Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 213 in total

  1. Omar MN, Nor-Nazuha MN, Nor-Dalilah MN, Sahri MM
    Pak J Biol Sci, 2010 Mar 15;13(6):298-302.
    PMID: 20506718
    In order to evaluate the frying performance of palm-based solid frying shortening against standard olein, the fresh potato chips were fried in both frying media using an open fryer. After frying the chips for 40 h in an open batch fryer, it was found that the frying quality of palm-based solid frying shortening was better than standard palm olein in terms of Free Fatty Acid (FFA) values, Total Polar Content (TPC) and Total Polymeric Material (TPM). Solid shortening gave FFA, TPC and TPM values of 0.7, 15.3 and 2.67%, respectively, whilst standard palm olein gave values for FFA, TPC and TPM of 1.2, 19.6 and 3.10%, respectively. In terms of sensory mean scores, sensory panelists preferred the color of potato chips fried in solid shortening on the first day of frying, while on the third and fifth day of frying there were no significant differences (p < 0.05) in the sensory scores of fried products in both frying mediums. However, on the fifth day of frying, panelists gave higher scores in terms of taste, flavor and crispness for potato chips fried in solid shortening. These findings show that the palm-based solid shortening is better than palm olein when used for deep fat frying in terms of FFA values, total polar content and total polymeric material, especially for starch-based products such as potato chips. The result also shows that, in terms of sensory mean scores, after frying for 40 h, the sensory panelists gave higher scores in terms of taste, flavor and crispiness for potato chips fried in palm-based solid shortening.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cooking*
  2. Khor YP, Wan SY, Tan CP, Zhao G, Li C, Wang Y, et al.
    Food Res Int, 2021 03;141:109897.
    PMID: 33641946 DOI: 10.1016/j.foodres.2020.109897
    Basa catfish is a good source for fish oil extraction, which was believed to have good thermo-oxidative stability because of its similar fatty acid composition to that of palm olein (PO). The thermo-oxidative stability of PO, basa catfish oil (FO), and palm olein-basa fish oil blend (PO-FO; ratio 1:1) was evaluated after 75 frying cycles. No significant difference was observed in p-anisidine value, TOTOX value, conjugated trienes, monomeric oxidized triacylglycerols, and free fatty acids concentration after frying. Moreover, compared to PO, FO exhibited lighter color, lower acid value, conjugated dienes, polymerized triacylglycerol, and total polar content. The PO-FO blend also demonstrated a more favorable frying stability compared to the other two frying systems. These findings indicated that FO could be proposed as a promising alternative to common PO, and its blending with other vegetable oils at an appropriate ratio might improve the overall oil frying quality for future industrial applications.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cooking*
  3. Alu'datt MH, Khamayseh Y, Alhamad MN, Tranchant CC, Gammoh S, Rababah T, et al.
    Food Chem, 2022 Mar 30;373(Pt B):131531.
    PMID: 34823940 DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2021.131531
    The nutrient composition of 50 commonly consumed Jordanian food dishes was determined to support the development of a novel nutrition management system designed to assist with dietary intake assessment and diet management. Composite dishes were selected by interviewing households located in the northern region of Jordan. For each dish, five different recipes were collected from experienced chefs and the typical recipe was formulated based on the average weights of ingredients and net weight of the dish. Proximate composition as well as vitamin and mineral contents were determined and related to ingredient composition and cooking conditions. The newly created food composition database was used to develop a user-centric nutrition management software tailored to reflect the characteristics of the Jordanian diet with representative items from this diet. This novel nutrition management system is customizable, enabling users to build daily meal plans in accordance with personalized dietary needs and goals.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cooking*
  4. Asghar MT, Yusof YA, Mokhtar MN, Yaacob ME, Ghazali HM, Varith J, et al.
    J Sci Food Agric, 2020 Aug;100(10):4012-4019.
    PMID: 32337729 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.10446
    BACKGROUND: Coconut sugar has a caramel color with a taste like brown sugar. It is commonly used as natural sweetener. However, coconut sugar has been produced from coconut sap using a traditional method that involves heating the sap at high temperature (>100 °C) in an open pan for a long period (3-5 h). This conventional method results in an over-cooked sugar, which leads to quality deterioration in terms of both its physical and chemical properties. The current study aimed to investigate the processing of coconut sap into sugar syrup using alternative processing techniques such as rotary vacuum evaporation (RE) and microwave evaporation (ME), comparing them with open-heat evaporation (OHE) technique.

    RESULTS: Coconut sugar syrup produced by rotary evaporation at 60 °C and 250 mbar vacuum (RE-60) required the shortest production time (12.2 min) and the lowest processing temperature (54.8 °C) when compared with ME (13 min and 103.2 °C) and OHE (46.8 min and 101.6 °C). It also had a light brownish color with a higher L* value (35.17) than the ME (29.84) and OHE (23.84) methods. It was found to contain higher amounts of monosaccharides (fructose and glucose) and lower amounts of disaccharides (sucrose). Furthermore, the amount of energy required for RE-60 (0.35 kWh) was much less than for OHE (0.83 kWh).

    CONCLUSION: This study provided an alternative processing method for the sugar processing industry to produce coconut sugar using the rotary evaporation method at 60 °C under 250 mbar vacuum with better physicochemical qualities, shorter processing time, and minimum input energy. © 2020 Society of Chemical Industry.

    Matched MeSH terms: Cooking/instrumentation; Cooking/methods*
  5. Shamaruddin N, Tan ETT, Shin TY, Razali RM, Siva R
    Int J Med Mushrooms, 2021;23(7):41-49.
    PMID: 34375517 DOI: 10.1615/IntJMedMushrooms.2021038812
    Black jelly mushroom (Auricularia polytricha) is a well-known Chinese traditional food that has therapeutic effects. This study evaluated the effects of different cooking methods (boiling, steaming, microwaving, and stir-frying) on the physicochemical characteristics (i.e., total phenolic content, antioxidants, α,α-diphenyl-β-picryl-hydrazyl [DPPH] free radical scavenging, and ferric reducing antioxidant power [FRAP]) along with color, texture, moisture, and sensory properties of black jelly mushrooms. Lightness (L*) was significantly lower for the stir-frying method (29.93) compared to the control (34.62). Stir-fried mushrooms had significantly lower firmness force (texture) and moisture content (80.13 N and 61.98%, respectively) compared to the control (2000.37 N and 86.52%). The steaming method contributed significantly higher total phenolic content (11.23 mg gallic acid equivalents/g) and antioxidant activity measured using the FRAP (33.54 mg Trolox equivalents/g) and DPPH (90.41% inhibition) assays compared to the respective controls.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cooking
  6. Ng ZX, Chai JW, Kuppusamy UR
    Int J Food Sci Nutr, 2011 Mar;62(2):158-63.
    PMID: 21250903 DOI: 10.3109/09637486.2010.526931
    The present study compares water-soluble phenolic content (WPC) and antioxidant activities in Chinese long bean (Vigna unguiculata), bitter gourd (Momordica charantia), water convolvulus (Ipomoea aquatica) and broccoli (Brassica olearacea) prior to and after subjecting to boiling, microwaving and pressure cooking. The total antioxidant activity was increased in cooked water convolvulus, broccoli and bitter gourd, estimated based on the ferric reducing antioxidant power, the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl radical scavenging activity. Pressure cooking did not cause any significant decline in the antioxidant property. Boiling generally improved the overall antioxidant activity in all the vegetables. Correlation analysis suggests that WPC contributed to significant antioxidant activities in these vegetables. Thus, prudence in selecting an appropriate cooking method for different vegetables may improve or preserve their nutritional value.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cooking/methods*
  7. Mayes S, Ho WK, Chai HH, Gao X, Kundy AC, Mateva KI, et al.
    Planta, 2019 Sep;250(3):803-820.
    PMID: 31267230 DOI: 10.1007/s00425-019-03191-6
    MAIN CONCLUSION: Bambara groundnut has the potential to be used to contribute more the climate change ready agriculture. The requirement for nitrogen fixing, stress tolerant legumes is clear, particularly in low input agriculture. However, ensuring that existing negative traits are tackled and demand is stimulated through the development of markets and products still represents a challenge to making greater use of this legume. World agriculture is currently based on very limited numbers of crops, representing a significant risk to food supplies, particularly in the face of climate change which is expected to increase the frequency of extreme events. Minor and underutilised crops can help to develop a more resilient and nutritionally dense future agriculture. Bambara groundnut [Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc.[, as a drought resistant, nitrogen-fixing, legume has a role to play. However, as with most underutilised crops, there are significant gaps in knowledge and also negative traits such as 'hard-to-cook' and 'photoperiod sensitivity to pod filling' associated with the crop which future breeding programmes and processing methods need to tackle, to allow it to make a significant contribution to the well-being of future generations. The current review assesses these factors and also considers what are the next steps towards realising the potential of this crop.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cooking/methods
  8. Gan WY, Sulaiman N, Law LS, Zalbahar N, Ahmad Fuzi SF, Wilkes MA
    PMID: 31947907 DOI: 10.3390/ijerph17010348
    Access to food has been determined to be a factor that strongly influences the dietary intake and eating habit of indigenous people (Orang Asli, OA). This study explored food acquisition and the barriers in obtaining traditional and market foods among the Jahai subtribe (within the Negrito ethnic group) via a qualitative approach. Twenty-eight OA (14 males and 14 females) from Gerik, Perak, Malaysia participated in four focus group discussions (FGDs; two male-only and two female-only groups; seven informants in each FGD). Thematic analysis was adopted to analyse the gathered data. The results found that the Jahai applied both modern (buying and receiving food assistance) and traditional (gathering, farming, fishing, and hunting) methods in obtaining food. The barriers they faced in gathering sufficient food supply included low purchasing power, high demand for food, high transport costs, depletion of food supplies in their surroundings, threats from wild animals on the farm and during food searching activities, and food sharing. Food preparation methods practiced by the OA include roasting and grilling, frying, simmering (gulai), and boiling. In conclusion, this study enhances our understanding of the dietary behaviour of the Jahai subtribe and highlights restricted food access among the OA, which demands urgent attention.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cooking/classification; Cooking/statistics & numerical data*
  9. Ibrahim NI, Davies S
    Work, 2012;41 Suppl 1:5152-9.
    PMID: 22317518 DOI: 10.3233/WOR-2012-0804-5152
    It is known that many older people have difficulties in performing daily living activities such as cooking. These are due to the demands of the tasks and the changes in functional capabilities of the older people. This study examines cooking tasks performed by the aged that includes preparing and cooking meals, and storing kitchen tools in the kitchen. The objectives are to investigate the cooking difficulties encounter by older people and the safety concerning cooking tasks. This study focuses on individuals of age 65 years and above who can cook for themselves and/or family. Data were collected through observation, interviews, questionnaires and role play methods. The findings revealed that the common problems were due to the awkward body position where subjects had to bend down to take things from lower shelves, taking/storing things on higher shelves and cleaning the cooker. Moreover, the safety concerns were the layout of work centres (storage, cooker and sink), the use of cooker and opening packaging. It can be concluded that cooking difficulties are caused by inappropriate kitchen design and the decline of functional capabilities in older people.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cooking*
  10. Jinap S, Mohd-Mokhtar MS, Farhadian A, Hasnol ND, Jaafar SN, Hajeb P
    Meat Sci, 2013 Jun;94(2):202-7.
    PMID: 23501251 DOI: 10.1016/j.meatsci.2013.01.013
    The study was carried out to determine the effect of cooking method on Heterocyclic Aromatic Amines (HAs) concentration in grilled chicken and beef (satay). Six common HAs were investigated: 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinolone (IQ), 2amino 3,4dimethylimidazo [4,5f]quinoline (MeIQ), 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx), 2-amino-3,4,8 trimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (4,8-DiMeIQx), 2-amino-3,7,8trimethylimidazo [4,5-f]quinoxaline (7,8-DiMeIQx), and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP). Chicken and beef satay samples were grilled to medium and well done level of doneness. Charcoal grilled (treatment A), microwave pre-treatment prior to grilling (treatment B), and microwave-deep fried (treatment C) were applied to beef and chicken satay samples. The satay samples which were microwaved prior to grilling (B) showed significantly (p<0.05) lower HAs concentration as compared to those charcoal grilled (A). Both medium and well done cooked beef and chicken satay samples that were microwaved and deep fried (C) as an alternative method to grilling were proven to produce significantly lesser HAs as compared to charcoal-grilled (A) and microwaved prior to grilling (B).
    Matched MeSH terms: Cooking/methods*
  11. Santana P, Huda N, Yang TA
    J Food Sci Technol, 2015 Mar;52(3):1507-15.
    PMID: 25745219 DOI: 10.1007/s13197-013-1145-1
    The objectives of this study were to determine the physicochemical properties and sensory characteristics of fish sausage made with 100 % threadfin bream (Nemipterus japonicus) surimi powder (SP100), a mix of 50 % surimi powder and 50 % frozen surimi (SP50), and a control (100 % frozen surimi). No significant differences in protein content and folding test results (P > 0.05) were detected among the SP100 and SP50 samples and the control. Gel strength of SP100 was lower (P > 0.05) than that of the control. The texture profile analysis (TPA) values (hardness, cohesiveness, springiness, and chewiness) of SP100 were significantly lower (P 
    Matched MeSH terms: Cooking
  12. Marimuthu K, Thilaga M, Kathiresan S, Xavier R, Mas RH
    J Food Sci Technol, 2012 Jun;49(3):373-7.
    PMID: 23729859 DOI: 10.1007/s13197-011-0418-9
    The effects of different cooking methods (boiling, baking, frying and grilling) on proximate and mineral composition of snakehead fish were investigated. The mean content of moisture, protein, fat and ash of raw fish was found to be 77.2 ± 2.39, 13.9 ± 2.89, 5.9 ± 0.45 and 0.77 ± 0.12% respectively. The changes in the amount of protein and fat were found to be significantly higher in frying and grilling fish. The ash content increased significantly whereas that of the minerals (Na, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn and Mn) was not affected in all cooking methods. Increased in Cu contents and decreased in P contents were observed in all cooking methods except grilling. In the present study, the grilling method of cooking is found to be the best for healthy eating.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cooking
  13. Khor YP, Sim BI, Abas F, Lai OM, Wang Y, Nehdi IA, et al.
    J Sci Food Agric, 2019 Dec;99(15):6989-6997.
    PMID: 31414493 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.9989
    BACKGROUND: Recycled oil has emerged as a significant food safety issue and poses a major threat to public health. To date, very limited studies have been conducted aiming to detect the adulteration of used and recycled palm olein in refined, bleached and deodorized palm olein (RBDPO). In the present study, oil samples that underwent controlled heating and deep-frying studies were refined using the common oil refining procedure to simulate the production of recycled oil. Polymerized triacylglycerol (PTG), oxidized monomeric triacylglycerols (oxTAGs), such as epoxy, keto and hydroxy acids, and caprylic acid have been proposed as potential indicators for tracking the adulteration of recycled oil.

    RESULTS: For PTG, triacylglycerol oligomers and dimers showed a significant increase (P 

    Matched MeSH terms: Cooking
  14. Yan W, Vadivelu V, Maspolim Y, Zhou Y
    Waste Manag, 2021 Feb 01;120:221-229.
    PMID: 33310598 DOI: 10.1016/j.wasman.2020.11.047
    Anaerobic digestion is a promising way for resource recovery from waste cooking oil (WCO) due to its high bio-methanation potential. In-situ mild alkaline (pH 8) enhanced two-stage continuous stirred tank reactors (ALK-2-CSTRs) were implemented to explore its efficiency in co-digesting WCO and sewage sludge with stepwise increase of WCO in the co-substrates. Results demonstrate that the ALK-2-CSTRs effectively promoted methane yield from the co-substrates via promoting hydrolysis, long chain fatty acids (LCFAs) degradation and protecting methanogens from exposure to high concentration of LCFAs directly. The maximum methane yield of the ALK-2-CSTRs is 39.2% higher than that of a single stage CSTR system at the optimal feed mixture of 45:55 (WCO:SS [VS]). The thermophilic operation applied to the stage-1 of the ALK-2-CSTRs failed to improve the methane yield when the methanogenic performance was stable; while upon WCO overloaded, the elevated temperature mitigated the deterioration of methanogenesis by stimulating the bioconversion of the toxic LCFAs, especially the unsaturated oleic acid. Microbial community analysis reveals the ALK-2-CSTRs stimulated the growth of lipolytic bacteria and hydrogenotrophic methanogens, which suggests the hydrogenotrophic methanogenic pathway was promoted. Cost evaluation demonstrates the economical superiority of the ALK-2-CSTR over the prevailing strategies developed for enhancing methane yield from the co-substrates.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cooking
  15. Shahrai NN, Babji AS, Maskat MY, Razali AF, Yusop SM
    Anim Biosci, 2021 May;34(5):904-913.
    PMID: 32810938 DOI: 10.5713/ajas.20.0201
    OBJECTIVE: Marbling or intramuscular fat (IMF) has been widely reported to directly impact the sensory acceptance of meat. This study was carried out to determine the physical and sensory characteristics of ribeye, Longissimus dorsi steaks obtained from four different cattle breeds namely Wagyu, Angus, Brahman, and Malaysian local beef, the Kedah-Kelantan (KK).

    METHODS: The degree of marbling was determined by using an established combined camera-image analysis technique while instrumental texture determination was carried out by using Warner-Bratzler shear force analysis. Sensory evaluation of the beef steaks was performed following a quantitative descriptive analysis incorporating 10 trained consumer panelists.

    RESULTS: Wagyu was found to possess the highest (p<0.05) percentage of IMF at 33.90% and the lowest shear force (raw = 5.61 N/mm2; cooked = 14.72 N/mm2) followed by Angus (20.87%), Brahman (12.17%), and KK (p<0.05, 6.86%). The difference in sensory properties of the four steaks was evident, with Wagyu appearing to be highly correlated with most sensory attributes measured namely sustained buttery, tooth-packing, chewiness, juiciness, tenderness, mouthfeel, oiliness, and overall acceptability. The Malaysian local beef, KK was found to be less acceptable (p<0.05), although most of its sensory attributes were found similar (p>0.05) in appearance, aroma, texture, juiciness, and flavour to the cooked steak from Angus and Brahman.

    CONCLUSION: This present study demonstrated the role of IMF in determining the quality and sensory acceptance of beef from different cattle breeds. These data have provided new information and further understanding on the physical and sensory quality of Malaysian local beef.

    Matched MeSH terms: Cooking
  16. Nurul, H., Alistair, T.L.J., Lim, H.W., Noryati, I.
    Five different brands of Malaysian commercial beef frankfurters were analyzed for quality characteristics. The proximate contents showed significant differences among the samples. The range of moisture content was 63.0-73.9%; the protein content was 10.63-16.43% while the fat content was 1.71-12.22%. The lightness value (L*) of the uncooked frankfurters, which was in the range of 47.02-52.28, was significantly different among the samples. The lightness of the cooked frankfurters, showed a decrease in all the samples compared to the uncooked samples. No significant differences were observed for the folding test; where all samples showed no cracks after they were folded in half. However, significant differences were observed for the texture analysis. The hardness, cohesiveness, chewiness, springiness, gumminess and shear force ranged between 4.59-10.30 kg, 0.26-0.35, 16.15-51.72 kgmm, 12.73-14.79 mm, 1.17-3.49 kg and 1.67-7.08 kg respectively. The results of the study showed that Malaysian commercial beef frankfurters were significantly different in their physicochemical properties.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cooking
  17. Ghazaleh Shimi, Hasnah Haron
    The advantage of cooking cannot be summarized just as the better food digestion. Some investigations showed the effect of cooking on reduction of food anti-nutrients such as oxalate. This study was aimed to determine the effect of cooking on oxalate content and its negative effects on calcium availability in eight Malaysian soy-based dishes. Since there is few data which examined the effects of cooking on food oxalate content globally, thus this study was designed as the first in Malaysia. Oxalate in this research was analyzed by using enzymatic methods, while calcium content was determined by using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The oxalate concentration was in the range of 6.43-19.40 mg/100 g for whole cooked samples, 9.03-11.90 mg/100 g for raw soy products, and 4.36-7.99 mg/100 g for cooked ones. There were 5 out of 12 samples containing oxalate, which was significantly lower (p < 0.05) in cooked products compared to the raw ones. The rest of the samples were also lower in oxalate but not significantly different (p > 0.05). Oxalate in raw/cooked fermented soy products (tempeh) was slightly lower compared to the non-fermented ones. However, there was no significant difference (p > 0.05) in oxalate amount between fermented and non-fermented soy products. As Oxalate/Calcium ratio was below 1, oxalate did not have an effect on availability of calcium in the studied samples. Optimal cooking and food processing might be effective in reducing oxalate content in soy products. There is a need for more investigations about the effect of cooking on soy products to confirm the present results.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cooking
  18. Norizzah, A.R., Junaida, A.R., Maryam ‘Afifah, A.L.
    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of xanthan gum and carrageenan on the
    oil uptake and acceptability of banana (Musa acuminate) fritters during repeated deep fat
    frying. Banana namely ‘Pisang Awak’ at maturity stage 6 were peeled, cut and dipped into 3
    batter formulations containing 1% carrageenan, 1% xanthan gum and a control. The bananas
    were deep fried at 170±5°C for 3 minutes in 2.5L cooking oil without oil replenishment for
    3 consecutive days. The moisture, oil content, texture, colour and acceptability of the banana
    fritters were evaluated at first and every 10th frying cycles. Results indicated that the oil and
    moisture content of fried bananas were dependent on frying cycles. The oil content increased
    while the moisture decreased with increased in frying cycles. There was significant reduction
    (p0.05) in terms of overall acceptance between
    treated and untreated. Hence, 1% xanthan gum was effective in reducing oil absorption of
    banana fritters without affecting the overall sensory acceptability
    Matched MeSH terms: Cooking
  19. Foo, W.T., Yew, H.S., Liong, M.T., Azhar, M.E.
    The physical attributes (pH and colour), cooking yield, textural and mechanical properties (firmness, tensile and texture profiles analyses) and structural breakdown properties (multiple extrusion cell with added artificial saliva) of five yellow alkaline noodle (YAN) formulations were studied. Samples used were noodles with (a) typical formulation (control), (b) soy protein isolate (SPI), (c) soy protein isolate plus microbial transglutaminase enzyme (SPI/MTGase), (d) green banana pulp flour (GBPu) and (e) green banana peel flour (GBPe). Compared to other noodles SPI/MTGase noodle showed significantly (P < 0.05) higher values in terms of textural, mechanical and breakdown properties. Incorporating SPI, banana pulp and peel flours into the noodles had imposed some differences on most of the mechanical and textural parameters from the control YAN. However, these noodles could not be clearly distinguished in term of structural breakdown properties.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cooking
  20. Akanbi, T.O., Nazamid, S., Adebowale, A.A., Farooq, A., Olaoye, A.O.
    Proximate compositions, culinary and sensory properties of noodles prepared from proportionate combinations of breadfruit starch and wheat flour were investigated. Breadfruit starch (BS) isolated from matured breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis) was used to produce noodles in combination with hard red wheat flour (WF) at a ratio of 100% WF:0% BS, 80% WF:20% BS, 60% WF:40% BS, 40% WF:60% BS, 20% WF:80% BS. The protein, fat, ash, crude fibre and moisture contents of the Breadfruit starch-Wheat flour (BSWF) noodles prepared from the above blends ranged from 0.65 to 10.88%, 0.35 to 3.15%, 1.28 to 2.25%, 1.18 to 1.45% and 4.65 to 5.45%, respectively. The contents of protein, fat, ash and crude fibre increased as the percentage breadfruit starch decreased. However, values of moisture content did not follow the same trend, instead higher values were found for 100% BS:0% WF (5.35%) and 20% BS:80% WF (5.45%). The cooking yield of the BSWF noodles ranged from 21.02 (60% BS:40% WF) to 23.75 g (100% BS:0% WF), cooking loss ranged from 5.49 (20% BS:80% WF) to 9.19% (100% BS:0% WF), while swelling index ranged from 3.1 (20% BS:80% WF) to 3.4 (100% BS:0% WF). Throughout the study, noodles produced from blends of 20% breadfruit starch and 80% wheat flour showed superior proximate, culinary and sensory attributes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cooking
Contact Us

Please provide feedback to Administrator (afdal@afpm.org.my)

External Links