Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 149 in total

  1. Omar MN, Nor-Nazuha MN, Nor-Dalilah MN, Sahri MM
    Pak. J. Biol. Sci., 2010 Mar 15;13(6):298-302.
    PMID: 20506718
    In order to evaluate the frying performance of palm-based solid frying shortening against standard olein, the fresh potato chips were fried in both frying media using an open fryer. After frying the chips for 40 h in an open batch fryer, it was found that the frying quality of palm-based solid frying shortening was better than standard palm olein in terms of Free Fatty Acid (FFA) values, Total Polar Content (TPC) and Total Polymeric Material (TPM). Solid shortening gave FFA, TPC and TPM values of 0.7, 15.3 and 2.67%, respectively, whilst standard palm olein gave values for FFA, TPC and TPM of 1.2, 19.6 and 3.10%, respectively. In terms of sensory mean scores, sensory panelists preferred the color of potato chips fried in solid shortening on the first day of frying, while on the third and fifth day of frying there were no significant differences (p < 0.05) in the sensory scores of fried products in both frying mediums. However, on the fifth day of frying, panelists gave higher scores in terms of taste, flavor and crispness for potato chips fried in solid shortening. These findings show that the palm-based solid shortening is better than palm olein when used for deep fat frying in terms of FFA values, total polar content and total polymeric material, especially for starch-based products such as potato chips. The result also shows that, in terms of sensory mean scores, after frying for 40 h, the sensory panelists gave higher scores in terms of taste, flavor and crispiness for potato chips fried in palm-based solid shortening.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cooking*
  2. Mior Zakuan Azmi M, Taip FS, Mustapa Kamal SM, Chin NL
    J Food Sci Technol, 2019 Oct;56(10):4616-4624.
    PMID: 31686693 DOI: 10.1007/s13197-019-03926-z
    Baking temperature and time are among the conditions for producing good quality cakes. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of baking temperature and time on the volume expansion, moisture content, and texture of moist cakes baked in either an air fryer or a convection oven. The cakes were baked under different conditions: (1) baking temperature of 150 °C, 160 °C, and 170 °C for both air fryer and convection oven and (2) baking time of 25, 30, 35 min for air fryer and 35, 40, 45 min for convection oven. Baking temperature and time were found to have a significant (p 
    Matched MeSH terms: Cooking
  3. Ng ZX, Chai JW, Kuppusamy UR
    Int J Food Sci Nutr, 2011 Mar;62(2):158-63.
    PMID: 21250903 DOI: 10.3109/09637486.2010.526931
    The present study compares water-soluble phenolic content (WPC) and antioxidant activities in Chinese long bean (Vigna unguiculata), bitter gourd (Momordica charantia), water convolvulus (Ipomoea aquatica) and broccoli (Brassica olearacea) prior to and after subjecting to boiling, microwaving and pressure cooking. The total antioxidant activity was increased in cooked water convolvulus, broccoli and bitter gourd, estimated based on the ferric reducing antioxidant power, the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl radical scavenging activity. Pressure cooking did not cause any significant decline in the antioxidant property. Boiling generally improved the overall antioxidant activity in all the vegetables. Correlation analysis suggests that WPC contributed to significant antioxidant activities in these vegetables. Thus, prudence in selecting an appropriate cooking method for different vegetables may improve or preserve their nutritional value.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cooking/methods*
  4. Mayes S, Ho WK, Chai HH, Gao X, Kundy AC, Mateva KI, et al.
    Planta, 2019 Sep;250(3):803-820.
    PMID: 31267230 DOI: 10.1007/s00425-019-03191-6
    MAIN CONCLUSION: Bambara groundnut has the potential to be used to contribute more the climate change ready agriculture. The requirement for nitrogen fixing, stress tolerant legumes is clear, particularly in low input agriculture. However, ensuring that existing negative traits are tackled and demand is stimulated through the development of markets and products still represents a challenge to making greater use of this legume. World agriculture is currently based on very limited numbers of crops, representing a significant risk to food supplies, particularly in the face of climate change which is expected to increase the frequency of extreme events. Minor and underutilised crops can help to develop a more resilient and nutritionally dense future agriculture. Bambara groundnut [Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc.[, as a drought resistant, nitrogen-fixing, legume has a role to play. However, as with most underutilised crops, there are significant gaps in knowledge and also negative traits such as 'hard-to-cook' and 'photoperiod sensitivity to pod filling' associated with the crop which future breeding programmes and processing methods need to tackle, to allow it to make a significant contribution to the well-being of future generations. The current review assesses these factors and also considers what are the next steps towards realising the potential of this crop.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cooking/methods
  5. Gan WY, Sulaiman N, Law LS, Zalbahar N, Ahmad Fuzi SF, Wilkes MA
    PMID: 31947907 DOI: 10.3390/ijerph17010348
    Access to food has been determined to be a factor that strongly influences the dietary intake and eating habit of indigenous people (Orang Asli, OA). This study explored food acquisition and the barriers in obtaining traditional and market foods among the Jahai subtribe (within the Negrito ethnic group) via a qualitative approach. Twenty-eight OA (14 males and 14 females) from Gerik, Perak, Malaysia participated in four focus group discussions (FGDs; two male-only and two female-only groups; seven informants in each FGD). Thematic analysis was adopted to analyse the gathered data. The results found that the Jahai applied both modern (buying and receiving food assistance) and traditional (gathering, farming, fishing, and hunting) methods in obtaining food. The barriers they faced in gathering sufficient food supply included low purchasing power, high demand for food, high transport costs, depletion of food supplies in their surroundings, threats from wild animals on the farm and during food searching activities, and food sharing. Food preparation methods practiced by the OA include roasting and grilling, frying, simmering (gulai), and boiling. In conclusion, this study enhances our understanding of the dietary behaviour of the Jahai subtribe and highlights restricted food access among the OA, which demands urgent attention.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cooking/classification; Cooking/statistics & numerical data*
  6. Jinap S, Mohd-Mokhtar MS, Farhadian A, Hasnol ND, Jaafar SN, Hajeb P
    Meat Sci., 2013 Jun;94(2):202-7.
    PMID: 23501251 DOI: 10.1016/j.meatsci.2013.01.013
    The study was carried out to determine the effect of cooking method on Heterocyclic Aromatic Amines (HAs) concentration in grilled chicken and beef (satay). Six common HAs were investigated: 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinolone (IQ), 2amino 3,4dimethylimidazo [4,5f]quinoline (MeIQ), 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx), 2-amino-3,4,8 trimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (4,8-DiMeIQx), 2-amino-3,7,8trimethylimidazo [4,5-f]quinoxaline (7,8-DiMeIQx), and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP). Chicken and beef satay samples were grilled to medium and well done level of doneness. Charcoal grilled (treatment A), microwave pre-treatment prior to grilling (treatment B), and microwave-deep fried (treatment C) were applied to beef and chicken satay samples. The satay samples which were microwaved prior to grilling (B) showed significantly (p<0.05) lower HAs concentration as compared to those charcoal grilled (A). Both medium and well done cooked beef and chicken satay samples that were microwaved and deep fried (C) as an alternative method to grilling were proven to produce significantly lesser HAs as compared to charcoal-grilled (A) and microwaved prior to grilling (B).
    Matched MeSH terms: Cooking/methods*
  7. Ibrahim NI, Davies S
    Work, 2012;41 Suppl 1:5152-9.
    PMID: 22317518 DOI: 10.3233/WOR-2012-0804-5152
    It is known that many older people have difficulties in performing daily living activities such as cooking. These are due to the demands of the tasks and the changes in functional capabilities of the older people. This study examines cooking tasks performed by the aged that includes preparing and cooking meals, and storing kitchen tools in the kitchen. The objectives are to investigate the cooking difficulties encounter by older people and the safety concerning cooking tasks. This study focuses on individuals of age 65 years and above who can cook for themselves and/or family. Data were collected through observation, interviews, questionnaires and role play methods. The findings revealed that the common problems were due to the awkward body position where subjects had to bend down to take things from lower shelves, taking/storing things on higher shelves and cleaning the cooker. Moreover, the safety concerns were the layout of work centres (storage, cooker and sink), the use of cooker and opening packaging. It can be concluded that cooking difficulties are caused by inappropriate kitchen design and the decline of functional capabilities in older people.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cooking*
  8. Khor YP, Sim BI, Abas F, Lai OM, Wang Y, Nehdi IA, et al.
    J. Sci. Food Agric., 2019 Dec;99(15):6989-6997.
    PMID: 31414493 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.9989
    BACKGROUND: Recycled oil has emerged as a significant food safety issue and poses a major threat to public health. To date, very limited studies have been conducted aiming to detect the adulteration of used and recycled palm olein in refined, bleached and deodorized palm olein (RBDPO). In the present study, oil samples that underwent controlled heating and deep-frying studies were refined using the common oil refining procedure to simulate the production of recycled oil. Polymerized triacylglycerol (PTG), oxidized monomeric triacylglycerols (oxTAGs), such as epoxy, keto and hydroxy acids, and caprylic acid have been proposed as potential indicators for tracking the adulteration of recycled oil.

    RESULTS: For PTG, triacylglycerol oligomers and dimers showed a significant increase (P 

    Matched MeSH terms: Cooking
  9. Norizzah, A.R., Junaida, A.R., Maryam ‘Afifah, A.L.
    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of xanthan gum and carrageenan on the
    oil uptake and acceptability of banana (Musa acuminate) fritters during repeated deep fat
    frying. Banana namely ‘Pisang Awak’ at maturity stage 6 were peeled, cut and dipped into 3
    batter formulations containing 1% carrageenan, 1% xanthan gum and a control. The bananas
    were deep fried at 170±5°C for 3 minutes in 2.5L cooking oil without oil replenishment for
    3 consecutive days. The moisture, oil content, texture, colour and acceptability of the banana
    fritters were evaluated at first and every 10th frying cycles. Results indicated that the oil and
    moisture content of fried bananas were dependent on frying cycles. The oil content increased
    while the moisture decreased with increased in frying cycles. There was significant reduction
    (p0.05) in terms of overall acceptance between
    treated and untreated. Hence, 1% xanthan gum was effective in reducing oil absorption of
    banana fritters without affecting the overall sensory acceptability
    Matched MeSH terms: Cooking
  10. Nurul, H., Alistair, T.L.J., Lim, H.W., Noryati, I.
    Five different brands of Malaysian commercial beef frankfurters were analyzed for quality characteristics. The proximate contents showed significant differences among the samples. The range of moisture content was 63.0-73.9%; the protein content was 10.63-16.43% while the fat content was 1.71-12.22%. The lightness value (L*) of the uncooked frankfurters, which was in the range of 47.02-52.28, was significantly different among the samples. The lightness of the cooked frankfurters, showed a decrease in all the samples compared to the uncooked samples. No significant differences were observed for the folding test; where all samples showed no cracks after they were folded in half. However, significant differences were observed for the texture analysis. The hardness, cohesiveness, chewiness, springiness, gumminess and shear force ranged between 4.59-10.30 kg, 0.26-0.35, 16.15-51.72 kgmm, 12.73-14.79 mm, 1.17-3.49 kg and 1.67-7.08 kg respectively. The results of the study showed that Malaysian commercial beef frankfurters were significantly different in their physicochemical properties.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cooking
  11. Ghazaleh Shimi, Hasnah Haron
    The advantage of cooking cannot be summarized just as the better food digestion. Some investigations showed the effect of cooking on reduction of food anti-nutrients such as oxalate. This study was aimed to determine the effect of cooking on oxalate content and its negative effects on calcium availability in eight Malaysian soy-based dishes. Since there is few data which examined the effects of cooking on food oxalate content globally, thus this study was designed as the first in Malaysia. Oxalate in this research was analyzed by using enzymatic methods, while calcium content was determined by using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The oxalate concentration was in the range of 6.43-19.40 mg/100 g for whole cooked samples, 9.03-11.90 mg/100 g for raw soy products, and 4.36-7.99 mg/100 g for cooked ones. There were 5 out of 12 samples containing oxalate, which was significantly lower (p < 0.05) in cooked products compared to the raw ones. The rest of the samples were also lower in oxalate but not significantly different (p > 0.05). Oxalate in raw/cooked fermented soy products (tempeh) was slightly lower compared to the non-fermented ones. However, there was no significant difference (p > 0.05) in oxalate amount between fermented and non-fermented soy products. As Oxalate/Calcium ratio was below 1, oxalate did not have an effect on availability of calcium in the studied samples. Optimal cooking and food processing might be effective in reducing oxalate content in soy products. There is a need for more investigations about the effect of cooking on soy products to confirm the present results.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cooking
  12. Akanbi, T.O., Nazamid, S., Adebowale, A.A., Farooq, A., Olaoye, A.O.
    Proximate compositions, culinary and sensory properties of noodles prepared from proportionate combinations of breadfruit starch and wheat flour were investigated. Breadfruit starch (BS) isolated from matured breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis) was used to produce noodles in combination with hard red wheat flour (WF) at a ratio of 100% WF:0% BS, 80% WF:20% BS, 60% WF:40% BS, 40% WF:60% BS, 20% WF:80% BS. The protein, fat, ash, crude fibre and moisture contents of the Breadfruit starch-Wheat flour (BSWF) noodles prepared from the above blends ranged from 0.65 to 10.88%, 0.35 to 3.15%, 1.28 to 2.25%, 1.18 to 1.45% and 4.65 to 5.45%, respectively. The contents of protein, fat, ash and crude fibre increased as the percentage breadfruit starch decreased. However, values of moisture content did not follow the same trend, instead higher values were found for 100% BS:0% WF (5.35%) and 20% BS:80% WF (5.45%). The cooking yield of the BSWF noodles ranged from 21.02 (60% BS:40% WF) to 23.75 g (100% BS:0% WF), cooking loss ranged from 5.49 (20% BS:80% WF) to 9.19% (100% BS:0% WF), while swelling index ranged from 3.1 (20% BS:80% WF) to 3.4 (100% BS:0% WF). Throughout the study, noodles produced from blends of 20% breadfruit starch and 80% wheat flour showed superior proximate, culinary and sensory attributes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cooking
  13. Foo, W.T., Yew, H.S., Liong, M.T., Azhar, M.E.
    The physical attributes (pH and colour), cooking yield, textural and mechanical properties (firmness, tensile and texture profiles analyses) and structural breakdown properties (multiple extrusion cell with added artificial saliva) of five yellow alkaline noodle (YAN) formulations were studied. Samples used were noodles with (a) typical formulation (control), (b) soy protein isolate (SPI), (c) soy protein isolate plus microbial transglutaminase enzyme (SPI/MTGase), (d) green banana pulp flour (GBPu) and (e) green banana peel flour (GBPe). Compared to other noodles SPI/MTGase noodle showed significantly (P < 0.05) higher values in terms of textural, mechanical and breakdown properties. Incorporating SPI, banana pulp and peel flours into the noodles had imposed some differences on most of the mechanical and textural parameters from the control YAN. However, these noodles could not be clearly distinguished in term of structural breakdown properties.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cooking
  14. Wan Rosli W, Nurhanan R, Solihah M, Mohsin S
    Sains Malaysiana, 2011;40:1123-1127.
    The nutrient composition, cooking characteristics and sensory properties of beef patties incorporated with various level of cornsilk were studied. The beef patties were formulated with either 2, 4 or 6% of cornsilk. Protein content increased in line with the cornsilk level in both raw and cooked beef patties. Both raw and cooked patties incorporated with 6% cornsilk recorded the highest protein concentration at 17.2 and 23.3%, respectively. Both raw and cooked patties containing 6% cornsilk recorded the lowest concentration of fat at 12.4 and 11.4%, respectively. All cooked patty samples recorded moisture content ranging from 40.42-42.98%. Beef patty formulated with 6% cornsilk recorded the highest cooking yield at 80.13% compared to other treatments. The addition of cornsilk did not change the sensory properties and consumer acceptability of cornsilk-based beef patties. Cornsilk fibre was effective in improving cooking yield, moisture and fat retention and enhancing texture of beef patties.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cooking
  15. Wan Rosli W, Nurhanan A, Solihah M, Mohsin S
    Sains Malaysiana, 2011;40:1165-1172.
    The proximate analyses, physical traits and sensory properties of chicken patties incorporated with different levels of cornsilk dietary fibre were studied. The patties were formulated with 2%, 4% and 6% dried ground cornsilk. The protein content increased in line with the cornsilk level in both raw and cooked chicken patties. Cooked chicken patties incorporated with 6% cornsilk showed the highest protein concentration at 28.42% and the lowest fat concentration at 14.60%, respectively. All cooked patty samples recorded moisture content ranging from 42.73-46.40%. Patty formulated with 6% cornsilk recorded the highest cooking yield at 83.03%. Cornsilk fibre has been successful in improving cooking yield and in retaining moisture and fat of chicken patties. The addition of cornsilk fibre does not change the sensory properties and the acceptability of chicken patties.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cooking
  16. Ismail M, Mariod A, Pin SS
    Acta Sci Pol Technol Aliment, 2013 Jan-Mar;12(1):21-31.
    PMID: 24584862
    The effect of preparation methods (raw, half-boiled and hard-boiled) on protein and amino acid contents, as well as the protein quality (amino acid score) of regular, kampung and nutrient enriched Malaysian eggs was investigated.
    The protein content was determined using a semi-micro Kjeldahl method whereas the amino acid composition was determined using HPLC.
    The protein content of raw regular, kampung and nutrient enriched eggs were 49.9 ±0.2%, 55.8 ±0.2% and 56.5 ±0.5%, respectively. The protein content of hard-boiled eggs of regular, kampung and nutrient enriched eggs was 56.8 ±0.1%, 54.7 ±0.1%, and 53.7 ±0.5%, while that for half-boiled eggs of regular, kampung and nutrient enriched eggs was 54.7 ±0.6%, 53.4 ±0.4%, and 55.1 ±0.7%, respectively. There were significant differences (p < 0.05) in protein and amino acid contents of half-boiled, hard-boiled as compared with raw samples, and valine was found as the limiting amino acid. It was found that there were significant differences (p < 0.05) of total amino score in regular, kampung and nutrient enriched eggs after heat treatments.Furthermore, hard-boiling (100°C) for 10 minutes and half-boiling (100°C) for 5 minutes affects the total amino score, which in turn alter the protein quality of the egg.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cooking/methods*
  17. Sanny M, Jinap S, Bakker EJ, van Boekel MA, Luning PA
    Food Chem, 2012 May 1;132(1):134-43.
    PMID: 26434272 DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2011.10.044
    Acrylamide is a probable human carcinogen, and its presence in a range of fried and oven-cooked foods has raised considerable health concern world-wide. Dietary intake studies observed significant variations in acrylamide concentrations, which complicate risk assessment and the establishment of effective control measures. The objective of this study was to obtain an insight into the actual variation in acrylamide concentrations in French fries prepared under typical conditions in a food service establishment (FSE). Besides acrylamide, frying time, frying temperature, and reducing sugars were measured and the actual practices at receiving, thawing and frying during French fries preparation were observed and recorded. The variation in the actual frying temperature contributed most to the variation in acrylamide concentrations, followed by the variation in actual frying time; no obvious effect of reducing sugars was found. The lack of standardised control of frying temperature and frying time (due to inadequate frying equipment) and the variable practices of food handlers seem to contribute most to the large variation and high acrylamide concentrations in French fries prepared in a restaurant type of FSE as compared to chain fast-food services, and institutional caterers. The obtained insights in this study can be used to develop dedicated control measures in FSE, which may contribute to a sustainable reduction in the acrylamide intake.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cooking/methods*
  18. Zargar M, Ahmadinia E, Asli H, Karim MR
    J. Hazard. Mater., 2012 Sep 30;233-234:254-8.
    PMID: 22818590 DOI: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2012.06.021
    The ageing of the bitumen during storage, mixing, transport and laying on the road, as well as in service life, are the most important problems presented by the use of bitumen in pavements. This paper investigates the possibility of using waste cooking oil (WCO), which is a waste material that pollutes landfills and rivers, as an alternative natural rejuvenating agent for aged bitumen to a condition that resembles the original bitumen. With this target, the physical and chemical properties of the original bitumen, aged bitumen and rejuvenated bitumen were measured and compared by the bitumen binder tests - softening point, penetration, Brookfield viscosity, dynamic shear rheometer and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. In addition, the behaviour of the WCO rejuvenated bitumen is investigated and compared with virgin bitumen after using the rolling thin film oven ageing process. In general, the results showed that using 3-4% of WCO the aged bitumen group 40/50 was rejuvenated to a condition that closely resembled the physical, rheological properties of the original bitumen (80/100), however, there was a difference in the tendency to ageing between the WCO rejuvenated bitumen and the virgin bitumen during mixing, transport and laying on the road.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cooking*
  19. Omar MN, Nor NN, Idris NA
    Pak. J. Biol. Sci., 2007 Apr 01;10(7):1044-9.
    PMID: 19070048
    Changes of aroma constituents of palm olein and selected oils after frying French fries have been studied. The aroma constituents of used oils were collected using a solid-phase microextraction (SPME) headspace technique with an absorbent of a divinylbenzene/carboxen (DVB/CAR) (50/30 microm) on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) fibre. The extracted volatiles were desorbed from the fibre in the injection port of the gas chromatograph at 250 degrees C and the aroma constituents were identified by GC-MS. Analytical data showed that volatile constituents of palm olein, soybean oil, corn oil and sunflower oil changed while frying continued from 2 to 40 h, respectively. In palm olein, the 2t,4t-decadienal content decreased from 14.7 to 5.5 microg g(-1) (40 h) whilst hexanal increased from 7.9 microg g(-1) (2 h) to 29.2 microg g(-1) (40 h), respectively. Similar result was also obtained from soybean oil after frying French fries. The 2t,4t-decadienal content decreased from 15.9 microg g(-1) (2 h) to 3.2 microg g(-1) after 40 h frying whilst hexanal increased from 10.2 microg g(-1) (2 h) to 34.2 microg g(-1) (40 h). Meanwhile, in corn oil, it was found that 2t,4t-decadienal decreased from 15.6 microg g(-1) (2 h) to 3.2 microg g(-1) (40 h) whilst hexanal increased from 11.3 microg g(-1) (2 h) to 33.8 microg g(-1) when frying time reached 40 h. In sunflower oil, it was found that 2t,4t-decadienal, decreased from 16.8 microg g(-1) (2 h) to 1.2 microg g(-1) (40 h) while hexanal increased from 9.5 microg g(-1) (2 h) to 32.4 microg g(-1) when frying time reached 40 h. It also showed that used oils exhibited off-odour characteristics due to the increasing amount ofhexanal while their freshness characteristics diminished due to the decreasing amount of 2t, 4t-decadienal.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cooking*
  20. Ruhaizin Sulaiman, Zahari Taha, Siti Zawiah Md. Dawal
    Elderly are exposed to physical impairment. This has a strong impact on their daily activities including
    frying, which is one of the most popular cuisine preparations. The stove height and work envelope
    are two major ergonomic issues in performing cooking task. There has been little research focusing
    on Malaysian elderly task performing in addressing these issues. The objectives of this study were to
    identify the acceptable stove height and depth and to determine the working envelope among Malaysian
    elderly using anthropometric data. A total of 55 Malaysian elderly (25 male and 30 female) aged between
    60 to 85 years participated in this study. Five body measurements were taken from each subject using
    an anthropometer. The measurements are stature height, shoulder height, arm span, arm reach forward
    and waist height. Apart from these anthropometric measurements, their present stove height was also
    measured. The acquisition of stove height dimensions was performed through a series of door to door
    visit of the elderly homes in Kg. Sg. Merab. These variables were used to estimate the elderly working
    envelope and determine the stove height, width and depth. Data were analysed using SPSS software. The
    waist height dimension was to estimate the stove height, the arm reach forward for the depth and the arm
    span for the length of the table-top where the stove was placed. Meanwhile the stature and shoulder height
    were used for estimating the position of the overhead compartment or placement of cooking utensils.
    The 5
    percentile was chosen since it is appropriate to accommodate 90% of the studied population. The 5
    percentile was also applied for the setting
    of the working envelope so as to provide better
    reaching tolerances. Meanwhile, standard was used
    to compare the present state of the studied kitchen
    setting. The results show that 56.4% of the elderly
    waist height is lower than the standard table-top
    height which is 36 inches (91.4cm) and 36.4% of the stove height was found higher than that of the standard. This could apparently cause fatigue and
    discomfort to shoulders, the neck, the arm and the back of the user. Anthropometrics measurements can
    be used for estimating the stove height, length and depth. These could also calculate a space taken for
    certain physical activities, such as frying task envelope. Providing a good combination of stove height,
    length, depth and ergonomic working envelope could hopefully improve the elderly cooking task and
    increase their quality of life.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cooking; Cooking and Eating Utensils
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