Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 80 in total

  1. Osman WNAW, Selvarajah D, Samsuri S
    Molecules, 2021 Aug 11;26(16).
    PMID: 34443445 DOI: 10.3390/molecules26164856
    Saponin is a biopesticide used to suppress the growth of the golden apple snail population. This study aims to determine the stabilized conditions for saponin storage. The maceration process was used for saponin extraction, and for saponin concentration, progressive freeze concentration (PFC) was used. Afterwards, stability analysis was performed by storing the sample for 21 days in two conditions: Room temperature (26 °C) and cold room (10 °C). The samples kept in a cold room were sterilized samples that undergo thermal treatment by placing the sample in the water bath. The non-sterilized samples were kept in room temperature condition for 21 days. The results showed that saponin stored in the cold room (sterilized sample) has low degradation with higher concentration than those stored at room temperature in stability analysis with the highest saponin concentration (0.730 mg/mL) at a concentration temperature of -6 °C and concentration time of 15 min. The lowest saponin concentration obtained by saponin stored at room temperature (non-sterilized sample) is 0.025 mg/mL at a concentration temperature of -6 °C and concentration time of 10 min. Thus, the finding concluded that saponin is sensitive to temperature. Hence, the best storage condition to store saponin after thermal treatment is to keep it in a cold room at 10 °C.
    Matched MeSH terms: Freezing*
  2. Wahab AHA, Saad APM, Harun MN, Syahrom A, Ramlee MH, Sulong MA, et al.
    J Mech Behav Biomed Mater, 2019 03;91:406-415.
    PMID: 30684888 DOI: 10.1016/j.jmbbm.2018.12.033
    Intact glenoid labrum is one of passive stabilizer for glenohumeral joint, which have various stiffness at different region. The aim of this study is to develop new artificial glenoid labrum from Polyvinyl Alcohol (PVA) hydrogel, which known as good biomaterial due to its biocompatibility and ability to tailor its modulus. PVA hydrogel was formed using freeze-thaw (FT) method and the stiffness of PVA was controlled by manipulating the concentration of PVA and number of FT cycles. Then, the gradual stiffness was formed using simple diffusion method by introducing the pre-freeze-and-thaw steps. The results showed 20% PVA with three FT cycles suit to highest stiffness of glenoid labrum while 10% PVA with three FT cycles suit to lowest stiffness of glenoid labrum. The functionally graded PVA hydrogel was then developed using the same method by diffusing two mixture (20% PVA and 10% PVA). Mechanical compression test showed, the highest modulus (0.41 MPa) found at the 20% PVA region and lowest modulus (0.1 MPa) found at 10% PVA region. While, at intermediate region, the compressive modulus was in between 20% and 10%, 0.2 MPa. The existence of gradual stiffness was further prove by checking crystallinity of material at each region using Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Wide Angle X-ray Diffraction (WAXD). Microstructure of material was obtained from Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). This functionally graded PVA hydrogel also able to reduce about 51% of stress at glenoid implant and up to 17% for micromotion at the interfaces. Existence of artificial glenoid labrum could minimize the occurrence of glenoid component loosening.
    Matched MeSH terms: Freezing*
  3. Normah, I., Cheow, C.S., Chong, C.L.
    Diacylglycerol at 1 or 6% was added into refined bleached and deodorized palm oil (RBDPO) and crystallized from the melt in a thermally controlled water bath at 22°C for 90 min. Slurries were withdrawn after 5, 15, 30, 60 and 90 min of crystallization for solid fat content (SFC) and crystal morphology studies. Crystallization was also performed in a similar manner using a Labmax reactor connected to a FBRM detector to obtain the information on crystal count and size distribution during crystallization. SFC of the slurries increased with increase in crystallization time up to a certain level followed by a plateau. SFC of RBDPO added with DAG was also higher with the increase in percentage of DAG added and no induction time was observed to initiate crystallization in RBDPO added with DAG. The addition of DAG caused rapid crystallization of RBDPO as observed by enhance nucleation and larger crystal size with increase in the percentages of DAG added.
    Matched MeSH terms: Freezing
  4. Sze-Yin, S., Lai-Hoong, C.
    The objective of this work was to study the effects of trehalose and maltodextrin on Chinese
    steamed bread (CSB) prepared from frozen dough. Trehalose (0.1 and 0.2% w/w) and
    maltodextrin (1 and 2% w/w) were added and CSB prepared from the fresh dough and the
    frozen dough was characterized in terms of spread ratio, specific volume, staling index and
    stress relaxation properties. Upon frozen storage, spread ratio and specific volume of CSB,
    and elasticity of the bread crumb were reduced. The extend of deterioration was significantly
    reduced with the addition of 0.1% trehalose and 2% maltodextrin. Excessive addition of
    trehalose and maltodextrin was found to cause detrimental effects to CSB quality.
    Matched MeSH terms: Freezing
  5. Lee JS, Lo YL, Chye FY
    This study was carried out to elucidate the effect of three types of cation (K+, Ca2+ and Na+) at various concentrations on the gelling properties of untreated Eucheuma cottoni, with the ultimate aim to explore the possibility of utilizing the seaweed in its natural form as gelling agent. Results obtained suggest that E. cottonii also exhibited the dramatic cation specificity of k-carrageenan, in which the dependence of gel strength follows the order: K+ > Ca2+ > Na+. As expected, cations addition exerts adverse effect on the syneresis, water holding capacity and freeze-thaw stability of the seaweed gel. Water holding capcity of the gel is however independent of the increased concentrations of K+(p>0.05). Storage duration and storage temperature significantly (p<0.05) affect the syneresis and water holding capacity of the gel. Among the cations, K+ appears to be better in improving the gel properties of the seaweed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Freezing
  6. Jiang L, Yue K, Yang Y, Wu Q
    Sains Malaysiana, 2016;45:1041-1047.
    Litter decomposition is vital for carbon and nutrient turnover in terrestrial ecosystems, and this process has now
    been thoroughly demonstrated to be regulated by various mechanisms. The total environment has been continuously
    changing in recent decades, especially in high-latitude regions; these alterations, however, profoundly contribute to the
    decomposition process, but a comprehensive recognition has not available. Here we reviewed the empirical observations
    and current knowledge regarding how hydrological leaching and freeze-thaw events modulate early decomposition of
    plant litter. Leaching contributes a considerable percentage of mass loss and carbon and nutrient release in early stage of
    decomposition, but the magnitudes are different between species levels depending on the chemical traits. Frequent freezing
    and thawing events could positively influence decomposition rate in cold biomes but also hamper soil decomposer and
    there is no general and predictable pattern has been emerged. Further experiments should be manipulated to estimate
    how the altered freezing and thawing effect on carbon and nutrient release from plant litter to better understanding the
    changing environment on litter decomposition.
    Matched MeSH terms: Freezing
  7. Ramadhan K, Huda N, Ahmad R
    Poult Sci, 2012 Jul;91(7):1703-8.
    PMID: 22700518 DOI: 10.3382/ps.2011-01926
    In this study, the effect of the addition of different cryoprotectants on the freeze-thaw stability of duck surimi-like material (DSLM) was tested. A 6% (wt/wt) low-sweetness cryoprotectant (i.e., polydextrose, trehalose, lactitol, or palatinit) was added to a 3-kg portion of DSLM, and the mixture was subjected to freeze-thaw cycles during 4 mo of frozen storage. The DSLM with no cryoprotectant added (control) and with a 6% sucrose-sorbitol blend (high-sweetness cryoprotectant) added also were tested. The polydextrose-added sample had the highest water-holding capacity among the sample types tested (P < 0.05), and it retained its higher value during frozen storage. The protein solubility of the cryoprotectant-added samples decreased significantly (P < 0.05) from 58.99 to 59.60% at initial frozen storage (0 mo) to 48.60 to 54.61% at the end of the experiment (4 mo). The gel breaking force of all samples significantly decreased (P < 0.05) at 1 mo; this breaking force then stabilized after further frozen storage for the cryoprotectant-added samples, whereas it continued to decrease in the control samples. Gel deformation fluctuated during frozen storage and was significantly lower (P < 0.05) at the end of experiment than at the beginning. The presence of cryoprotectants reduced the whiteness of DSLM. Samples containing polydextrose, trehalose, lactitol, and palatinit were able to retain the protein solubility, gel breaking force, and deformation of DSLM better than control samples after 4 mo of frozen storage and exposure to freeze-thaw cycles. The effects of these low-sweetness cryoprotectants are comparable to those of sucrose-sorbitol, thus, these sugars could be used as alternatives in protecting surimi-like materials during frozen storage.
    Matched MeSH terms: Freezing*
  8. Nang CF, Osman K, Budin SB, Ismail MI, Jaffar FH, Mohamad SF, et al.
    Andrologia, 2012 May;44 Suppl 1:447-53.
    PMID: 21806660 DOI: 10.1111/j.1439-0272.2011.01203.x
    Liquid nitrogen preservation in remote farms is a limitation. The goal of this study was to determine optimum temperature above freezing point for bovine spermatozoa preservation using bovine serum albumin (BSA) as a supplementation. Pooled semen sample from three ejaculates was subjected to various BSA concentration (1, 4, 8 and 12 mg ml(-1)), before incubation in different above freezing point temperatures (4, 25 and 37 °C). Viability assessment was carried out against time from day 0 (fresh sample) until all spermatozoa become nonviable. Optimal condition for bovine spermatozoa storage was at 4 °C with 1 mg ml(-1) BSA for almost 7 days. BSA improved bovine spermatozoa viability declining rate to 44.28% at day 4 and 57.59% at day 7 compared to control, with 80.54% and 98.57% at day 4 and 7 respectively. Increase in BSA concentration did not improve sperm viability. Our results also confirmed that there was a strong negative correlation between media osmolarity and bovine spermatozoa survival rate with r = 0.885, P < 0.0001. Bovine serum albumin helps to improve survival rate of bovine spermatozoa stored above freezing point.
    Matched MeSH terms: Freezing*
  9. Ab Latip R, Lee YY, Tang TK, Phuah ET, Lee CM, Tan CP, et al.
    PeerJ, 2013;1:e72.
    PMID: 23682348 DOI: 10.7717/peerj.72
    Fractionation which separates the olein (liquid) and stearin (solid) fractions of oil is used to modify the physicochemical properties of fats in order to extend its applications. Studies showed that the properties of fractionated end products can be affected by fractionation processing conditions. In the present study, dry fractionation of palm-based diacylglycerol (PDAG) was performed at different: cooling rates (0.05, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 and 3.0°C/min), end-crystallisation temperatures (30, 35, 40, 45 and 50°C) and agitation speeds (30, 50, 70, 90 and 110 rpm) to determine the effect of these parameters on the properties and yield of the solid and liquid portions. To determine the physicochemical properties of olein and stearin fraction: Iodine value (IV), fatty acid composition (FAC), acylglycerol composition, slip melting point (SMP), solid fat content (SFC), thermal behaviour tests were carried out. Fractionation of PDAG fat changes the chemical composition of liquid and solid fractions. In terms of FAC, the major fatty acid in olein and stearin fractions were oleic (C18:1) and palmitic (C16:0) respectively. Acylglycerol composition showed that olein and stearin fractions is concentrated with TAG and DAG respectively. Crystallization temperature, cooling rate and agitation speed does not affect the IV, SFC, melting and cooling properties of the stearin fraction. The stearin fraction was only affected by cooling rate which changes its SMP. On the other hand, olein fraction was affected by crystallization temperature and cooling rate but not agitation speed which caused changes in IV, SMP, SFC, melting and crystallization behavior. Increase in both the crystallization temperature and cooling rate caused a reduction of IV, increment of the SFC, SMP, melting and crystallization behaviour of olein fraction and vice versa. The fractionated stearin part melted above 65°C while the olein melted at 40°C. SMP in olein fraction also reduced to a range of 26 to 44°C while SMP of stearin fractions increased to (60-62°C) compared to PDAG.
    Matched MeSH terms: Freezing
  10. Nahar, M.K., Hashim, U., Zakaria, Z.
    This work was investigated the protein solubility properties of meat from chicken in different
    body part. The effects of fresh and freezing condition were studied on the protein solubility as
    a functional property of slaughter and non slaughtering chicken meat. Solubility of proteins
    was significantly reduced for slaughtering fresh meat and in contrast, non slaughtering fresh
    meat shows the higher protein solubility. On the other hand, frozen storage meat showed the
    difference amount of protein solubility between slaughtering and non slaughtering condition
    meat. Freezing condition also showed that the different solubility of different body part meat.
    The protein solubility of some parts was significantly increased and some were decreased
    between the slaughtering and non slaughtering condition.
    Matched MeSH terms: Freezing
  11. Nopianti, R., Huda, N., Fazilah, A., Ismail, N., Easa, A. M.
    The effects of different types of low-sweetness sugar (lactitol, maltodexrin, palatinit, polydextrose,
    trehalose) on the physicochemical properties of threadfin bream (Nemipterus spp.) surimi during six months of frozen storage were investigated. The characteristics analyzed were moisture content, pH, water-holding capacity, whiteness, folding test, gel strength, expressible moisture, and texture profile analyses. Generally, the cryoprotective effectiveness decreased as the storage time increased. Polydextrose was able to maintain a water-holding capacity of 77.0%, 98.6% whiteness, a folding test value of 100%, and a gel strength of 53.6% compared with its initial value during six months of frozen storage. Meanwhile, sucrose was able to maintain a water-holding capacity of 80.3%, 98.6% whiteness, a folding test value of 75%, and a gel strength of 56.8%
    compared with its initial value. Raw surimi was able to maintain water holding capacity of 62.2%, 98.7% whiteness, a folding test value of 75%, and a gel strength of 36.0% compared with its initial value. It is suggested that, polydextrose as a potential alternative cryoprotectant to replace other low-sweetness sugars.
    Matched MeSH terms: Freezing
  12. Sim, S.Y., Noor Aziah, A.A., Teng, T.T., Cheng, L.H.
    The effects of food gums addition on wheat dough freeze-thaw and frozen storage stability were studied. Thermal and dynamic mechanical properties of frozen wheat dough without yeast addition were
    determined by means of Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA).
    DSC results revealed that food gums showed the ability to increase freeze-thaw stability in frozen-stored
    samples wherein lower difference in melting enthalpy between first and second freeze-thaw cycle was shown. Based on DMA results, in general, difference between Tg’ and storage temperature (- 18°C) of dough became smaller upon addition of food gums. This may have a practical implication whereby the unfrozen phase could be better protected against physical degradation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Freezing
  13. Hammond ER, Foong AKM, Rosli N, Morbeck DE
    Hum Reprod, 2020 05 01;35(5):1045-1053.
    PMID: 32358601 DOI: 10.1093/humrep/deaa060
    STUDY QUESTION: What is the inter-observer agreement among embryologists for decision to freeze blastocysts of borderline morphology and can it be improved with a modified grading system?

    SUMMARY ANSWER: The inter-observer agreement among embryologists deciding whether to freeze blastocysts of marginal morphology was low and was not improved by a modified grading system.

    WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: While previous research on inter-observer variability on the decision of which embryo to transfer from a cohort of blastocysts is good, the impact of grading variability regarding decision to freeze borderline blastocysts has not been investigated. Agreement for inner cell mass (ICM) and trophectoderm (TE) grade is only fair, factors which contribute to the grade that influences decision to freeze.

    STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: This was a prospective study involving 18 embryologists working at four different IVF clinics within a single organisation between January 2019 and July 2019.

    PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS: All embryologists currently practicing blastocyst grading at a multi-site organisation were invited to participate. The survey was comprised of blastocyst images in three planes and asked (i) the likelihood of freezing and (ii) whether the blastocyst would be frozen based on visual assessment. Blastocysts varied by quality and were categorised as either top (n = 20), borderline (n = 60) or non-viable/degenerate quality (n = 20). A total of 1800 freeze decisions were assessed. To assess the impact of grading criteria on inter-observer agreement for decision to freeze, the survey was taken once when the embryologists used the Gardner criteria and again 6 months after transitioning to a modified Gardner criterion with four grades for ICM and TE. The fourth grade was introduced with the aim to promote higher levels of agreement for the clinical usability decision when the blastocyst was of marginal quality.

    MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE: The inter-observer agreement for decision to freeze was near perfect (kappa 1.0) for top and non-viable/degenerate quality blastocysts, and this was not affected by the blastocysts grading criteria used (top quality; P = 0.330 and non-viable/degenerate quality; P = 0.18). In contrast, the cohort of borderline blastocysts received a mixed freeze rate (average 52.7%) during the first survey, indicative of blastocysts that showed uncertain viability and promoting significant disagreement for decision to freeze among the embryologists (kappa 0.304). After transitioning to a modified Gardner criteria with an additional grading tier, the average freeze rate increased (64.8%; P 

    Matched MeSH terms: Freezing
  14. Haibo Jiang, Zuguo Mo, Xiongbin Hou, Haijuan Wang
    Sains Malaysiana, 2017;46:2205-2213.
    The mechanical properties of fractured rock mass are largely dependent on the fracture structure under the coupling of freeze-thaw cycles and large temperature difference. Based on the traditional macroscopic continuum theory, the thermal and mechanical model and the corresponding theories ignore the material internal structure characteristics, which add difficulty in describing the mesoscopic thermal and mechanical behavior of the fractured rock mass among different phases. In order to uncover the inherent relationship and laws among the internal crack development, structural change and the physical and mechanical properties of rock under strong cold and frost weathering in cold area, typical granite and sandstone in cold region were analyzed in laboratory tests. The SEM scanning technology was introduced to record the microstructural change of rock samples subject to freeze-thaw cycles and large temperature difference. Association rules between the microstructure and the physical mechanical properties of rock mass were analyzed. The results indicated that, with the increase of the cyclic number, the macroscopic physical and mechanical indexes and the microscopic fracture index of granite and sandstone continuously and gradually deteriorate. The width of original micro crack continues to expand and extend and new local micro cracks are generated and continue to expand. The fracture area and width of the rock increase and the strength of the rock is continuously damaged. In particular, the strength and elastic modulus of granite decrease by 20.2% and 33.36%, respectively; the strength and elastic modulus of sandstone decrease by 33.4% and 36.43%, respectively.
    Matched MeSH terms: Freezing
  15. Anuar MAM, Amran NA, Ruslan MSH
    ACS Omega, 2021 Feb 02;6(4):2707-2716.
    PMID: 33553888 DOI: 10.1021/acsomega.0c04897
    Oil and grease remain the dominant contaminants in the palm oil mill effluent (POME) despite the conventional treatment of POME. The removal of residual oil from palm oil-water mixture (POME model) using the progressive freezing process was investigated. An optimization technique called response surface methodology (RSM) with the design of rotatable central composite design was applied to figure out the optimum experimental variables generated by Design-Expert software (version 6.0.4. Stat-Ease, trial version). Besides, RSM also helps to investigate the interactive effects among the independent variables compared to one factor at a time. The variables involved are coolant temperature, XA (4-12 °C), freezing time, XB (20-60 min), and circulation flow, XC (200-600 rpm). The statistical analysis showed that a two-factor interaction model was developed using the obtained experimental data with a coefficient of determination (R2) value of 0.9582. From the RSM-generated model, the optimum conditions for extraction of oil from the POME model were a coolant temperature of 6 °C in 50 min freezing time with a circulation flowrate of 500 rpm. The validation of the model showed that the predicted oil yield and experimental oil yield were 92.56 and 93.20%, respectively.
    Matched MeSH terms: Freezing
  16. Al-Bulushi IM, Kasapis S, Dykes GA, Al-Waili H, Guizani N, Al-Oufi H
    J Food Sci Technol, 2013 Dec;50(6):1158-64.
    PMID: 24426029 DOI: 10.1007/s13197-011-0441-x
    The effect of frozen storage on the physiochemical, chemical and microbial characteristics of two types of fish sausages was studied. Fish sausages developed (DFS) with a spice-sugar formulation and commercial fish sausages (CFS) were stored at -20 °C for 3 months. Fresh DFS contained 12.22% lipids and had a 3.53 cfu/g total bacteria count (TBC) whereas, CFS contained 5.5% lipids and had a 4.81 cfu/g TBC. During storage, TBC decreased significantly (p  0.05) in CFS. A peroxide value (PV) was not detectable until week four and eight of storage in CFS and DFS, respectively. The salt-soluble proteins (SSP) level was stable in DFS but in CFS it declined significantly (p  0.05) in both sausage types. This study showed that the effect of storage at -20 °C on fish sausages characteristics varied between formulations and depended on the ingredients of fish sausages.
    Matched MeSH terms: Freezing
  17. Afida, T., Mamot, S.
    Chicken fat is a potential bioresource that can be developed into a commercial product. In this study, chicken fat, which is rich in unsaturated fatty acids, including oleic acid (C18:1) and linoleic acid (C18:2), was enzymatically interesterified with corn oil to produce a soft spread. Two interesterified products, sample 16 (4% enzyme, 4:1 mole ratio of chicken fat to corn oil, 50°C and 42 h of the interesterification process) and sample 17 (4% enzyme, 2:1 mole ratio of chicken fat to corn oil, 30°C and 42 h of the interesterification process), were selected based on the highest SFC at 30oC which were close to SFC values of commercial product. A morphological study showed that the final products had smaller and less dense fat particles, which explained the lower melting temperatures and solid fat content (3.2 and 3.5% for samples 16 and 17, respectively, at 20°C) compared to the commercial products (9.7, 6.8 and 7.7% for products A, B and C, respectively, at 20°C). However, both sample 16 and 17 had similar thermal properties to a vegetable-oil-based commercial product, with melting enthalpies (ΔH) of 58.45 J/g and 71.40 J/g, and were fully melted at 31.40°C and 35.41°C, respectively.
    Matched MeSH terms: Freezing
  18. Rosnah, S., Wong, W.K., Noraziah, M., Osman, H.
    Changes in physical properties (weight, size, colour and weight loss) and chemical properties (proximate analysis, TSS, pH, freezing point, total acidity and sugar content) of two water apple (Syzgium samaragense) cultivars, Semarang Rose and Kristal Taiwan were evaluated during ripening at 10°C and 50% RH. The results showed that the Kristal Taiwan cultivar was larger in size and weight but smaller in length compared to Semarang Rose. The Semarang Rose cultivar was sweeter than Kristal Taiwan. In this study, data obtained suggests that the water apple fruit can be stored at cold storage until 19 days.
    Matched MeSH terms: Freezing
  19. Rusidah Mat Yatim, Kannan, Thirumulu Ponnuraj, Suzina Sheikh Ab Hamid, Shazana Hilda Shamsudin
    The aim of this study was to determine the efficiency of different human amniotic membrane (HAM) processing methods on the concentration, purity and integrity of RNA. Two different techniques (Technique1 andTechnique2) were employed for the processing of HAM, which differed in terms of washing solution, sample storage conditions and processing time. Based on preservation of HAM, three groups were formed under each technique. In Technique 1, the groups were fresh frozen 1 (F1), glycerol preserved (GP) and gamma irradiated glycerol preserved (IGP); where else in Technique 2, the groups were fresh frozen 2 (F2), 50%glycerol/Dulbecco’s modified Eagle medium (DMEM) cryopre served HAM diluted with phosphate buffered saline(GB) and 50% glycerol/DMEM cryop reserved HAM diluted with diethyl procarbonate water (GD). Total RNA was extracted from the samples and their concentration, purity and integrity were examined. The F2 sample of which there was no pre-washing step and involved direct sample storage at-80oC, shorter processing time and chilled processing conditions had yielded better quality of RNA compared to the others.
    Matched MeSH terms: Freezing
  20. Pon, S.Y., Lee, W.J., Chong, G.H.
    Ice cream contains high sugar content and therefore it is in contradiction with the concept of healthy diet. The objective of this study is to determine the suitability of using stevia as an alternative natural sweetener in making ice cream. In- house ice cream formulation (as the control) and three different concentrations of stevia ice cream formulations of (A, B and C) were used. Physical properties of the ice cream such as the overrun, total soluble solid, meltdown rate, rheology, and textural properties were evaluated. All ice cream samples exhibited a nonNewtonian flow with pseudoplastic behavior. Stevia ice cream has a lower melting rate and has a higher sustainability. The power law also showed that apparent viscosities of stevia ice cream were higher. Therefore, stevia can be used as a natural sugar substitute in ice cream production.
    Matched MeSH terms: Freezing
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