812/ircmj.7882
    INTRODUCTION: Sialolithiasis is the most common disease of salivary glands. Sialography is particularly important for the assessment of the outflow tract and in diagnosing obstructive salivary gland lesions including calculi.

    CASE PRESENTATION: We report on a 38-year-old female with sialolithiasis whom had Wharton's duct perforation, complicating the sialography. She was treated conservatively with a course of co-amoxiclav, oral prednisolone for three days and pain-killers. The patient was clinically well on follow-up reassessments at the end of the first week and three weeks post procedure.

    CONCLUSIONS: Perforation of salivary duct complicating the sialography is rare. Awareness of this potential complication and utilizing a good sialography technique need to be advocated amongst radiologists. Response to treatment by conservative management is preferred as illustrated in this case.

    Matched MeSH terms: Amoxicillin-Potassium Clavulanate Combination
  17. Khairul, A.J., Anwar, A., Ramelah, M.
    Background: (13) C – urea breath test (UBT) is sensitive and specific for detection of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection. Gastric biopsy culture for H. pylori confirms the diagnosis. Here, we analyzed data of all patients who were investigated for H. pylori infection using both tests throughout the year 2005. Materials and Methods : Retrospective data of 377 patients between the ages of 17 – 88 were identified through endoscopy records from January to December 2005. Upper endoscopy, UBT and gastric biopsy culture were performed on all patients simultaneously during each endoscopy session. Patients who had positive UBT and biopsy culture for H. pylori were treated with triple therapy of PPI, amoxicillin and clarithromycin for one week. A repeat of UBT was done at one-month post therapy. Results and Analysis: Twenty-eight patients on the list had no available data on UBT and were omitted from the analysis. Ethnic group Chinese comprised of 45.4% (n=163), followed by Malay, 37.3% (n=134), Indian, 10.6% (n=38) and others, 3.9% (n=14). UBT was positive in 23.7% (n=85)(figure1). H. pylori culture was positive in 19.2% (n=69)(figure1). Sixteen patients with UBT positive had H. pylori culture negative, 18.8% (n=16/85)(figure2). Five patients with H. pylori culture positive had UBT negative, 7.2% (n=5/69)(figure3). Ethnic group Indian had the highest incidence of UBT positive, 47.4% (n=18/38), followed by Others (Sikhs and foreigners) 42.8% (n=6/14), the Chinese 27.6% (n=45/163) and the Malays 11.6% (n= 16/138). UBT positive was the highest in the age group of 50 and above, 64.7% (n=55/85), followed by the age group between 30 to 49, 21.2% (n=18/85) and the age group of 29 and below, 14.5% (n=12/85). Out of the 85 UBT positive patients 91.8% (n=78/85)(figure4) of them responded to the conventional one week of triple therapy (PPI, amoxicillin, clarithromycin) with negative UBT at one-month post therapy compared to only 8.2% (n=7/85)(figure4) who failed with positive UBT at one-month post therapy.
    Matched MeSH terms: Amoxicillin
  18. Najwa, M.S., Rukayadi, Y., Ubong, A., Loo, Y.Y., Chang, W.S., Lye, Y.L., et al.
    Salmonella has been reported to be presence both in raw and processed foods worldwide. In this study, the prevalence, quantification and antibiotic susceptibility of Salmonella isolated from raw vegetables or locally known as ulam such as asiatic pennywort (Centella asiatica (L) Urb), water dropwort (Oenanthe javanica (Blume) DC), long bean (Vigna sinensis EndL), and winged bean (Psophocarpus tetragonolobus (L) DC) obtained from retail markets in Selangor, Malaysia were carried out. From 96 samples tested, the overall prevalence of Salmonella spp. was 97.9%, Salmonella Enteritidis was 54.2% and Salmonella Typhimurium was 82.3% respectively. Samples were contaminated with Salmonella ranging from < 3 to 2400 MPN/g. Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Typhimurium isolates obtained from the raw vegetables (ulam) were found to exhibit high resistance against ampicillin (100%), erythromycin (100%), amoxicillin/clavunic acid (81.3%), cephalothin (75%), streptomycin (50%) and ciprofloxacin (50%). All Salmonella isolates showed multi drug resistant (MDR) profile with each isolate being resistant to 3 or more antibiotics. The multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR) index of Salmonella isolates ranged from 0.27 to 0.55 for Salmonella Enteritidis and 0.27 to 0.82 for Salmonella Typhimurium. The presence of Salmonella on raw vegetables (ulam) and high antibiotic resistance isolates indicated that raw vegetables could be contaminated and thus imposes possible health risk to local consumers.
    Matched MeSH terms: Amoxicillin
  19. Appannan VR, Mohamad I, Ramli RR, Johan KB
    Malays Fam Physician, 2018;13(1):55-56.
    PMID: 29796214 MyJurnal
    A 5-year-old girl presented with a history of
    fever for four days associated with odynophagia.
    She was treated with amoxycillin prescribed
    by a general practitioner for 3 days prior to
    presentation. However, the symptoms were
    worsening and associated with drooling of
    saliva and poor oral intake. There was history
    of recurrent acute tonsillitis in the past two
    years, with 5 to 6 episodes per year. The child
    had completed regular immunizations up to her
    current age. There was no similar presentation
    amongst family members and friends. (Copied from article).
    Matched MeSH terms: Amoxicillin
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