Potentially toxic elements (PTEs) pose a great threat to ecosystems and long-term exposure causes adverse effects to wildlife and humans. Cadmium induces a variety of diseases including cancer, kidney dysfunction, bone lesions, anemia and hypertension. Here we review the ability of plants to accumulate cadmium from soil, air and water under different environmental conditions, focusing on absorption mechanisms and factors affecting these. Cadmium possess various transport mechanisms and pathways roughly divided into symplast and apoplast pathway. Excessive cadmium concentrations in the environment affects soil properties, pH and microorganism composition and function and thereby plant uptake. At the same time, plants resist cadmium toxicity by antioxidant reaction. The differences in cadmium absorption capacity of plants need more exploration to determine whether it is beneficial for crop breeding or genetic modification. Identify whether plants have the potential to become hyperaccumulator and avoid excessive cadmium uptake by edible plants. The use of activators such as wood vinegar, GLDA (Glutamic acid diacetic acid), or the placement of earthworms and fungi can speed up phytoremediation of plants, thereby reducing uptake of crop varieties and reducing human exposure, thus accelerating food safety and the health of the planet.
* Title and MeSH Headings from MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.