• 1 School of Materials and Mineral Resources Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Nibong Tebal, Penang 14300, Malaysia
ACS Omega, 2020 Jun 23;5(24):14473-14480.
PMID: 32596585 DOI: 10.1021/acsomega.0c01114


Pour point depressant (PPD) emulsion has been gaining attention in crude oil transportation owing to its potential to solve solidification issues that arise in cold climate environments. An emulsion system provides a wide range of temperature application that combines good shelf life and tunable thermal properties to tackle this problem. These features can be achieved by incorporating an antifreeze agent into the emulsion. One of the most commonly used antifreeze agents is ethylene glycol (EG). Hence, this study focuses on the thermal properties and droplet size growth of PPD emulsions that were aged in variable concentrations of EG solution. EG50 exhibited the lowest freezing temperature of -44 °C, while EG25 demonstrated the lowest vitrification temperature of -68.7 °C. The particle size of the emulsions underwent a significant reduction from 332.3 to 228.9 nm upon the stepwise EG concentration increment to EG50. However, when the concentration was increased to EG75, a slight increase in the emulsion particle size was observed with a recorded value of 237.8 nm. Thus, it is concluded that EG50 represents the optimum concentration for delivering the best freezing protection and producing a smaller droplet particle size.

* Title and MeSH Headings from MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.