Slik JWF 1 , Franklin J 2 , Arroyo-Rodríguez V 3 , Field R 4 , Aguilar S 5 , Aguirre N 6 Show all authors , Ahumada J 7 , Aiba SI 8 , Alves LF 9 , K A 10 , Avella A 11 , Mora F 3 , Aymard C GA 12 , Báez S 13 , Balvanera P 3 , Bastian ML 14 , Bastin JF 15 , Bellingham PJ 16 , van den Berg E 17 , da Conceição Bispo P 18 , Boeckx P 19 , Boehning-Gaese K 20 , Bongers F 21 , Boyle B 22 , Brambach F 23 , Brearley FQ 24 , Brown S 25 , Chai SL 26 , Chazdon RL 27 , Chen S 28 , Chhang P 29 , Chuyong G 30 , Ewango C 31 , Coronado IM 32 , Cristóbal-Azkarate J 33 , Culmsee H 34 , Damas K 35 , Dattaraja HS 36 , Davidar P 37 , DeWalt SJ 38 , Din H 39 , Drake DR 40 , Duque A 41 , Durigan G 42 , Eichhorn K 43 , Eler ES 44 , Enoki T 45 , Ensslin A 46 , Fandohan AB 47 , Farwig N 48 , Feeley KJ 49 , Fischer M 46 , Forshed O 50 , Garcia QS 51 , Garkoti SC 52 , Gillespie TW 53 , Gillet JF 54 , Gonmadje C 55 , Granzow-de la Cerda I 56 , Griffith DM 57 , Grogan J 58 , Hakeem KR 59 , Harris DJ 60 , Harrison RD 61 , Hector A 62 , Hemp A 63 , Homeier J 64 , Hussain MS 65 , Ibarra-Manríquez G 3 , Hanum IF 66 , Imai N 67 , Jansen PA 5 , Joly CA 68 , Joseph S 10 , Kartawinata K 69 , Kearsley E 70 , Kelly DL 71 , Kessler M 72 , Killeen TJ 73 , Kooyman RM 74 , Laumonier Y 10 , Laurance SG 75 , Laurance WF 75 , Lawes MJ 76 , Letcher SG 77 , Lindsell J 78 , Lovett J 79 , Lozada J 80 , Lu X 81 , Lykke AM 82 , Mahmud KB 83 , Mahayani NPD 84 , Mansor A 85 , Marshall AR 86 , Martin EH 87 , Calderado Leal Matos D 88 , Meave JA 89 , Melo FPL 90 , Mendoza ZHA 91 , Metali F 39 , Medjibe VP 92 , Metzger JP 93 , Metzker T 51 , Mohandass D 37 , Munguía-Rosas MA 94 , Muñoz R 89 , Nurtjahy E 95 , de Oliveira EL 96 , Onrizal 97 , Parolin P 98 , Parren M 99 , Parthasarathy N 37 , Paudel E 100 , Perez R 5 , Pérez-García EA 89 , Pommer U 20 , Poorter L 21 , Qie L 101 , Piedade MTF 44 , Pinto JRR 102 , Poulsen AD 60 , Poulsen JR 103 , Powers JS 104 , Prasad RC 105 , Puyravaud JP 106 , Rangel O 11 , Reitsma J 107 , Rocha DSB 108 , Rolim S 109 , Rovero F 110 , Rozak A 111 , Ruokolainen K 112 , Rutishauser E 5 , Rutten G 46 , Mohd Said MN 113 , Saiter FZ 114 , Saner P 115 , Santos B 116 , Dos Santos JR 117 , Sarker SK 118 , Schmitt CB 119 , Schoengart J 44 , Schulze M 120 , Sheil D 121 , Sist P 122 , Souza AF 123 , Spironello WR 44 , Sposito T 51 , Steinmetz R 124 , Stevart T 125 , Suganuma MS 126 , Sukri R 39 , Sultana A 65 , Sukumar R 36 , Sunderland T 10 , Supriyadi 84 , Suresh HS 36 , Suzuki E 8 , Tabarelli M 127 , Tang J 128 , Tanner EVJ 129 , Targhetta N 44 , Theilade I 130 , Thomas D 131 , Timberlake J 132 , de Morisson Valeriano M 117 , van Valkenburg J 133 , Van Do T 134 , Van Sam H 135 , Vandermeer JH 136 , Verbeeck H 70 , Vetaas OR 137 , Adekunle V 138 , Vieira SA 68 , Webb CO 139 , Webb EL 140 , Whitfeld T 141 , Wich S 142 , Williams J 143 , Wiser S 16 , Wittmann F 144 , Yang X 145 , Adou Yao CY 146 , Yap SL 147 , Zahawi RA 148 , Zakaria R 85 , Zang R 81

Affiliations 

  • 1 Environmental and Life Sciences, Faculty of Science, Universiti Brunei Darussalam, Gadong BE1410, Brunei Darussalam; ferryslik@hotmail.com janet.franklin@ucr.edu
  • 2 Department of Botany and Plant Sciences, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521; ferryslik@hotmail.com janet.franklin@ucr.edu
  • 3 Instituto de Investigaciones en Ecosistemas y Sustentabilidad, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, 58190 Morelia, Michoacán, Mexico
  • 4 School of Geography, University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2RD, United Kingdom
  • 5 Center for Tropical Forest Science, Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Ancon, Panama
  • 6 Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services Research Program, Universidad Nacional de Loja, Loja EC110103, Ecuador
  • 7 The Moore Center for Science, Conservation International, Arlington, VA 22202
  • 8 Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 890-0065, Japan
  • 9 Center for Tropical Research, Institute of the Environment and Sustainability, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095
  • 10 Forest and Environment Program, Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR), Bogor 16115, Indonesia
  • 11 Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Sede Bogotá 111321, Colombia
  • 12 UNELLEZ-Guanare, Programa de Ciencias del Agro y el Mar, Herbario Universitario (PORT), Mesa de Cavacas, Estado Portuguesa 3350, Venezuela
  • 13 Departamento de Biología, Escuela Politécnica Nacional del Ecuador, Ladrón de Guevara E11-253, Quito, Ecuador
  • 14 Smithsonian's National Zoo, Animal Care Sciences, Primates, Washington, DC 20013-7012
  • 15 Institute of Integrative Biology, Department of Environmental Systems Science, ETH Zurich, 8092 Zurich, Switzerland
  • 16 Landcare Research Manaaki Whenua, Lincoln 7640, New Zealand
  • 17 Departamento de Biologia, Universidade Federal de Lavras, Lavras-MG, 37200-000, Brazil
  • 18 Centre for Landscape and Climate Research, Department of Geography, University of Leicester, Leicester LE1 7RH, United Kingdom
  • 19 Isotope Bioscience Laboratory (ISOFYS), Department of Green Chemistry and Technology, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Ghent University, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium
  • 20 Senckenberg Biodiversity and Climate Research Centre (BiK-F), 60325 Frankfurt (Main), Germany
  • 21 Forest Ecology and Forest Management Group, Wageningen University & Research, 6700 AA Wageningen, The Netherlands
  • 22 Hardner & Gullison Associates, Victoria, BC V8P 1A9, Canada
  • 23 Ecology and Ecosystem Research, Georg August University Göttingen, 37073 Göttingen, Germany
  • 24 School of Science and the Environment, Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester M1 5GD, United Kingdom
  • 25 Environment Group, Winrock International, St Dogmaels SA43 3 DT, United Kingdom
  • 26 Ecosystem Management Unit, InnoTech Alberta, Vegreville, AB T9C 1T4, Canada
  • 27 Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269-3043
  • 28 College of Environment and Ecology, Chengdu University of Technology, Chengdu 610059, China
  • 29 Forest and Wildlife Research Institute, 12101 Phnom Penh, Cambodia
  • 30 Department of Botany and Plant Physiology, University of Buea, POB 63 Buea, Cameroon
  • 31 Wildlife Conservation Society-Program DR Congo, B.P. 14537 Brazzaville, DR Congo
  • 32 Departamento de Biología, Facultad de Ciencias y Tecnología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Nicaragua, Herbario HULE, León 505, Nicaragua
  • 33 Division of Biological Anthropology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 3QG, United Kingdom
  • 34 DBU Natural Heritage, German Federal Foundation for the Environment, 49090 Osnabrück, Germany
  • 35 PNG Forest Research Institute, Lae 411, Morobe Province, Papua New Guinea
  • 36 Centre for Ecological Sciences, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012, India
  • 37 Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences, Pondicherry University, Puducherry 605014, India
  • 38 Department of Biological Sciences, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634
  • 39 Environmental and Life Sciences, Faculty of Science, Universiti Brunei Darussalam, Gadong BE1410, Brunei Darussalam
  • 40 Botany Department, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI 96822
  • 41 Departamento de Ciencias Forestales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Medellín, Colombia
  • 42 Laboratório de Ecologia e Hidrologia Florestal, Floresta Estadual de Assis, Instituto Florestal de SP, 19802-970 Assis, SP, Brazil
  • 43 Eichhorn Ecologie, 3702 BK Zeist, The Netherlands
  • 44 Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia-INPA, Araújo, CEP 69067-375 Manaus AM, Brazil
  • 45 Kasuya Research Forest, Kyushu University, Sasaguri, Fukuoka 811-2415, Japan
  • 46 Institute of Plant Sciences, University of Bern, 3013 Bern, Switzerland
  • 47 Ecole de Foresterie et Ingénierie du Bois, Université Nationale d'Agriculture, BP 45, Kétou, Benin
  • 48 Conservation Ecology, Faculty of Biology, Philipps-Universität Marburg, 35032 Marburg, Germany
  • 49 Department of Biology, University of Miami, Coral Gables, FL 33146
  • 50 WWF-Sweden/Världsnaturfonden WWF, Ulriksdals Slott, S-170 81 Solna, Sweden
  • 51 Departamento de Botânica, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Pampulha, 31270-901 Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil
  • 52 School of Environmental Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi 110067, India
  • 53 Department of Geography, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095
  • 54 TERRA Teaching and Research Center, Central African Forests, Gembloux Agro-Bio Tech, University of Liège, B-5030 Gembloux, Belgium
  • 55 Department of Plant Biology, Faculty of Sciences, University of Yaounde I, Yaounde, BP 812, Cameroon
  • 56 CREAF, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Cerdanyola del Vallès 08193, Spain
  • 57 Universidad Técnica Particular de Loja, Loja 1101608, Ecuador
  • 58 Mount Holyoke College Botanic Garden, South Hadley, MA 01075
  • 59 Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589, Saudi Arabia
  • 60 Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH3 5LR, United Kingdom
  • 61 World Agroforestry Centre, East and Southern Africa Region, Woodlands, Lusaka, Zambia
  • 62 Department of Plant Sciences, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3RB, United Kingdom
  • 63 Department of Plant Systematics, University of Bayreuth, 95440 Bayreuth, Germany
  • 64 Plant Ecology, Albrecht von Haller Institute of Plant Sciences, Georg August University Göttingen, 37073 Göttingen, Germany
  • 65 Biodiversity Parks Programme, Centre for Environmental Management of Degraded Ecosystems, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007, India
  • 66 Faculty of Forestry, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang-43400, Selangor, Malaysia
  • 67 Department of Forest Science, Tokyo University of Agriculture, Tokyo 156-8502, Japan
  • 68 UNICAMP, Cidade Universitária Zeferino Vaz-Barão Geraldo, Campinas, Sao Paulo 13083-970, Brazil
  • 69 Integrative Research Center, The Field Museum, Chicago, IL 60605
  • 70 Computational and Applied Vegetation Ecology (CAVElab), Department of Environment, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Ghent University, Coupure Links 653, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium
  • 71 Trinity Centre for Biodiversity Research, Trinity College, The University of Dublin, Dublin 2, Ireland
  • 72 Department of Systematic and Evolutionary Botany, University of Zurich, 8008 Zurich, Switzerland
  • 73 Agteca-Amazonica, Santa Cruz, Bolivia
  • 74 Department of Biological Sciences, Macquarie University, North Ryde, NSW 2109, Australia
  • 75 Centre for Tropical Environmental and Sustainability Science and College of Science and Engineering, James Cook University, Cairns, QLD 4878, Australia
  • 76 School of Life Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Scottsville 3209, South Africa
  • 77 Department of Plant Biology, College of the Atlantic, Bar Harbor, ME 04609
  • 78 The RSPB Centre for Conservation Science, Sandy, Bedfordshire SG19 2DL, United Kingdom
  • 79 School of Geography, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, United Kingdom
  • 80 Facultad de Ciencias Forestales y Ambientales, Universidad de Los Andes, Merida S101-A, Venezuela
  • 81 Key Laboratory of Forest Ecology and Environment of State Forestry Administration, Institute of Forest Ecology, Environment and Protection, Chinese Academy of Forestry, Beijing 100091, China
  • 82 Department of Bioscience, Aarhus University, 8600 Silkeborg, Denmark
  • 83 Faculty of Bioresources and Food Sciences, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, 20300, Besut Campus, Terengganu, Malaysia
  • 84 Faculty of Forestry, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta 55281, Indonesia
  • 85 School of Biological Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang, Malaysia
  • 86 CIRCLE, University of York, York YO10 5NG, United Kingdom
  • 87 College of African Wildlife Management, Department of Wildlife Management, Moshi, Tanzania
  • 88 Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi, Belém PA, 66040-170, Brazil
  • 89 Departamento de Ecología y Recursos Naturales, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ciudad de México, C.P. 04510, Mexico
  • 90 Center for Biosciences, Federal University of Pernambuco, Cidade Universitária, Recife PE, 50670-901, Brazil
  • 91 Herbario Loja, Universidad Nacional de Loja, Loja EC110103, Ecuador
  • 92 Commission des Forêts d'Afrique Centrale (COMIFAC), BP 20818 Yaoundé, Cameroon
  • 93 Department of Ecology, Institute of Bioscience, University of São Paulo, 05508-900 São Paulo, SP, Brazil
  • 94 Laboratorio de Ecología Terrestre, Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politécnico Nacional (CINVESTAV), C.P. 927310 Mérida, México
  • 95 Department of Biology, Universitas Bangka Belitung (UBB), Kampus Merawang, Kepulauan Bangka Belitung 33172, Indonesia
  • 96 Programa de Pós Graduação em Ecologia e Conservação, Universidade do Estado de Mato Grosso-UNEMAT, 78200-000 Cáceres, Mato Grosso, Brazil
  • 97 Faculty of Forestry, Universitas Sumatera Utara, Medan 20155, Indonesia
  • 98 Department of Biodiversity, Evolution and Ecology of Plants, Biocentre Klein Flottbek, University of Hamburg, D-22609 Hamburg, Germany
  • 99 World Resource Institute, Washington, DC 20002
  • 100 Centre for Mountain Ecosystem Studies, Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650201, China
  • 101 Institut Sophia Agrobiotech, 06903 Sophia Antipolis Cedex, France
  • 102 Departamento de Engenharia Florestal, Universidade de Brasília, 70910-900, Brasília, Distrito Federal, Brazil
  • 103 Nicholas School of the Environment, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708
  • 104 College of Biological Sciences, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN 55108
  • 105 International Institute of Information Technology, Gachibowli, Hyderabad, Telangana 500032, India
  • 106 Sigur Nature Trust, Chadapatti, Masinagudi PO Nilgiris, TN 643223, India
  • 107 Bureau Waardenburg, 4100 AJ Culemborg, The Netherlands
  • 108 Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ecologia e Conservação da Biodiversidade, Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz, Ilhéus, Bahia 45662-900, Brazil
  • 109 Laboratório de Restinga e Floresta Atlântica, Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, BR-101 São Mateus, Brazil
  • 110 Tropical Biodiversity Section, MUSE - Museo delle Scienze, 38122 Trento, Italy
  • 111 Cibodas Botanic Gardens, Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI), Cipanas, Cianjur, West Java 43253, Indonesia
  • 112 Department of Geography and Geology, University of Turku, Turku, 20014 Turun yliopisto, Finland
  • 113 School of Environmental and Natural Resource Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia
  • 114 Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia do Espírito Santo, São João de Petrópolis, Santa Teresa, 29660-000, Brazil
  • 115 Department of Evolutionary Biology and Environmental Studies, University of Zurich, CH-8057 Zurich, Switzerland
  • 116 Departamento de Sistemática e Ecologia, Universidade Federal da Paraíba, 58051-900, Brazil
  • 117 Remote Sensing Department (DSR), National Institute for Space Research (INPE), São José dos Campos, São Paulo 12227-010, Brazil
  • 118 Institute of Biodiversity, Animal Health and Comparative Medicine, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, United Kingdom
  • 119 Center for Development Research (ZEF), University of Bonn, 53113 Bonn, Germany
  • 120 H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest, Blue River, OR 97413
  • 121 Faculty of Environmental Sciences and Natural Resource Management, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, 1432 Ås, Norway
  • 122 Cirad-ES, Campus International de Baillarguet, TA C-105/D 34398 Montpellier Cedex 5, France
  • 123 Departamento de Ecologia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Natal, CEP 59078-970, Brazil
  • 124 World Wildlife Fund Thailand, Bangkok 10400, Thailand
  • 125 Africa and Madagascar Department, Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO 63110
  • 126 Federal University of Technology-Paraná, 86812-460, Apucarana, PR, Brazil
  • 127 Departamento de Botânica, Cidade Universitária, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife, CEP, 50670-901, Brazil
  • 128 Key Laboratory of Tropical Plant Resources and Sustainable Use, Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Menglun Town, Mengla County, Yunnan Province 666303, China
  • 129 Department of Plant Sciences, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 3EA, United Kingdom
  • 130 Department of Food and Resource Economics, University of Copenhagen, 1165 Copenhagen, Denmark
  • 131 Department of Biological Sciences, Washington State University, Vancouver, WA 98686
  • 132 Herbarium, Royal Botanic Gardens Kew, Richmond, Surrey TW9 3AB, United Kingdom
  • 133 Netherlands Food and Consumer Product Safety, Authority, National Reference Centre, 6700HC Wageningen, The Netherlands
  • 134 Research Institute for Sustainable Humanosphere, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011, Japan
  • 135 Science, Technology and International Cooperation Department, Vietnam National University of Forestry, Hanoi 144, Vietnam
  • 136 Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109
  • 137 Department of Geography, University of Bergen, N-5020 Bergen, Norway
  • 138 Department of Forestry and Wood Technology, The Federal University of Technology, P.M.B. 704 Akure, Nigeria
  • 139 Arnold Arboretum, Harvard University, Boston, MA 02130
  • 140 Department of Biological Sciences, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117543, Singapore
  • 141 Brown University, Providence, RI 02912
  • 142 School of Natural Sciences and Psychology, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool L3 3AF, United Kingdom
  • 143 Instituto Politécnico Nacional, CIIDIR-Unidad Oaxaca, Santa Cruz Xoxocotlán, CP 71230, Oaxaca, Mexico
  • 144 Department of Floodplain Ecology, Institute of Geography and Geoecology, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, D-76437 Rastatt, Germany
  • 145 College of Agriculture and Forestry, Hainan University, Meilan Qu Haikou Shi, 570228, Hainan Province, China
  • 146 Biosciences, Université Félix Houphouet-Boigny, Abidjan 22, Ivory Coast
  • 147 Institute of Arts and Sciences, Far Eastern University, Manila, Philippines
  • 148 Department of Biology, American University of Beirut, Riad El-Solh, Beirut 1107 2020, Lebanon
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 2018 02 20;115(8):1837-1842.
PMID: 29432167 DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1714977115

Abstract

Knowledge about the biogeographic affinities of the world's tropical forests helps to better understand regional differences in forest structure, diversity, composition, and dynamics. Such understanding will enable anticipation of region-specific responses to global environmental change. Modern phylogenies, in combination with broad coverage of species inventory data, now allow for global biogeographic analyses that take species evolutionary distance into account. Here we present a classification of the world's tropical forests based on their phylogenetic similarity. We identify five principal floristic regions and their floristic relationships: (i) Indo-Pacific, (ii) Subtropical, (iii) African, (iv) American, and (v) Dry forests. Our results do not support the traditional neo- versus paleotropical forest division but instead separate the combined American and African forests from their Indo-Pacific counterparts. We also find indications for the existence of a global dry forest region, with representatives in America, Africa, Madagascar, and India. Additionally, a northern-hemisphere Subtropical forest region was identified with representatives in Asia and America, providing support for a link between Asian and American northern-hemisphere forests.

* Title and MeSH Headings from MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.