Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 208 in total

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  1. Chang LS, Lau KQ, Tan CP, Yusof YA, Nyam KL, Pui LP
    Acta Sci Pol Technol Aliment, 2021 11 2;20(4):417-421.
    PMID: 34724366 DOI: 10.17306/J.AFS.0903
    BACKGROUND: ‘Kedondong’ fruit is regarded as an exotic fruit that is gaining popularity due to its deliciousness and pleasant flavour. However, this fruit has a short shelf life, leading to problems with postharvest loss. In order to prevent losses, the fruit could be produced as a value-added product. In this study, the ‘kedondong’ fruit was preserved by drying into powder using different drying methods.

    METHODS: The kedondong powder was dried using five methods: convection oven drying, vacuum drying, spray drying, drum drying and freeze drying. The physical properties, flowability and DPPH radical scavenging ability of dried kedondong powder were examined.

    RESULTS: Spray-dried powder provided the significantly (p ≤ 0.05) highest process yield, which was 54.93%. All the powder produced had a low moisture content (3.03 to 5.66%) and water activity (0.19–0.37). Visually, whitish and fine powders were observed on spray-dried and freeze-dried samples, while convection oven-dried and vacuum-dried powder appeared yellowish and coarse. The pH of the reconstituted powders varied from 2.71 to 2.83, where drum-dried powder was the most acidic. Spray-dried powder showed the highest wettability and shortest dissolution time, which was 172.65 s and 10.55 s, respectively. With the exception of drum-dried powder, all the dried powders were classified as non-caking powders. The bulk and tapped density of the powders ranged from 0.32 to 0.70 g/mL and 0.38 to 0.86 g/mL, respectively. Vacuum-dried powder had very good flowability, convection oven-dried and drum-dried powder had good flowability, while spray-dried and drum-dried powder had fair flowability. Antioxidant assay showed that freeze-dried powder exhibited the highest free radical scavenging activity (IC50 = 701.29 μg/mL).

    CONCLUSIONS: This study indicates that spray-dried kedondong powder has great potential in the food industry due to its high process yield and better powder quality. Meanwhile, freeze drying best preserved the antioxidant properties of the powder, which could potentially be used as a functional ingredient as a result. This study is important for the fruit processing industry as it offers an alternative for the farmer to produce kedondong fruit powder because the fruit has a short shelf life. Converting the fruit into powder can diversify the resulting produce into different applications, such as fruit juice, beverages, jam and other food products.

    Matched MeSH terms: Food Handling*
  2. Krishnaiah D, Nithyanandam R, Sarbatly R
    Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr, 2014;54(4):449-73.
    PMID: 24236997 DOI: 10.1080/10408398.2011.587038
    Spray drying accomplishes drying while particles are suspended in the air and is one method in the family of suspended particle processing systems, along with fluid-bed drying, flash drying, spray granulation, spray agglomeration, spray reaction, spray cooling, and spray absorption. This drying process is unique because it involves both particle formation and drying. The present paper reviews spray drying of fruit extracts, such as acai, acerola pomace, gac, mango, orange, cactus pear, opuntia stricta fruit, watermelon, and durian, and the effects of additives on physicochemical properties such as antioxidant activity, total carotenoid content, lycopene and β-carotene content, hygroscopy, moisture content, volatile retention, stickiness, color, solubility, glass transition temperature, bulk density, rehydration, caking, appearance under electron microscopy, and X-ray powder diffraction. The literature clearly demonstrates that the effect of additives and encapsulation play a vital role in determining the physicochemical properties of fruit extract powder. The technical difficulties in spray drying of fruit extracts can be overcome by modifying the spray dryer design. It also reveals that spray drying is a novel technology for converting fruit extract into powder form.
    Matched MeSH terms: Food Handling/methods*
  3. Yasin NH, Mumtaz T, Hassan MA, Abd Rahman N
    J Environ Manage, 2013 Nov 30;130:375-85.
    PMID: 24121591 DOI: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2013.09.009
    Food waste and food processing wastes which are abundant in nature and rich in carbon content can be attractive renewable substrates for sustainable biohydrogen production due to wide economic prospects in industries. Many studies utilizing common food wastes such as dining hall or restaurant waste and wastes generated from food processing industries have shown good percentages of hydrogen in gas composition, production yield and rate. The carbon composition in food waste also plays a crucial role in determining high biohydrogen yield. Physicochemical factors such as pre-treatment to seed culture, pH, temperature (mesophilic/thermophilic) and etc. are also important to ensure the dominance of hydrogen-producing bacteria in dark fermentation. This review demonstrates the potential of food waste and food processing waste for biohydrogen production and provides a brief overview of several physicochemical factors that affect biohydrogen production in dark fermentation. The economic viability of biohydrogen production from food waste is also discussed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Food Handling*
  4. Yahya H, Linforth RS, Cook DJ
    Food Chem, 2014 Feb 15;145:378-87.
    PMID: 24128492 DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2013.08.046
    The roasting of barley and malt products generates colour and flavour, controlled principally by the time course of product temperature and moisture content. Samples were taken throughout the industrial manufacture of three classes of roasted product (roasted barley, crystal malt and black malt) and analysed for moisture content, colour and flavour volatiles. Despite having distinct flavour characteristics, the three products contained many compounds in common. The product concentrations through manufacture of 15 flavour compounds are used to consider the mechanisms (Maillard reaction, caramelisation, pyrolysis) by which they were formed. The use of water sprays resulted in transient increases in formation of certain compounds (e.g., 2-cyclopentene-1,4-dione) and a decrease in others (e.g., pyrrole). The study highlights rapid changes in colour and particularly flavour which occur at the end of roasting and onwards to the cooling floor. This highlights the need for commercial maltsters to ensure consistency of procedures from batch to batch.
    Matched MeSH terms: Food Handling/methods
  5. Sammugam L, Pasupuleti VR
    Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr, 2019;59(17):2746-2759.
    PMID: 29693412 DOI: 10.1080/10408398.2018.1468729
    Processed foods, generally known as modified raw foods produced by innovative processing technologies alters the food constituents such natural enzymes, fatty acids, micronutrients, macronutrients and vitamins. In contrast to fresh and unprocessed foods, processed foods are guaranteed to be safer, imperishable, long lasting and consist high level of nutrients bioactivity. Currently, the evolution in food processing technologies is necessary to face food security and safety, nutrition demand, its availability and also other global challenges in the food system. In this scenario, this review consists of information on two food processing technologies, which effects on processed foods before and after processing and the impact of food products on human health. It is also very well established that understanding the type and structure of foods to be processed can assist food processing industries towards advancement of novel food products. In connection with this fact, the present article also discusses the emerging trends and possible modifications in food processing technologies with the combination of conventional and modern techniques to get the suitable nutritional and safety qualities in food.
    Matched MeSH terms: Food Handling*
  6. Chai KF, Chang LS, Adzahan NM, Karim R, Rukayadi Y, Ghazali HM
    Food Chem, 2019 Jan 15;271:298-308.
    PMID: 30236681 DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2018.07.155
    A novel way to fully utilize rambutan fruit and seed is to ferment peeled fruits followed by drying and roasting, and use the seeds to produce seed powder similar to that of cocoa powder. Hence, the objective of this study was to optimize the roasting time and temperature of rambutan fruit post-fermentation and drying, and to produce a cocoa-like powder product from the seeds. Parameters monitored during roasting were colour and total phenolic content, while seed powder obtained using optimized roasting conditions was analyzed for its physicochemical properties and toxicity. The latter was examined using the brine shrimp lethality assay. Results showed that the roasted seed powder possessed colour and key volatile compounds similar to that of cocoa powder. Besides, the brine shrimp lethality assay indicated that the roasted seed powder was non-toxic. Thus, the fruit, including its seed could be fully utilized and subsequently, wastage could be reduced.
    Matched MeSH terms: Food Handling/methods*
  7. Norizzah AR, Nur Azimah K, Zaliha O
    Food Res Int, 2018 04;106:982-991.
    PMID: 29580013 DOI: 10.1016/j.foodres.2018.02.001
    Interesterification reaction involves rearrangement of the fatty acid radicals on the glycerol backbone, either randomly (chemical interesterification) or regioselectivity (enzymatic interesterification). Refined, bleached and deodourised palm oil (RBDPO) and palm kernel oil (RBDPKO) were blended in ratios from 25:75 to 75:25 (wt/wt). All blends were subjected to enzymatic (EI) and chemical interesterification (CI) using Lipozyme TL IM (4% w/w) and sodium methoxide (0.2% m/m) as the catalysts, respectively. The effect of EI and CI on the triacylglycerol (TAG) composition, thermal behaviour, polymorphism, crystal morphology and crystallisation kinetics were studied. The aim of this research is to characterise the nature of crystals in food product for certain desired structure. The crystallisation behaviour discussed in this study involves microstructure (PLM), polymorphism (XRD), thermal properties and crystallisation kinetics by DSC. The alteration in TAG composition was greater after CI as compared to EI with the reduction of LaLaLa (from 11.00% to 5.15%) and POO (from 14.28% to 4.87%). The DSC complete melting and crystallisation temperature of blend with 75% PO increased after CI, from 39.58 °C to 41.67 °C and from -30.84 °C to -28.33 °C, respectively. EI contributed to finer crystals than CI. However, the β' and β polymorph mixture and crystallisation kinetics (n = 2) of PO-PKO blends did not change after CI and EI. The knowledge on controlling crystallisation of RBDPO and RBDPKO blends is vital for proper processing condition like margarine production.
    Matched MeSH terms: Food Handling/methods*
  8. Selamat J, Rozani NAA, Murugesu S
    Molecules, 2021 Dec 14;26(24).
    PMID: 34946647 DOI: 10.3390/molecules26247565
    The authentication of food products is essential for food quality and safety. Authenticity assessments are important to ensure that the ingredients or contents of food products are legitimate and safe to consume. The metabolomics approach is an essential technique that can be utilized for authentication purposes. This study aimed to summarize food authentication through the metabolomics approach, to study the existing analytical methods, instruments, and statistical methods applied in food authentication, and to review some selected food commodities authenticated using metabolomics-based methods. Various databases, including Google Scholar, PubMed, Scopus, etc., were used to obtain previous research works relevant to the objectives. The review highlights the role of the metabolomics approach in food authenticity. The approach is technically implemented to ensure consumer protection through the strict inspection and enforcement of food labeling. Studies have shown that the study of metabolomics can ultimately detect adulterant(s) or ingredients that are added deliberately, thus compromising the authenticity or quality of food products. Overall, this review will provide information on the usefulness of metabolomics and the techniques associated with it in successful food authentication processes, which is currently a gap in research that can be further explored and improved.
    Matched MeSH terms: Food Handling*
  9. Phing PL, Abdullah A, Sin CL, Foong SCY
    Acta Sci Pol Technol Aliment, 2022 2 18;21(1):111-122.
    PMID: 35174693 DOI: 10.17306/J.AFS.0901
    BACKGROUND: Bintangor oranges are a mandarin species that is abundant in vitamin C and beta-carotene. However, due to its short shelf life, the fresh fruit can be converted into powder form, which is comparatively more stable.

    METHODS: This study compares the effects of spray drying, freeze drying, drum drying, vacuum oven drying, and convection oven drying on the physicochemical properties of Bintangor orange powder, including vitamin C and total carotenoid content. The physicochemical properties analyzed for the powders were color analysis, moisture content, water activity, hygroscopicity, degree of caking, wettability, flowability, water solubility index, and bulk density.

    RESULTS: Our results showed that freeze dried and convection oven dried powders retained their color so that the powder was the same as the original puree. All powders used in this showed an acceptable moisture content level, with a range of 2.11–2.31%. Spray dried and drum dried powders had the lowest value of moisture content and water activity. Moreover, spray dried powders showed the lowest value in hygroscopicity and bulk density and took the shortest time to wet the powder. The highest solubility and flowability properties were 12.99%, 0.39 g/mL, 18.39 s, 96.08%, and 19.17°, respectively. However, the freeze drying method retained the highest value for both nutritional pigments of vitamin C and total carotenoid content, 18.31 mg/g and 91.32 μg/g, respectively.

    CONCLUSIONS: Freeze drying is the most suitable drying method with favorable powder properties compared to spray drying, drum drying, vacuum oven drying and convection oven drying.

    Matched MeSH terms: Food Handling/methods
  10. Mohammad Halim Jeinie, Norazmir Md Nor, Mazni Saad, Mohd Shazali Md. Sharif
    MyJurnal
    Sufficient knowledge on food safety and diligence during food handling are crucial to food safety and hygiene practices. A casual approach to handling food in the kitchen on a regular basis may link to foodborne pathogens, contaminations, and adverse health effects. The purpose of this study is to identify the right practices and behaviour among culinary students in terms of food hygiene practices and food safety perspectives. The methodology employed includes observations on 18 food culinary students in an actual kitchen setting. Effective food hygiene and food safety implementation are needed to improve the effectiveness of health education programmes for food handlers. The results suggest that transmission reduction of food pathogens, knowledge transfer and food safety training in selective industry criteria with proper guidelines should be introduced to produce a competent workforce.
    Matched MeSH terms: Food Handling
  11. Chew SC
    Food Res Int, 2020 05;131:108997.
    PMID: 32247493 DOI: 10.1016/j.foodres.2020.108997
    Rapeseed oil is the second most abundant produced edible oil in the world with low erucic acid and low glucosinolate. Thus, the quality of rapeseed oil had attracted global attention. Cold-pressed rapeseed oil appeared to be a preferred choice than refined oil as no solvent and less processing involved in the cold-pressing. The methods of cold-pressing and microwave pre-treatment on the extraction yield and bioactive compounds of rapeseed oil have been reviewed in this paper. Cold-pressed rapeseed oil offers health benefits due to its preserved fatty acid profile and bioactive compounds. High phenolic compounds, tocopherols, phytosterols, and carotenoids contents in the cold-pressed rapeseed oil offer health benefits like regulating blood lipid profile, insulin sensitivity, and glycemic control, as well as offer antioxidant and cytotoxic activity. Besides using as edible oil, cold-pressed rapeseed oil find applications in animal feed, chemical, and fuel.
    Matched MeSH terms: Food Handling
  12. Han H, Lho LH, Raposo A, Radic A, Ngah AH
    PMID: 33809470 DOI: 10.3390/ijerph18063034
    Muslim tourism is one of the most rapidly developing sectors in the international tourism industry. Nevertheless, halal food performance and its relationship with international Muslim traveler decision-making and behaviors have not been sufficiently examined. The present research explored the influence of halal food performance, which encompasses availability, health/nutrition, accreditation, and cleanness/safety/hygiene factors, on the Muslim traveler retention process at a non-Islamic destination. A survey methodology with a quantitative data analytic approach was employed to achieve research goals. Our findings indicated that halal food performance increased destination trust and destination attachment, which in turn influenced Muslim traveler retention. Additionally, the efficacy of the higher-order framework of halal food performance was defined. Both destination trust and attachment mediated the effect of halal food performance on retention. A halal-friendly destination image included a moderating influence on the retention process. The effectiveness of the proposed theoretical framework for explicating Muslim traveler behaviors was uncovered. This research better introduces the importance of halal food performance and its attributes for the elicitation of Muslim traveler approach responses and behaviors at a non-Islamic destination to researchers and practitioners.
    Matched MeSH terms: Food Handling
  13. Chang YP, Tan MP, Lok WL, Pakianathan S, Supramaniam Y
    Plant Foods Hum Nutr, 2014 Mar;69(1):43-9.
    PMID: 24292972 DOI: 10.1007/s11130-013-0396-3
    The guava processing industry in Malaysia produces by-products in the form of seed core and peel. These by-products can be regarded as underused resources but there are concerns about their composition that prevent their use in the food and feed industries. This study aims to analyze the respective effects of heat treatments (boiling or autoclaving) and germination periods on the nutritional composition and phytochemical content of guava seeds. The guava seeds were found to contain 618, 78, 72, and 5 mg/g dry weight total dietary fiber, fat, protein, and ash, respectively. The tannin and saponin contents, but not the phytic acid content, were below the respective anti-nutritional thresholds. The heat treatments did not affect the total dietary fiber and ash contents but reduced all other chemical components to different extents (15-91%). Boiling did not reduce the phytic acid content substantially but autoclaving caused a reduction of 91% to a level below the anti-nutritional threshold. Germination for 14 days caused a significant reduction in nutrient contents in the range of 16-79%. Germination also reduced the phytic acid content by 90% in the seed but did not significantly affect the saponin content. Thus, guava seed can be treated thermally or germinated to manipulate its chemical composition to enable its use in the food and feed industries.
    Matched MeSH terms: Food Handling*
  14. Ho LH, Abdul Aziz NA, Azahari B
    Food Chem, 2013 Aug 15;139(1-4):532-9.
    PMID: 23561142 DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2013.01.039
    The physico-chemical and sensorial properties of the control (BCtr), commercial wheat flour (CWF) bread substituted with 10% BPF (banana pseudo-stem flour) (B10BPF) and B10BPF with added 0.8% w/w (flour weight basis) xanthan gum (XG) or sodium carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) (B10BPFXG and B10BPFCMC, respectively) were examined. The proximate analyses revealed that the composite bread had significantly higher moisture, ash, crude fibre, soluble, insoluble and total dietary fibre contents but lower protein, fat and carbohydrate contents than the BCtr. Bread incorporated with BPF resulted in a lower volume, darker crumb and lighter crust colour than the BCtr. The addition of CMC improved the bread volume. All breads containing BPF had greater total phenolics, and antioxidant properties than the control bread. Sensory evaluation indicated that the B10BPFCMC bread had the highest acceptability.
    Matched MeSH terms: Food Handling/methods*
  15. Ramadhan K, Huda N, Ahmad R
    Poult Sci, 2012 Jul;91(7):1703-8.
    PMID: 22700518 DOI: 10.3382/ps.2011-01926
    In this study, the effect of the addition of different cryoprotectants on the freeze-thaw stability of duck surimi-like material (DSLM) was tested. A 6% (wt/wt) low-sweetness cryoprotectant (i.e., polydextrose, trehalose, lactitol, or palatinit) was added to a 3-kg portion of DSLM, and the mixture was subjected to freeze-thaw cycles during 4 mo of frozen storage. The DSLM with no cryoprotectant added (control) and with a 6% sucrose-sorbitol blend (high-sweetness cryoprotectant) added also were tested. The polydextrose-added sample had the highest water-holding capacity among the sample types tested (P < 0.05), and it retained its higher value during frozen storage. The protein solubility of the cryoprotectant-added samples decreased significantly (P < 0.05) from 58.99 to 59.60% at initial frozen storage (0 mo) to 48.60 to 54.61% at the end of the experiment (4 mo). The gel breaking force of all samples significantly decreased (P < 0.05) at 1 mo; this breaking force then stabilized after further frozen storage for the cryoprotectant-added samples, whereas it continued to decrease in the control samples. Gel deformation fluctuated during frozen storage and was significantly lower (P < 0.05) at the end of experiment than at the beginning. The presence of cryoprotectants reduced the whiteness of DSLM. Samples containing polydextrose, trehalose, lactitol, and palatinit were able to retain the protein solubility, gel breaking force, and deformation of DSLM better than control samples after 4 mo of frozen storage and exposure to freeze-thaw cycles. The effects of these low-sweetness cryoprotectants are comparable to those of sucrose-sorbitol, thus, these sugars could be used as alternatives in protecting surimi-like materials during frozen storage.
    Matched MeSH terms: Food Handling/methods*
  16. Sarker MZ, Selamat J, Habib AS, Ferdosh S, Akanda MJ, Jaffri JM
    Int J Mol Sci, 2012;13(9):11312-22.
    PMID: 23109854 DOI: 10.3390/ijms130911312
    Fish oil was extracted from the viscera of African Catfish using supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO(2)). A Central Composite Design of Response Surface methodology (RSM) was employed to optimize the SC-CO(2) extraction parameters. The oil yield (Y) as response variable was executed against the four independent variables, namely pressure, temperature, flow rate and soaking time. The oil yield varied with the linear, quadratic and interaction of pressure, temperature, flow rate and soaking time. Optimum points were observed within the variables of temperature from 35 °C to 80 °C, pressure from 10 MPa to 40 MPa, flow rate from 1 mL/min to 3 mL/min and soaking time from 1 h to 4 h. However, the extraction parameters were found to be optimized at temperature 57.5 °C, pressure 40 MPa, flow rate 2.0 mL/min and soaking time 2.5 h. At this optimized condition, the highest oil yields were found to be 67.0% (g oil/100 g sample on dry basis) in the viscera of catfish which was reasonable to the yields of 78.0% extracted using the Soxhlet method.
    Matched MeSH terms: Food Handling/methods*
  17. Bhat R, Kamaruddin NS, Min-Tze L, Karim AA
    Ultrason Sonochem, 2011 Nov;18(6):1295-300.
    PMID: 21550834 DOI: 10.1016/j.ultsonch.2011.04.002
    Freshly squeezed kasturi lime fruit juice was sonicated (for 0, 30 and 60min at 20°C, 25kHz frequency) to evaluate its impact on selected physico-chemical and antioxidant properties, such as pH, °Brix, titratable acidity, Hunter color values (L(∗), a(∗), b(∗)), ascorbic acid, DPPH radical scavenging activity, total phenolics, antioxidant capacity, flavonoids and flavonols. Additionally, the effect of sonication treatments on the microbial load (TPC, yeast and mold) were also evaluated. Sonication of juice samples for 60min showed enhancement in most of the bioactive compounds compared to samples treated for 30min and control samples (untreated). Significant reductions in the microbial load corresponding to sonication time were also recorded. Results of the present study indicate that sonication may be employed as a suitable technique for kasturi lime juice processing, where antioxidant and other bioactive compound retention or enhancement is desired, along with the achievement of safety and quality standards.
    Matched MeSH terms: Food Handling/methods*
  18. Reardon T, Timmer CP, Minten B
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 2012 Jul 31;109(31):12332-7.
    PMID: 21135250 DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1003160108
    A "supermarket revolution" has occurred in developing countries in the past 2 decades. We focus on three specific issues that reflect the impact of this revolution, particularly in Asia: continuity in transformation, innovation in transformation, and unique development strategies. First, the record shows that the rapid growth observed in the early 2000s in China, Indonesia, Malaysia, and Thailand has continued, and the "newcomers"--India and Vietnam--have grown even faster. Although foreign direct investment has been important, the roles of domestic conglomerates and even state investment have been significant and unique. Second, Asia's supermarket revolution has exhibited unique pathways of retail diffusion and procurement system change. There has been "precocious" penetration of rural towns by rural supermarkets and rural business hubs, emergence of penetration of fresh produce retail that took much longer to initiate in other regions, and emergence of Asian retail developing-country multinational chains. In procurement, a symbiosis between modern retail and the emerging and consolidating modern food processing and logistics sectors has arisen. Third, several approaches are being tried to link small farmers to supermarkets. Some are unique to Asia, for example assembling into a "hub" or "platform" or "park" the various companies and services that link farmers to modern markets. Other approaches relatively new to Asia are found elsewhere, especially in Latin America, including "bringing modern markets to farmers" by establishing collection centers and multipronged collection cum service provision arrangements, and forming market cooperatives and farmer companies to help small farmers access supermarkets.
    Matched MeSH terms: Food Handling/economics
  19. Lioe HN, Selamat J, Yasuda M
    J Food Sci, 2010 Apr;75(3):R71-6.
    PMID: 20492309 DOI: 10.1111/j.1750-3841.2010.01529.x
    Soy sauce taste has become a focus of umami taste research. Umami taste is a 5th basic taste, which is associated to a palatable and pleasurable taste of food. Soy sauce has been used as an umami seasoning since the ancient time in Asia. The complex fermentation process occurred to soy beans, as the raw material in the soy sauce production, gives a distinct delicious taste. The recent investigation on Japanese and Indonesian soy sauces revealed that this taste is primarily due to umami components which have molecular weights lower than 500 Da. Free amino acids are the low molecular compounds that have an important role to the taste, in the presence of sodium salt. The intense umami taste found in the soy sauces may also be a result from the interaction between umami components and other tastants. Small peptides are also present, but have very low, almost undetected umami taste intensities investigated in their fractions.
    Matched MeSH terms: Food Handling/methods
  20. Farouk AE, Batcha MF, Greiner R, Salleh HM, Salleh MR, Sirajudin AR
    Saudi Med J, 2006 Sep;27(9):1397-400.
    PMID: 16951781
    To develop a molecular technique that is fast and reliable in detecting porcine contamination or ingredients in foods.
    Matched MeSH terms: Food Handling*
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