• 1 Department of Pharmacology, College of Pharmacy, Jouf University, Sakaka, Al-Jouf, Saudi Arabia
  • 2 Department of Pharmacology, Maharishi Arvind College of Pharmacy, Ambabari Circle, Ambabari, Jaipur, 302023, India
  • 3 Department of Pharmacology, College of Pharmacy, Umm Al-Qura University, Makkah, Saudi Arabia
  • 4 School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Jaipur National University, Jagatpura, Jaipur, India; Institute of Pharmacy, Nirma University, S.G.Highway, Ahmedabad, 382481, Gujarat,India
  • 5 Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, College of Pharmacy, Prince Sattam Bin Abdulaziz University, Al Kharj, 11942, Saudi Arabia
  • 6 Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
  • 7 School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Lovely Professional University, Phagwara, Punjab, 144411, India; Faculty of Health, Australian Research Centre in Complementary and Integrative Medicine, University of Technology Sydney, Ultimo, NSW 2007, Australia
  • 8 Amity Institute of Pharmacy, Amity University Madhya Pradesh (AUMP), Gwalior, India
  • 9 Department of Life Sciences, School of Pharmacy, International Medical University, Kuala Lumpur, 57000, Malaysia
  • 10 Discipline of Pharmacy, Graduate School of Health, University of Technology Sydney, Ultimo, NSW 2007, Australia; Faculty of Health, Australian Research Centre in Complementary and Integrative Medicine, University of Technology Sydney, Ultimo, NSW 2007, Australia. Electronic address:
  • 11 Department of Pharmacology, School of Pharmacy, Suresh Gyan Vihar University, Mahal Road, Jagatpura, Jaipur, India; Department of Pharmacology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, India. Electronic address:
Chem Biol Interact, 2022 May 01;358:109898.
PMID: 35331679 DOI: 10.1016/j.cbi.2022.109898


Coronavirus disease (COVID-19), a coronavirus-induced illness attributed to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) transmission, is thought to have first emerged on November 17, 2019. According to World Health Organization (WHO). COVID-19 has been linked to 379,223,560 documented occurrences and 5,693,245 fatalities globally as of 1st Feb 2022. Influenza A virus that has also been discovered diarrhea and gastrointestinal discomfort was found in the infected person, highlighting the need of monitoring them for gastro intestinal tract (GIT) symptoms regardless of whether the sickness is respiration related. The majority of the microbiome in the intestines is Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes, while Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, and Firmicutes are found in the lungs. Although most people overcome SARS-CoV-2 infections, many people continue to have symptoms months after the original sickness, called Long-COVID or Post COVID. The term "post-COVID-19 symptoms" refers to those that occur with or after COVID-19 and last for more than 12 weeks (long-COVID-19). The possible understanding of biological components such as inflammatory, immunological, metabolic activity biomarkers in peripheral blood is needed to evaluate the study. Therefore, this article aims to review the informative data that supports the idea underlying the disruption mechanisms of the microbiome of the gastrointestinal tract in the acute COVID-19 or post-COVID-mediated elevation of severity biomarkers.

* Title and MeSH Headings from MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.