METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This multicentre, parallel, double-blind, placebo-controlled randomised trial involving seven hospitals in six cities from three different countries commenced in May 2016. Three-hundred-and-fourteen eligible Australian Indigenous, New Zealand Māori/Pacific and Malaysian children (aged 0.25 to 5 years) hospitalised for community-acquired, chest X-ray (CXR)-proven pneumonia are being recruited. Following intravenous antibiotics and 3 days of amoxicillin-clavulanate, they are randomised (stratified by site and age group, allocation-concealed) to receive either: (i) amoxicillin-clavulanate (80 mg/kg/day (maximum 980 mg of amoxicillin) in two-divided doses or (ii) placebo (equal volume and dosing frequency) for 8 days. Clinical data, nasopharyngeal swab, bloods and CXR are collected. The primary outcome is the proportion of children without chronic respiratory symptom/signs of bronchiectasis at 24 months. The main secondary outcomes are 'clinical cure' at 4 weeks, time-to-next respiratory-related hospitalisation and antibiotic resistance of nasopharyngeal respiratory bacteria.
ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The Human Research Ethics Committees of all the recruiting institutions (Darwin: Northern Territory Department of Health and Menzies School of Health Research; Auckland: Starship Children's and KidsFirst Hospitals; East Malaysia: Likas Hospital and Sarawak General Hospital; Kuala Lumpur: University of Malaya Research Ethics Committee; and Klang: Malaysian Department of Health) have approved the research protocol version 7 (13 August 2018). The RCT and other results will be submitted for publication.
TRIAL REGISTRATION: ACTRN12616000046404.
PATIENTS: Patients selected had unequivocal evidence of H. pylori infection based on the urease test, culture and histology and had either peptic ulcer disease or non-ulcer dyspepsia.
DESIGN: The study was a comparative and double-blind study and patients were randomized to receive either amoxycillin 750 mg t.i.d. and metronidazole 500 mg t.i.d. for 12 days or amoxycillin 1000 mg b.i.d. and metronidazole 500 mg b.i.d. for 12 days. Both groups also received famotidine 40 mg for 6 weeks.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Patients were assessed for successful eradication, defined as absence of bacteria in all tests, at least 4 weeks after completion of antibiotic therapy by repeat gastroscopy.
RESULTS: One hundred and twenty-nine patients were recruited for the study. Two patients defaulted follow-up, two patients were withdrawn from the study and six patients were found to be non-compliant with medications. The eradication rates of the t.i.d. regimen was higher than the b.i.d. regimen (per protocol (PP) analysis: 83.3% (50/60) vs. 76.3% (45/59), P=0.337; intention-to-treat (ITT) analysis: 78.5% (51/65) vs. 75.0% (48/64), P=0.642). Seventy-five patients had pre-treatment cultures checked for metronidazole resistance, 33 (44.0%) were found to be resistant. Acquired resistance occurred in 3/40 (7.5%) patients. Eradication rates of metronidazole-sensitive and metronidazole-resistant patients: t.i.d. regimen - 100% (17/17) and 88.2% (15/17), b.i.d. regimen - 19/21 (90.5%) and 11/15 (73.3%). Side effects were reported in up to 70% of patients but were mild and tolerable in the majority. Two patients were withdrawn from the study because of a fixed drug eruption in one and generalized macular rash in the other.
CONCLUSION: Combination amoxycillin and metronidazole is effective in eradicating H. pylori. There was a tendency for the t.i.d. regimen to be better than the b.i.d. regimen and for metronidazole-resistant infections to be associated with a lower eradication rate but these differences did not reach statistical significance.
CASE PRESENTATION: We report on a 38-year-old female with sialolithiasis whom had Wharton's duct perforation, complicating the sialography. She was treated conservatively with a course of co-amoxiclav, oral prednisolone for three days and pain-killers. The patient was clinically well on follow-up reassessments at the end of the first week and three weeks post procedure.
CONCLUSIONS: Perforation of salivary duct complicating the sialography is rare. Awareness of this potential complication and utilizing a good sialography technique need to be advocated amongst radiologists. Response to treatment by conservative management is preferred as illustrated in this case.