Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 168 in total

  1. Vjayan T, Vadivelu VM
    Bioresour Technol, 2017 Dec;245(Pt A):970-976.
    PMID: 28946198 DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2017.09.038
    The effects of variable aeration in the famine period on polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) accumulation in aerobic granules were investigated. Results showed that regardless of the aeration rates used during famine period, all aerobic granules achieved a similar chemical oxygen demand removal and PHA content. The decrease in famine-period aeration rates accelerated the maximum PHA accumulation together with increase in granular size and settling ability. The PHA-accumulating microorganisms were found to have shifted closer to the surface of the granules when the aeration rate was reduced. Moreover, PHA compositional changes occurred, where the hydroxyvalerate content had increased with the reduction in aeration rate. Ultimately, the results indicate that the requirement of aeration for PHA accumulation in aerobic granules is highly insignificant in the famine phase. PHA production in aerobic granules under zero aeration in the famine period may result in an energy input reduction of up to 74%.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biological Oxygen Demand Analysis
  2. Chai A, Wong YS, Ong SA, Aminah Lutpi N, Sam ST, Kee WC, et al.
    Bioresour Technol, 2021 Sep;336:125319.
    PMID: 34049168 DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2021.125319
    A pilot scale anaerobic degradation of sugarcane vinasse was carried out at various hydraulic retention time (HRT) in the Anaerobic Suspended Growth Closed Bioreactor (ASGCB) under thermophilic temperature. The performance and kinetics were evaluated through the Haldane-Andrews model to investigate the substrate inhibition potential of sugarcane vinasse. All parameters show great performance between HRT 35 and 25 days: chemical oxygen demand (COD) reduction efficiency (81.6 to 86.8%), volatile fatty acids (VFA) reduction efficiency (92.4 to 98.5%), maximum methane yield (70%) and maximum biogas production (19.35 L/day). Furthermore, steady state values from various HRT were obtained in the kinetic evaluation for: rXmax (1.20 /day), Ks (19.95 gCOD/L), Ki (7.00 gCOD/L) and [Formula: see text] (0.33 LCH4/gCOD reduction). This study shows that anaerobic degradation of sugarcane vinasse through ASGCB could perform well at high HRT and provides a low degree of substrate inhibition as compared to existing studies from literature.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biological Oxygen Demand Analysis
  3. Singh J, Kumar V, Kumar P, Kumar P, Yadav KK, Cabral-Pinto MMS, et al.
    Water Environ Res, 2021 Sep;93(9):1543-1553.
    PMID: 33565675 DOI: 10.1002/wer.1536
    The present study describes the phytoremediation performance of water lettuce (Pistia stratiotes L.) for physicochemical pollutants elimination from paper mill effluent (PME). For this, pot (glass aquarium) experiments were conducted using 0% (BWW: borewell water), 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% treatments of PME under natural day/light regime. Results of the experiments showed that the highest removal of pH (10.75%), electrical conductivity (EC: 63.82%), total dissolved solids (TDS: 71.20%) biological oxygen demand (BOD: 85.03%), chemical oxygen demand (COD: 80.46%), total Kjeldahl's nitrogen (TKN: 93.03%), phosphorus (P: 85.56%), sodium (Na: 91.89%), potassium (K: 84.04%), calcium (Ca: 84.75%), and magnesium (Mg: 83.62%), most probable number (MPN: 77.63%), and standard plate count (SPC: 74.43%) was noted in 75% treatment of PME after treatment by P. stratiotes. PCA showed the best vector length for TKN, Na, and Ca. The maximum plant growth parameters including, total fresh biomass (81.30 ± 0.28 g), chlorophyll content (3.67 ± 0.05 mg g-1  f.wt), and relative growth rate (0.0051 gg-1  d-1 ) was also measured in 75% PME treatment after phytoremediation experiments. The findings of this study make useful insight into the biological management of PME through plant-based pollutant eradication while leftover biomass may be used as a feedstock for low-cost bioenergy production. PRACTITIONER POINTS: Biological treatment of paper mill effluent using water lettuce is presented. Best reduction of physicochemical and microbiological pollutants was attained in 75% treatment. Maximum production of chlorophyll, plant biomass, and highest growth rate was also observed in 75% treatment.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biological Oxygen Demand Analysis
  4. Ahmed Z, Yusoff MS, Kamal NHM, Aziz HA
    Waste Manag Res, 2021 Nov;39(11):1396-1405.
    PMID: 33928820 DOI: 10.1177/0734242X211012775
    The removal of concentrated colour (around 5039 Pt-Co) and chemical oxygen demand (COD; around 4142 mg L-1) from matured landfill leachate through a novel combination of humic acid extraction and coagulation with natural oil palm trunk starch (OPTS) was investigated in this study. Central composite design from response surface methodology of Design Expert-10 software executed the experimental design to correlate experimental factors with desired responses. Analysis of variance developed the quadratic model for four factors (e.g. coagulant dosage, slow mixing speed and time and centrifugation duration) and two responses (% removal of colour, COD). The model confirmed the highest colour (84.96%) and COD (48.84%) removal with a desirability function of 0.836 at the optimum condition of 1.68 g L-1 coagulant dose, 19.11 rpm slow mixing speed, 16.43 minutes for mixing time and 35.75 minutes for centrifugation duration. Better results of correlation coefficient (R2 = 0.98 and 0.96) and predicted R2 (0.94 and 0.84) indicates the model significance. Electron microscopic images display the amalgamation of flocs through bridging. Fourier transforms infrared spectra confirmed the existence of selected organic groups in OPTS, which eventually signifies the applied method.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biological Oxygen Demand Analysis
  5. Daud Z, Detho A, Rosli MA, Awang H, Ridzuan MBB, Tajarudin HA
    J Air Waste Manag Assoc, 2022 01;72(1):24-33.
    PMID: 33320054 DOI: 10.1080/10962247.2020.1862362
    When the inevitable generation of waste is considered as hazardous to health, damaging ecosystem to our environment, it is important to develop an innovative technologies to remediate pollutant sources for the safety and environmental protection. The development of adsorption technique for the reduction of extremely effective pollutants in this regard. Green mussel and zeolite mixing media were investigated for the reduction of the concentration of organic constituents (COD) and ammoniacal nitrogen from leachate. The leachate treatability was analyzed under various stages of treatment parameter, namely mixing ratio, shaking speed, contact time, and pH. Both adsorbent were sieve values in between 2.00-3.35 mm particle size. The optimum pH, shaking speed, contact time, and mixing ratio were determined. Leachate samples were collected from influent untreated detention pond at Simpang Renggam landfill site in Johor, Malaysia. The result of leachate characterization properties revealed that non-biodegradability leachate with higher concentrations of COD (1829 mg/L), ammoniacal nitrogen (406.68 mg/L) and biodegradability value (0.08) respectively. The optimal reduction condition of COD and ammoniacal nitrogen was obtained at 200 rpm shaken speed, 120 minute shaken time, optimum green mussel and zeolite mix ratio was 2.0:2.0, and pH 7. The isothermic study of adsorption shows that Langmuir is best suited for experimental results in terms of Freundlich model. The mixing media also provided promising results to treating leachate. This would be greatly applicable in conventionally minimizing zeolite use and thereby lowering the operating cost of leachate treatment.Implications: The concentration of organic constituents (COD) and ammoniacal nitrogen in stabilized landfill leachate have significant strong influences of human health and environmental. The combination of mixing media green mussel and zeolite adsorbent COD and ammoniacal nitrogen reduction efficiency from leachate. This would be greatly applicable in future research era as well as conventionally minimizing high cost materials like zeolite use and thereby lowering the operating cost of leachate treatment.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biological Oxygen Demand Analysis
  6. Detho A, Daud Z, Rosli MA, Awang H, Ridzuan MBB
    J Air Waste Manag Assoc, 2022 01;72(1):10-23.
    PMID: 33689589 DOI: 10.1080/10962247.2021.1895366
    The rapid generation rate of solid waste is due to the increasing population and industrialization. Nowadays, solid waste has been a major concerning problem in handling and disposal thus adsorption treatment process has been introduced which is an effective and low-cost method in removing organic and inorganic compounds from leachates such as chemical oxygen demand (COD) and ammoniacal nitrogen (NH3-N). A most commonly adsorbent used for the removal of organic and inorganic compounds is activated carbon (AC), yet the main disadvantage is being too expensive in cost. Many researchers tried to use low-cost adsorbent waste materials, such as peat soil, limestone etc. This review article reveals a list of low-cost adsorbent and their capacity of adsorption for the removal of COD and NH3-N. Furthermore, the preparation of these low-cost adsorbents as well as their removal efficiencies, relative cost, and limitation are discussed. The most efficient, cost-effective, and environment-friendly adsorbent can be used for the removal of COD and NH3-N thus can be provided for commercial usage or water treatment plant.Implications: The concentration of organic constituents (COD) and ammonia nitrogen in stabilized landfill leachate has significant strong influences of human health and environmental. This review article shows the list of low-cost adsorbent (i.e., Activated carbon, Peat soil, Zeolite, Limestone, and cockle shell and their capacity of adsorption for the removal of COD and ammonia nitrogen. This would be greatly applicable in future research era as well as conventionally minimizing high-cost materials use and thereby lowering the operating cost of leachate wastewater treatment.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biological Oxygen Demand Analysis
  7. Manickam S, Abidin Nb, Parthasarathy S, Alzorqi I, Ng EH, Tiong TJ, et al.
    Ultrason Sonochem, 2014 Jul;21(4):1519-26.
    PMID: 24485395 DOI: 10.1016/j.ultsonch.2014.01.002
    Palm oil mill effluent (POME) is a highly contaminating wastewater due to its high chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD). Conventional treatment methods require longer residence time (10-15 days) and higher operating cost. Owing to this, finding a suitable and efficient method for the treatment of POME is crucial. In this investigation, ultrasound cavitation technology has been used as an alternative technique to treat POME. Cavitation is the phenomenon of formation, growth and collapse of bubbles in a liquid. The end process of collapse leads to intense conditions of temperature and pressure and shock waves which assist various physical and chemical transformations. Two different ultrasound systems i.e. ultrasonic bath (37 kHz) and a hexagonal triple frequency ultrasonic reactor (28, 40 and 70 kHz) of 15 L have been used. The results showed a fluctuating COD pattern (in between 45,000 and 60,000 mg/L) while using ultrasound bath alone, whereas a non-fluctuating COD pattern with a final COD of 27,000 mg/L was achieved when hydrogen peroxide was introduced. Similarly for the triple frequency ultrasound reactor, coupling all the three frequencies resulted into a final COD of 41,300 mg/L compared to any other individual or combination of two frequencies. With the possibility of larger and continuous ultrasonic cavitational reactors, it is believed that this could be a promising and a fruitful green process engineering technique for the treatment of POME.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biological Oxygen Demand Analysis*
  8. Fulazzaky MA
    Environ Monit Assess, 2013 Jun;185(6):4721-34.
    PMID: 23001555 DOI: 10.1007/s10661-012-2899-z
    Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) of the leachates originally from the different types of landfill sites was studied based on the data measured using the two manometric methods. The measurements of BOD using the dilution method were carried out to assess the typical physicochemical and biological characteristics of the leachates together with some other parameters. The linear regression analysis was used to predict rate constants for biochemical reactions and ultimate BOD values of the different leachates. The rate of a biochemical reaction implicated in microbial biodegradation of pollutants depends on the leachate characteristics, mass of contaminant in the leachate, and nature of the leachate. Character of leachate samples for BOD analysis of using the different methods may differ significantly during the experimental period, resulting in different BOD values. This work intends to verify effect of the different dilutions for the manometric method tests on the BOD concentrations of the leachate samples to contribute to the assessment of reaction rate and microbial consumption of oxygen.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biological Oxygen Demand Analysis/methods*
  9. Tee PF, Abdullah MO, Tan IAW, Amin MAM, Nolasco-Hipolito C, Bujang K
    Environ Technol, 2018 Apr;39(8):1081-1088.
    PMID: 28417676 DOI: 10.1080/09593330.2017.1320433
    A microbial fuel cell (MFC) integrated with adsorption system (MFC-AHS) is tested under various operating temperatures with palm oil mill effluent as the substrate. The optimum operating temperature for such system is found to be at ∼35°C with current, power density, internal resistance (Rin), Coulombic efficiency (CE) and maximum chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal of 2.51 ± 0.2 mA, 74 ± 6 mW m-3, 25.4 Ω, 10.65 ± 0.5% and 93.57 ± 1.2%, respectively. Maximum current density increases linearly with temperature at a rate of 0.1772 mA m-2 °C-1, whereas maximum power density was in a polynomial function. The temperature coefficient (Q10) is found to be 1.20 between 15°C and 35°C. Present studies have demonstrated better CE performance when compared to other MFC-AHSs. Generally, MFC-AHS has demonstrated higher COD removals when compared to standalone MFC regardless of operating temperatures.

    ABBREVIATIONS: ACFF: activated carbon fiber felt; APHA: American Public Health Association; CE: Coulombic efficiency; COD: chemical oxygen demand; ECG: electrocardiogram; GAC: granular activated carbon; GFB: graphite fiber brush; MFC: microbial fuel cell; MFC-AHS: microbial fuel cell integrated with adsorption hybrid system; MFC-GG: microbial fuel cell integrated with graphite granules; POME: palm oil mill effluent; PTFE: polytetrafluoroethylene; SEM: scanning electron microscope.

    Matched MeSH terms: Biological Oxygen Demand Analysis
  10. Nur Syuhaidah Mohd Aris, Shariff Ibrahim, Borhannuddin Arifin, Yahaya Hawari
    Electrocoagulation has proven to be an effective method in the treatment of wastewater. This study evaluated the decolourisation of Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) using electrocoagulation (EC) batch reactor by utilising aluminium as sacrificial electrode. POME sample source from a final discharged pond at a palm oil mill was characterised for its colour, chemical oxygen demand (COD), pH, conductivity and turbidity; were found to be 2707 PtCo, 3909 mg/L, 7.63, 12.82 mS/cm and 755 NTU respectively. The respective effects of operating parameters such as pH (3 to 11), applied voltage (5 V to 20 V), plate gap (7.5 to 11.5 cm) and operating time (1 to 8 hours) were investigated. The decolourisation of POME was observed to increase with increasing voltage and operating time. Highest removal efficiency was observed at pH 5, 20 V applied voltage, 9.5 cm plate gap and at 8-hour operating time with colour removal efficiency of 89, 79, 78 and 64% respectively. From the findings, it can be concluded that electrocoagulation process using aluminium electrodes is a reliable technique for the removal of colour from POME.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biological Oxygen Demand Analysis
  11. Tamrin KF, Zahrim AY
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2017 Jul;24(19):15863-15869.
    PMID: 28013466 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-016-8235-3
    The main limitation of a conventional palm oil mill effluent (POME) ponding system lies in its inability to completely decolourise effluent. Decolourisation of effluent is aesthetically and environmentally crucial. However, determination of the optimum process parameters is becoming more complex with the increase of the number of coagulants and responses. The primary objective of this study is to determine the optimum polymeric coagulant in the coagulation-flocculation process of palm oil mill effluent by considering all output responses, namely lignin-tannin, low molecular mass coloured compounds (LMMCC), chemical oxygen demand (COD), ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N), pH and conductivity. Here, multiple-objective optimisation on the basis of ratio analysis (MOORA) is employed to discretely measure multiple response characteristics of five different types of coagulants as a function of assessment value. The optimum coagulant is determined based on the highest assessment value and was identified as QF25610 (cationic polyacrylamide). On the other hand, the lowest assessment value was represented by AN1800 (anionic polyacrylamide). This study highlights the simplicity of MOORA approach in handling various input and output parameters, and it may be useful in other wastewater treatment processes as well.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biological Oxygen Demand Analysis
  12. Hay JX, Wu TY, Juan JC, Md Jahim J
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2017 Apr;24(11):10354-10363.
    PMID: 28281053 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-017-8557-9
    Although a significant amount of brewery wastewater (BW) is generated during beer production, the nutrients in the BW could be reused as a potential bio-resource for biohydrogen production. Therefore, improvements in photofermentative biohydrogen production due to a combination of BW and pulp and paper mill effluent (PPME) as a mixed production medium were investigated comprehensively in this study. The experimental results showed that both the biohydrogen yield and the chemical oxygen demand removal were improved through the combination of BW and PPME. The best biohydrogen yield of 0.69 mol H2/L medium was obtained using the combination of 10 % BW + 90 % PPME (10B90P), while the reuse of the wastewater alone (100 % BW and 100 % PPME) resulted in 42.3 and 44.0 % less biohydrogen yields than the highest yield, respectively. The greatest light efficiency was 1.97 % and was also achieved using the combination of both wastewaters at 10B90P. This study revealed the potential of reusing and combining two different effluents together, in which the combination of BW and PPME improved the nutrients and light penetration into the mixed production medium.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biological Oxygen Demand Analysis
  13. Wan Fadhilah Khalik, Ong SA, Wong YS, Nik Athirah Yusoff, Fahmi Ridwan, Ho LN
    Sains Malaysiana, 2015;44:607-612.
    In this study, the photocatalytic degradation of batik wastewater in the presence of zinc oxide (ZnO) as photocatalyst was
    investigated. The effect of various operating parameters, such as pH of batik wastewater, catalyst dosage and aeration
    on the photocatalytic degradation process, was examined. The mineralization of batik wastewater was also evaluated
    through chemical oxygen demand analysis. The decolorization of batik wastewater was enhanced at acidic conditions
    (pH3) which was 88.2% after 10 h irradiated under solar light, meanwhile its mineralization was 286 mg/L after 12 h
    irradiation time. The data obtained for photocatalytic degradation of batik wastewater was well fitted with the LangmuirHinshelwood
    kinetic model. It can be concluded that batik wastewater could be decolorized and mineralized under solar
    light irradiation with presence of ZnO.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biological Oxygen Demand Analysis
  14. Wan Razarinah W, Zalina MN, Noorlidah Abdullah
    Sains Malaysiana, 2015;44:309-316.
    The study monitored the characteristics of the leachate collected from ten different landfills and presented the experimental work for the treatment of leachate by immobilized Trametes menziesii. Variation in biological oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD) and ammoniacal nitrogen (NH3-N) showed that the age of the leachate has a significant effect on its characteristics and composition. The BOD5/COD ratio tends to decrease as the age of leachate increases, varying from 0.71 for a relatively 'fresh' leachate to 0.62 for an older (more stabilized) one. Variations in the characteristics of the leachate suggested that these leachates are difficult to treat. The principal pollutants in the leachate samples were organic and ammonia loads. Treatment of leachate using immobilized Trametes menziesii achieved 89.14 and 2.11% removals for leachate BOD5 and COD, respectively. These findings suggested that using immobilized Trametes menziesii can remove promising percentage of BOD and COD leachate.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biological Oxygen Demand Analysis
  15. Nor Faekah I, Fatihah S, Mohamed ZS
    Heliyon, 2020 Mar;6(3):e03594.
    PMID: 32258460 DOI: 10.1016/j.heliyon.2020.e03594
    A bench-scale model of a partially packed upflow anaerobic fixed film (UAF) reactor was set up and operated at five different hydraulic retention times (HRTs) of (17, 14, 10, 8, and 5) days. The reactor was fed with synthetic rubber wastewater consisting of a chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentration of 6355-6735 mg/L. The results were analyzed using the Monod model, the Modified Stover-Kincannon models, and the Grau Second-Order Model. The Grau Second-Order model was found to best fit the experimental data. The biokinetic constant values, namely the growth yield coefficient (Y) and the endogenous coefficient (Kd) were 0.027 g VSS/g COD and 0.1705 d-1, respectively. The half-saturation constant (Ks) and maximum substrate utilization rate (K) returned values of 84.1 mg/L and 0.371 d-1, respectively, whereas the maximum specific growth rate of the microorganism (μmax) was 0.011 d-1. The constants, Umax and KB, of the Stover-Kincannon model produced values of 6.57 g/L/d and 6.31 g/L/d, respectively. Meanwhile, the average second-order substrate removal rate, ks(2), was 105 d-1. These models gave high correlation coefficients with the value of R2 = 80-99% and these indicated that these models can be used in designing UAF reactor consequently predicting the behaviour of the reactor.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biological Oxygen Demand Analysis
  16. Izyan Munirah M. Zaideen, Suhaimi Suratman, Norhayati Mohd Tahir
    Sains Malaysiana, 2017;46:1513-1520.
    This study investigates the spatial variation of water quality parameters in Sungai Setiu Basin at ten different locations from March 2010 to February 2011. The water quality was assessed using the Water Quality Index by Malaysian Department of Environment (DOE-WQI) and classified according to the Malaysia Interim National Water Quality Standard (INWQS). Six water quality parameters embedded in the DOE-WQI were dissolved oxygen (DO), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), pH, ammoniacal nitrogen (AN) and total suspended solid (TSS). In addition, this study also examined the changes in water quality over the past 10 years by comparing the present water quality to the previous works. The overall mean WQI value obtained was 84.0 which indicate that the Sungai Setiu basin is in clean condition and all measured water quality parameters gave value within the permissible limits of the INWQS classification except for pH which fall in Class III. It can be concluded that water quality in Sungai Setiu does not varies greatly over a decade. Hence continuous monitoring is needed to improve the water quality and minimize water pollution.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biological Oxygen Demand Analysis
  17. Mohamad NA, Hamzah S, Che Harun MH, Ali A, Rasit N, Awang M, et al.
    Chemosphere, 2021 Oct;281:130873.
    PMID: 34022596 DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2021.130873
    Palm oil mill effluent (POME) is highly polluted wastewater that is to the environment if discharged directly to water source without proper treatment. Thus, a highly efficient treatment with reasonable cost is needed. This study reports the coagulation treatment of POME using integrated copperas and calcium hydroxide. The properties of copperas were determined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and X-ray fluorescence (XRF). Coagulation was conducted using jar test experiments for various coagulant formulations and dosages (1000-5000 mg/L), initial pH (4-10), stirring speed (100-300 rpm), and sedimentation time (30-180 min). The characterisation results show that copperas has a compact gel network structure with strong O-H stretching and monoclinic crystal structure. The effectiveness of integrated copperas and calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) with the formulation of 80:20 removed 77.6%, 73.4%, and 57.0% of turbidity, colour, and chemical oxygen demand (COD), respectively. Furthermore, the integration of copperas and Ca(OH)2 produced heavier flocs (ferric hydroxide), which improved gravity settling. The coagulation equilibrium analysis shows that the Langmuir model best described the anaerobic POME sample as the process exhibited monolayer adsorption. The results of this study show that copperas with the aid of Ca(OH)2 demonstrated high potential in the removal of those parameters from POME with acceptable final pH for discharge. The utilisation of this by-product as a coagulant in effluent treatment can unlock the potential of copperas for wider applications, improve its marketability, and reduce gypsum waste generation from the TiO2 industry.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biological Oxygen Demand Analysis
  18. Detho A, Daud Z, Rosli MA, Awang H
    J Air Waste Manag Assoc, 2022 01;72(1):69-75.
    PMID: 33689591 DOI: 10.1080/10962247.2021.1894267
    Landfill leachate is a liquid generated due to rainwater percolation through the waste in a landfill or dumping site that may contain high levels of organic matter, both biodegradable and non-biodegradable, which are the major sources of water pollution. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) and Ammoniacal Nitrogen (NH3-N) contents have been relevant indicators of severity and pollution potential of landfill leachate. The reductions of COD and NH3-N were investigated in this study using different combinations of media ratios of green mussel (GM) and zeolite (ZEO). Generally, ZEO is considered as a renowned adsorbent but with a relatively high in cost. In Malaysia, mussel shell is abundantly available as a by-product from the seafood industry, is regarded as waste, and is mostly left at the dumpsite to naturally deteriorate. Its quality and availability make GMs a cost-effective material. In this research study, leachate samples were characterized and found to contain high concentrations of COD and NH3-N. The adsorption process was conducted to find out the best combination media ratio between GM and ZEO. The removing efficiency was determined at different amounts of composite media ratios. The optimal adsorbent mixture ratios between (GM: ZEO) of 1.0:3.0 and 1.5:2.5 were considered as a more efficient technique in removing COD and NH3-N compared to exploiting these adsorbents individually. The optimal extenuation removal reduction was found at an approximately 65% of COD and 78% of NH3-N. The adsorption Isotherm Langmuir model exhibited a better fit with high regression coefficient for COD (R2 = 0.9998) and NH3-N (R2 = 0.9875), respectively. This means that the combination of GM: ZEO adsorption of landfill leachate in this analysis is homogeneous with the monolayer. The mixture of GMs and ZEO was observed to provide an alternative medium for the reduction of COD and NH3-N with comparatively lower cost.Implications: The concentration of organic constituents (COD) and ammoniacal nitrogen in stabilized landfill leachate have significantly strong influences of human health and the environment. The combination of mixing media green mussel and zeolite adsorbent enhancing organic constituents (COD) and ammoniacal nitrogen reduction efficiency from leachate. This would be greatly applicable in future research as well as conventionally minimizing high cost materials like zeolite, thereby lowering the operating cost of leachate treatment.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biological Oxygen Demand Analysis
  19. Alhothali A, Haneef T, Mustafa MRU, Moria KM, Rashid U, Rasool K, et al.
    PMID: 34770021 DOI: 10.3390/ijerph182111506
    Water pollution due to the discharge of untreated industrial effluents is a serious environmental and public health issue. The presence of organic pollutants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) causes worldwide concern because of their mutagenic and carcinogenic effects on aquatic life, human beings, and the environment. PAHs are pervasive atmospheric compounds that cause nervous system damage, mental retardation, cancer, and renal kidney diseases. This research presents the first usage of palm kernel shell biochar (PKSB) (obtained from agricultural waste) for PAH removal from industrial wastewater (oil and gas wastewater/produced water). A batch scale study was conducted for the remediation of PAHs and chemical oxygen demand (COD) from produced water. The influence of operating parameters such as biochar dosage, pH, and contact time was optimized and validated using a response surface methodology (RSM). Under optimized conditions, i.e., biochar dosage 2.99 g L-1, pH 4.0, and contact time 208.89 min, 93.16% of PAHs and 97.84% of COD were predicted. However, under optimized conditions of independent variables, 95.34% of PAH and 98.21% of COD removal was obtained in the laboratory. The experimental data were fitted to the empirical second-order model of a suitable degree for the maximum removal of PAHs and COD by the biochar. ANOVA analysis showed a high coefficient of determination value (R2 = 0.97) and a reasonable second-order regression prediction. Additionally, the study also showed a comparative analysis of PKSB with previously used agricultural waste biochar for PAH and COD removal. The PKSB showed significantly higher removal efficiency than other types of biochar. The study also provides analysis on the reusability of PKSB for up to four cycles using two different methods. The methods reflected a significantly good performance for PAH and COD removal for up to two cycles. Hence, the study demonstrated a successful application of PKSB as a potential sustainable adsorbent for the removal of micro-pollutants from produced water.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biological Oxygen Demand Analysis
  20. Ishak A, Mohamad E, Hambali A, Johari NL
    Water Sci Technol, 2022 Nov;86(9):2233-2247.
    PMID: 36378177 DOI: 10.2166/wst.2022.360
    This paper presents the promising method of synchronizing the Six Sigma and reliability analyses at 15 sewage treatment plants (STPs) operating in Melaka, Malaysia. Five different suspended growth treatment technologies in various capacities were investigated. The sequential batch reactor (SBR) and extended aeration activated sludge (EAAS) processes, conventional activated sludge (CAS), aerated lagoon (AL), and oxidation pond (OP) were compared using innovative Niku's treatment reliability and Six Sigma process capability method for biological oxygen demand (BOD5), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total suspended solids (TSS), oil and grease (O&G), and ammoniacal nitrogen (NH3-N) effluent parameters and justified the importance of understanding the lognormal behavior of the effluent parameters in interpreting the performance monitoring results and discharge compliance. The results showed that the SBR and EAAS systems relatively fulfilled the highest performance (>95%) compared to conventional systems to ensure the high quality of effluent discharge. Although the whole system is incapable of removing nutrients efficiently, ranging between 42.31% and 90.48%, may lead to eutrophication issues. Process modification and treatment control should become a critical priority in order to reduce variability, improve stability, and increase the efficiency of nutrient removal. These initiatives promote global sustainable development goals (SDGs) 2030 and the domestic water sector transformation (WST) 2040 by treatment cost reduction, improving environmental sustainability and guaranteeing social and health benefits.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biological Oxygen Demand Analysis
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