Four formulations of burgers, prepared with 65% lean meat and 15% fat consisting of RBD palm stearin (PS), Socfat 4000P and Socfat 4100P and beef fat (BF) as control were evaluated for solid fat content (SFC), slip melting point (SMP), cooking loss, proximate analysis (moisture, fat and protein), colour, i.e. lightness ('L'), redness ('a') and yellowness ('b'), free fatty acid (FFA), iodine value (IV), thiobarbituric acid (TBA) and texture profile analysis (TPA). Sensory evaluation was carried out for texture, juiciness, aroma, oiliness and overall acceptance. SFC and SMP for raw and cooked SF4000P beef burgers were closest to BF control burgers, falling into the range of 35-40 degrees C. Cooking loss was highest for PS burgers, there were no significant differences (P > 0.05) amongst BF, SF4000P and SF4100P burgers. Proximate analysis on raw burgers showed SF4000P to contain high fat and lowest moisture contents. Objective textural measurements using texture profile analysis (TPA) for all cooked burgers showed no significant differences (P > 0.05) for springiness and cohesiveness. Variation of values among the formulations for hardness, gumminess and chewiness are explained by the differences of SFC for beef burgers with various types of fats. Raw and cooked PS burgers have the lightest 'L' values compared with other fat-substituted burgers while BF, SF4000P and SF4100P indicated no significant differences (P > 0.05) for 'L', 'a' and 'b' values. Beef fat showed the highest amount of free fatty acids (FFA) compared to palm oil samples. For the iodine value (IV), SF4000P showed the highest value which means that it contained the highest level of unsaturated fatty acids followed by PS, BF and SF4100P successively. SF4000P had the highest TBA values followed successively by BF, PS and SF4100P. For sensory evaluation, PS burgers had the least oily taste. This may be due to its high cooking loss. Taste panelists could not differentiate burgers with substituted vegetable fats against the control burgers.
* Title and MeSH Headings from MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.