In the study, the relationship between the quality and intensity of LED illumination with FAMEs produced were investigated. Nannochloropsis sp. was cultivated for 14 days under different intensities of 100, 150 and 200 μmol photons m(-2) s(-1) of red, blue and mixed red blue LED. The findings revealed that suitable combination of LED wavelengths and intensity; (red LED: 150, blue: 100 and mixed red blue: 200 μmol photons m(-2) s(-1)) produced maximum biomass growth and lipid content. It was observed that the quality and intensity of LED significantly influenced the composition of FAMEs. FAMEs produced under blue LED has high degree of unsaturation (DU) and low cetane number while those under red LED has low DU but higher CN. The combination of red blue LED has produced FAMEs with high ignition and lubricating property and also good oxidation stability indicated by the DU and CN values which lies midway between the red and blue.
The extent of industrial trans fatty acids (TFA) in the food supply is unknown in Malaysia, whilst TFA disclosure on food labels is not mandatory by Malaysian food standards. Supermarket foods such as dairy products, fats and oils, meat products, snack foods, soups, and confectionery are commonly cited to be major contributors of TFA in the diet. A consumer survey (n = 622) was used to develop a food listing of these 'high risk' foods. TFA content of high-risk foods were analysed by gas chromatography. Food samples (n = 158) were analysed and their total TFA content were compared with Malaysian Food Standards. A wide variation in TFA content within food categories was indicated. Of the foods containing TFA, many food labels did not cite TFA content or the use of partially hydrogenated vegetable oils (PHVO) as an ingredient. Hypothesised estimates of TFA intake from these supermarket foods in a sample day's menu providing 2000 kcal projected a minimum intake of 0.5 g and a maximum intake of 5.2 g TFA. This study found there was no voluntary disclosure of TFA content on food labels or identifying PHVO as an ingredient. It appears that health education targeting consumers to minimise TFA consumption is required supported by mandatory PHVO disclosure on the food label.
1. Two species of snakehead fish are available in Sabah, i.e. Channa striatus and Channa melanosoma, and are commonly known as haruan. Haruan is consumed by many Malaysians to induce healing after a clinical operations. However, there is no scientific evidence as yet to substantiate the claim, and so it was decided to analyse the biochemical composition in haruan to determine which compounds may have a possible role or potential in wound healing. 2. Samples (midline fillet) of both species were extracted separately in hexane for the qualitative analysis of fatty acids by a gas chromatography, Hewlett-Packard 5890A, using a 10 meter superox 11 column (Alltech) at temperature between 190 and 245 degrees C. Peak areas were calculated automatically using Hewlett-Packard 3393A computing integrator. Subsequently, the amino acid composition was analysed using a precolumn derivatization reverse phase HPLC waters PICO-TAG system. 3. Haruan is found to contain unusually high arachidonic acid (AA) but almost no eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). AA which is a precursor of prostaglandin may initiate blood clotting and be responsible for growth. Haruan also contains all the essential amino acids for wound healing, particularly glycine which is the most important component of human skin collagen. Therefore, haruan contained all the basic biochemical requirements for wound healing.
Refined palm-pressed mesocarp fibre oil (PPFO), which can be obtained from one of the by-products of palm oil milling, palm-pressed mesocarp fibre, is categorized as palm sludge oil. So far, it has been given less attention and underutilized until some recent scientific reports revealing its high content of phytonutrients, carotenoids and vitamin E, which have been proven scientifically to possess anti-oxidant activity. The study evaluated the stability of PPFO as a carrier for plant-based emulsion. PPFO was extracted and examined for its positional distribution of fatty acids, saturation levels and iodine value (IV) using NMR spectroscopy. The PPFO-based emulsion was then prepared and subjected to stability tests, including temperature variation, centrifuge test, cycle test, pH and slip melting point for 28 days. Phase separation was observed from PPFO-based emulsion stored at 40℃ from day-21 onwards while no creaming found in all the palm olein-based emulsions stored at the three storage temperatures. Nevertheless, results indicated that the PPFO-based emulsion passed all the tests above showing insignificant phase separation (p > 0.05) compared with those of palm olein commonly used in emulsion preparation. The findings suggested that PPFO enriched with valuable phytonutrients could be used as an alternative carrier oil in emulsion formulation, which is an important component in personal care products.
The present study investigated and compared the quality and chemical composition of Moroccan walnut (Juglans regia L.) oil. This study used three extraction techniques: cold pressing (CP), soxhlet extraction (SE), and ultrasonic extraction (UE). The findings showed that soxhlet extraction gave a significantly higher oil yield compared to the other techniques used in this work (65.10% with p < 0.05), while cold pressing and ultrasonic extraction gave similar yields: 54.51% and 56.66%, respectively (p > 0.05). Chemical composition analysis was carried out by GC−MS and allowed 11 compounds to be identified, of which the major compound was linoleic acid (C18:2), with a similar percentage (between 57.08% and 57.84%) for the three extractions (p > 0.05). Regarding the carotenoid pigment, the extraction technique significantly affected its content (p < 0.05) with values between 10.11 mg/kg and 14.83 mg/kg. The chlorophyll pigment presented a similar content in both oils extracted by SE and UE (p > 0.05), 0.20 mg/kg and 0.16 mg/kg, respectively, while the lowest content was recorded in the cold-pressed oil with 0.13 mg/kg. Moreover, the analysis of phytosterols in walnut oil revealed significantly different contents (p < 0.05) for the three extraction techniques (between 1168.55 mg/kg and 1306.03 mg/kg). In addition, the analyses of tocopherol composition revealed that γ-tocopherol represented the main tocopherol isomer in all studied oils and the CP technique provided the highest content of total tocopherol with 857.65 mg/kg, followed by SE and UE with contents of 454.97 mg/kg and 146.31 mg/kg, respectively, which were significantly different (p < 0.05). This study presents essential information for producers of nutritional oils and, in particular, walnut oil; this information helps to select the appropriate method to produce walnut oil with the targeted quality properties and chemical compositions for the desired purpose. It also helps to form a scientific basis for further research on this plant in order to provide a vision for the possibility of exploiting these oils in the pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and food fields.
The ageing of the bitumen during storage, mixing, transport and laying on the road, as well as in service life, are the most important problems presented by the use of bitumen in pavements. This paper investigates the possibility of using waste cooking oil (WCO), which is a waste material that pollutes landfills and rivers, as an alternative natural rejuvenating agent for aged bitumen to a condition that resembles the original bitumen. With this target, the physical and chemical properties of the original bitumen, aged bitumen and rejuvenated bitumen were measured and compared by the bitumen binder tests - softening point, penetration, Brookfield viscosity, dynamic shear rheometer and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. In addition, the behaviour of the WCO rejuvenated bitumen is investigated and compared with virgin bitumen after using the rolling thin film oven ageing process. In general, the results showed that using 3-4% of WCO the aged bitumen group 40/50 was rejuvenated to a condition that closely resembled the physical, rheological properties of the original bitumen (80/100), however, there was a difference in the tendency to ageing between the WCO rejuvenated bitumen and the virgin bitumen during mixing, transport and laying on the road.
The development of a two phase hollow fiber liquid-phase microextraction technique, followed by gas-chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID) for the profiling of the fatty acids (FAs) (lauric, myristic, palmitic, stearic, palmitoleic, oleic, linoleic, linolenic and arachidic) in vegetable oils is described. Heptadecanoic acid methyl ester was used as the internal standard. The FAs were transesterified to their corresponding methyl esters prior to the extraction. Extraction parameters such as type of extracting solvent, temperature, extraction time, stirring speed and salt addition were studied and optimized. Recommended conditions were extraction solvent, n-tridecane; extraction time, 35 min; extraction temperature, ambient; without addition of salt. Enrichment factors varying from 37 to 115 were achieved. Calibration curves for the nine FAs were well correlated (r(2)>0.994) within the range of 10-5000 μg L(-1). The limit of detection (signal:noise, 3) was 4.73-13.21 ng L(-1). The method was successfully applied to the profiling of the FAs in palm oils (crude, olein, kernel, and carotino cooking oil) and other vegetable oils (soybean, olive, coconut, rice bran and pumpkin). The encouraging enrichments achieved offer an interesting option for the profiling of the minor and major FAs in palm and other vegetable oils.
Characterisation of fatty acids composition of three palm-based reference materials was carried out through inter-laboratory proficiency tests. Twelve laboratories collaborated in these tests and the fatty acids compositions of palm oil, palm olein and palm stearin were determined by applying the MPOB Test Methods p3.4:2004 and p3.5:2004. Determination of consensus values and their uncertainties were based on the acceptable statistical agreement of results obtained from the collaborating laboratories. The consensus values and uncertainties (%) for each palm oil reference material produced are listed as follows : 0.20% (C12:0), 1.66+/-0.05% (C14:0), 43.39+/-0.39% (C16:0), 0.14+/-0.06% (C16:1), 3.90+/-0.11% (C18:0), 40.95+/-0.23% (C18:1), 9.68+/-0.21% (C18:2), 0.16+/-0.07% (C18:3) and 0.31+/-0.08% (C20:0) for fatty acids composition of palm oil; 0.23+/-0.04% (C12:0), 1.02+/-0.04% (C14:0), 39.66+/-0.19% (C16:0), 0.18+/-0.07% (C16:1), 3.81+/-0.04% (C18:0), 44.01+/-0.08% (C18:1), 10.73+/-0.08% (C18:2), 0.20+/-0.06% (C18:3) and 0.34+/-0.04% (C20:0) for fatty acids composition of palm olein; and 0.20% (C12:0), 1.14+/-0.05% (C14:0), 49.42+/-0.25% (C16:0), 0.16+/-0.08% (C16:1), 4.15+/-0.10% (C18:0), 36.14+/-0.77% (C18:1), 7.95+/-0.29% (C18:2), 0.11+/-0.07% (C18:3) and 0.30+/-0.08% (C20:0) for fatty acids composition of palm stearin.
A comparative study of oxidative decomposition behavior of a wide range of vegetable oils and its correlation to iodine value (IV) using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) was described. The oxidative decomposition of saturated fatty acids shows weight loss before 385 degrees C while oxidative decomposition of unsaturated fatty acids shows lower rate of weight loss (dWt/dt) compared to saturated fatty acids due to the oxidation process ('up taking ' of oxygen) involving breaking down of double bond to form primary and secondary oxidation products, which leads to some weight gain in the sample before being decomposed. The relative differences in the dWt/dt (%/min) of the both fatty acids give different decomposition steps in TGA thermogram, enabling IV to be determined through the percentage weight loss of saturated fatty acids per 100% of total sample weight (excluding weight loss from moisture and volatile compounds). Therefore, TGA method can be used as an alternative method for IV determination with no sample pre-dilution and solvent consumption. Using the TGA methods, good correlation (r = 0.9889) with standard AOCS method was achieved.
Fatty acid profile from crude extracts of local sea cucumber Stichopus chloronotus was determined using gas chromatography (GC) technique. The extracts were prepared separately in methanol, ethanol, phosphate buffer saline (PBS), and distilled water as part of our study to look at the affinity of these solvents in extracting the lipid from sea cucumber. The PBS and distilled water extractions indicate water-soluble components, while the organic fractions are extracted in methanol and ethanol as organic solvents. Furthermore, water extraction is the conventional method practiced in Malaysia. In our analysis the C14:0 (myristic), C16:0 (palmitic), C18:0 (stearic), C18:2 (linoleic), C20:0 (arachidic), and C20:5 (eicosapentaenoic, EPA) were significantly different (p < 0.01) in the four solvent extractions. However, the PBS extraction contained a much higher percentage of EPA (25.69%) compared to 18.89% in ethanol, 7.84% in distilled water, and only 5.83% in methanol, and variances were significantly different (p < 0.01 ). On the other hand, C22:6 (docosahexaenoic acid or DHA) is much higher in water extraction (57.55%), in comparison to the others where only 3.63% in PBS and 1.20% in methanol, and this difference is significant at p < 0.01. No DHA was detected in ethanol extractions. Subsequently, C18:1 (oleic acid) was only detected in PBS (21.98%) and water extraction (7.50%). It is interesting that palmitic acid, C16:() was higher in methanol (20.82%) and ethanol (2.18%), while 12.55% was detected in PBS and only 2.20% in water extraction: and again this was significantly different at p < 0.01. Although our results have shown that all four solvents were different in terms of their ability to extract fatty acids, the major component for tissue repair was well preserved. Probably this is one of the important precocious steps when working with a delicate sea cucumber, in both experimental and/or at the preparative stages. Freshness of the sea cucumber samples is important when undertaking this type of experiment. Finally, we believe that the local sea cucumber S. chloronotus contains all the fatty acids required to play a potential active role in tissue repair.
Microplanktonic red tide blooms (dominated by dinoflagellates) were observed in brackish water fish ponds of Terengganu between March 1992 to January 1993. The first short-lived bloom (2-3 days) occurred in October 1992 while the second long-lived bloom (6-7 days) occurred in January 1993. The dominant dinoflagellate species comprised of Peridinium quinquecorne (> 90% total cell count) with considerable proportion of Protoperidinium excentricum. Ciliophora consisting of Tintinopsis sp. and Favella sp. were also present during the bloom period. The total ash, chlorophyll, phaeopigment, lipid and fatty acid content of the microplankton were studied. Considerable amounts (6-11% of the total fatty acid) of the polyunsaturated fatty acid 18:3w3 (linolenic acid) were present in the microplankton. However, high amounts of 20:5w3 (eicosapentanoic acid) and 22:6w3 (docosahexaenoic acid) were present with variable but usually high amounts of 22:4w6 and 22:5w6 acids. The latter microplankton bloom contained higher amounts of 20:5w3 and 22:6w3 acids than the earlier bloom. Lipid content were three to five times higher than chlorophyll a. There was an increase with successive day after bloom outbreak in the relative proportion of total C18, C20, and C22 fatty acid components. The algae microplankton contained the w3-polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) probably needed for the growth and survival rate of grazing pond animals.
1. Fatty acid profiles in the external mucus extract and roe of Channa striatus were determined using gas chromatography (GC). 2. The mucus samples were collected by inducing hypothermic stress (-20 degrees C) for about 1 hr, and the roe were collected from gravid females at night soon after they liberated their eggs in a spawning program. 3. All mucus and roe samples were freeze-dried, except a part of roe which was not. 4. The mucus extract contained unsaturated fatty acid (oleic acid, C18:1 and linoleic acid, C18:2) as a major component, 21.25% and 22.47% of total lipid. 5. For the freeze- and nonfreeze-dried roe, the major components of fatty acid were somewhat similar to the mucus but with higher percentages: 58.56%, 26.08% and 45.76%, 20.94%. Interestingly, the nonfreeze-dried roe contained a large proportion of arachidic acid, C20:0 (22.16%), which was totally absent in the freeze-dried roe samples. 6. This profiling of the fatty acid mucus extract and roe is useful in strengthening the earlier claims that haruan possesses a potential remedy for wound healing (Mat Jais et al., 1994). Therefore, we are discussing the possibility of getting an optimum amount of the essential fatty acid for wound healing from various other parts of the fish without sacrificing the fish.
Zooplankton samples were collected from the indigenous tropical brackish water lagoon during the wet monsoon (January and February 1990) and the dry monsoon (April and May 1990). The dominant copepod species in the zooplankton community comprising of Oithona sp (especially O. nana and O. robusta) accounted for more than 70% of the zooplankton in January and was gradually replaced by other zooplanktonic species later in the dry season. The lipid contents in zooplankton varied from 0.18 to 1.04% wet weight or 1.14 to 5.92% dry weight respectively. The major fatty acid contents of the zooplankton showed high concentration of 14:0, 16:0, 18:1, 20:5 omega 3 and 22:6 omega 3 especially in the wet season. It also contained high omega-3 highly unsaturated fatty acid series necessary for the growth of commercial fish larvae. It has a better food value than the normally use food organism, brine shrimp; thus reflecting its potential use as food organism for fish larval rearing.
Refined red palm olein (RPOo) is the first cooking oil that is a pro-Vitamin A source due to its high carotenoid concentration. The quality specifications from the manufacturers are usually applied to freshly produced oil. However, there is currently no information regarding the oxidative stability and phytonutrient content (Vitamin E and Carotene) for RPOo after prolonged storage time. The objective then is to study the effect of two local storage conditions and storage period(s) on the oxidative stability of RPOo. In this study, peroxide value (PV), p-anisidine value (AnV), induction period (IP), free fatty acid (FFA), and Vitamin E content were determined periodically for twelve months under local storage conditions (supermarket and kitchen). Carotene content, however, was determined only at initial and at the 12th month of storage time periods. It was found that there was an overall progressive but slow increase in PV and p-AnV. For PV, the storage effects were inconsistent. However, the effects were significant (p < 0.01) on the AnV throughout storage. At the end of the 12-months, for both storage conditions, the PV < 10 meq O2 g-1, the AnV < 10, the FFA < 0.2 % (palmitic acid), with a 30% drop in the total Vitamin E, and carotenoids content showed no significant drop (p < 0.01). The PV and AnV were also within Codex Alimentarius' recommended limits. Finally, the oxidative parameters showed that RPOo remains stable after year storage under the two simulated local storage conditions (the aforementioned supermarket and kitchen).
During the study into the microbial biodiversity and bioactivity of the Microcystis phycosphere, a new yellow-pigmented, non-motile, rod-shaped bacterium containing polyhydroxybutyrate granules designated as strain Z10-6T was isolated from highly-toxic Microcystis aeruginosa Kützing M.TN-2. The new isolate produces active bioflocculating exopolysaccharides. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated strain Z10-6T belongs to the genus Sphingopyxis with highest similarity to Sphingopyxis solisilvae R366T (98.86%), and the similarity to other Sphingopyxis members was less than 98.65%. However, both low values obtained by phylogenomic calculation of average nucleotide identity (ANI, 85.5%) and digital DNA-DNA hybridization (dDDH, 29.8%) separated the new species from its closest relative. The main polar lipids were sphingoglycolipid, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol, one unidentified glycolipid and one unidentified aminophospholipid. The predominant fatty acids were summed feature 8, C17:1ω6c, summed feature 3, C16:0, C18:1ω7c 11-methyl and C14:0 2-OH. The respiratory quinone was ubiqunone-10, with spermidine as the major polyamine. The genomic DNA G + C content was 64.8 mol%. Several biosynthesis pathways encoding for potential new bacterial bioactive metabolites were found in the genome of strain Z10-6T. The polyphasic analyses clearly distinguished strain Z10-6T from its closest phylogenetic neighbors. Thus, it represents a novel species of the genus Sphingopyxis, for which the name Sphingopyxis microcysteis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is Z10-6T (= CCTCC AB2017276T = KCTC 62492T).
Marine phycosphere harbors unique cross-kingdom associations with enormous ecological significance in aquatic ecosystems as well as relevance for algal biotechnology industry. During our investigating the microbial composition and bioactivity of marine phycosphere microbiota (PM), a novel lightly yellowish and versatile bacterium designated strain AM1-D1T was isolated from cultivable PM of marine dinoflagellate Alexandrium minutum amtk4 that produces high levels of paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins (PSTs). Strain AM1-D1T demonstrates notable bioflocculanting bioactivity with bacterial exopolysaccharides (EPS), and microalgae growth-promoting (MGP) potential toward its algal host. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain AM1-D1T was affiliated to the members of genus Sulfitobacter within the family Rhodobacteraceae, showing the highest sequence similarity of 97.9% with Sulfitobacter noctilucae NB-68T, and below 97.8% with other type strains. The complete genome of strain AM1-D1T consisted of a circular 3.84-Mb chromosome and five circular plasmids (185, 95, 15, 205 and 348 Kb, respectively) with the G+C content of 64.6%. Low values obtained by phylogenomic calculations on the average nucleotide identity (ANI, 77.2%), average amino acid identity (AAI, 74.7%) and digital DNA-DNA hybridization (dDDH, 18.6%) unequivocally separated strain AM1-D1T from its closest relative. The main polar lipids were identified as phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylcholine, diphosphatidylglycerol, one unidentified phospholipid and one unidentified lipid. The predominant fatty acids (> 10%) were C18:1 ω7c, C19:0 cyclo ω8c and C16:0. The respiratory quinone was Q-10. The genome of strain AM1-D1T was predicted to encode series of gene clusters responsible for sulfur oxidation (sox) and utilization of dissolved organic sulfur exometabolites from marine dinoflagellates, taurine (tau) and dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) (dmd), as well as supplementary vitamin B12 (cob), photosynthesis carotenoids (crt) which are pivotal components during algae-bacteria interactions. Based on the evidences by the polyphasic characterizations, strain AM1-D1T represents a novel species of the genus Sulfitobacter, for which the name Sulfitobacter alexandrii sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is AM1-D1T (= CCTCC 2017277T = KCTC 62491T).