Polyethersulfone (PES) based membranes are used for dialysis, but exposure to blood can result in numerous interactions between the blood elements and the membrane. Adsorption and transformation of plasma proteins, activation of blood cells, adherence of platelets and thrombosis reactions against PES membrane can invoke severe blood reactions causing the increase rate of mortality and morbidity of hemodialysis (HD) patients. In order to minimize blood immune response, different biomimetic, zwitterionic, non-ionic, anticoagulant molecules and hydrophilic brushes were immobilized or blended with PES polymers. These additives modified the nature of the membrane, enhanced their biocompatibility and also increased the uremic waste dialysis properties. In this review, current perspectives of the different additives which are used with PES are highlighted in relation with PES membrane-associated blood reactions. The additive's purpose, compatibility, preparation techniques, methods of addition to polymer and influence on the chemistry and performance of hemodialysis membranes are described.
* Title and MeSH Headings from MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.