PMID: 22571534 DOI: 10.1080/10934529.2012.673305


Multivariate statistical techniques such as hierarchical Agglomerated cluster analysis (HACA), discriminant analysis (DA), principal component analysis (PCA), and factor analysis (FA) were applied to identify the spatial variation and pollution sources of Jakara River, Kano, Nigeria. Thirty surface water samples were collected: 23 along Getsi River and 7 along the main channel of River Jakara. Twenty-three water quality parameters, namely pH, temperature, turbidity, electrical conductivity (EC), dissolved oxygen (DO), 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD(5)), Faecal coliform, total solids (TS), nitrates (NO(3)(-)), phosphates (PO(4)(3-)), cobalt (Co), iron (Fe), nickel (Ni), manganese (Mn), copper (Cu), sodium (Na), potassium (K), mercury (Hg), chromium (Cr), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), magnesium (Mg), and calcium(Ca) were analysed. HACA grouped the sampling points into three clusters based on the similarities of river water quality characteristics: industrial, domestic, and agricultural water pollution sources. Forward and backward DA effectively discriminated 5 and 15 water quality variables, respectively, each assigned with 100% correctness from the original 23 variables. PCA and FA were used to investigate the origin of each water quality parameter due to various land use activities, 7 principal components were obtained with 77.5% total variance, and in addition PCA identified 3 latent pollution sources to support HACA. From this study, one can conclude that the application of multivariate techniques derives meaningful information from water quality data.

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