Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 37 in total

  1. Aris AM, Elegbe EO, Krishna R
    Singapore Med J, 1992 Apr;33(2):204-5.
    PMID: 1621133
    Intubation was difficult and traumatic in a 40-year-old patient presented for emergency oesophagoscopy because the diagnosis of stylohyoid ligament calcification was not suspected. High probability of stylohyoid ligament calcification should be suspected when there is difficulty in lifting the epiglottis and fibre-optic laryngoscopy is suggested as the best way to tackle this problem to prevent trauma and possible risk of regurgitation and aspiration especially in emergency situation.
  2. Aris A, Din MF, Salim MR, Yunus S, Abu Bakar WA
    Water Sci Technol, 2002;46(9):255-62.
    PMID: 12448476
    In Malaysia, most colored wastewater from dyeing factories is discharged to the environment causing serious problems. In this paper the influence of several reacting conditions, i.e. H2O2, pH, Ultraviolet (UV) intensity and dye concentration, on the performance of the immobilized system is discussed. The pH of the solution was varied from 3 to 11 while H2O2 concentration tested was from 10(-4) M to 5 x 10(-2) M. UV was tested at 365 nm and 254 nm, while dye concentration ranged from 2.5 x 10(-4) M to 10(-3) M. The influence of the reacting conditions was assessed based on absorbance. Using an OG concentration of 10(-3) M, the degradation increases from 17.8% to 49.7%. Optimum concentration of H2O2 was found to be 5 x 10(-3) M for degradation. Increasing the intensity of the UV light via shorter light wavelength also improves the performance of the system. Increasing the concentration of the dye reduces the overall performance of the system. Using the dye concentration of 2.5 x 10(-4) M (H2O2 = 10(-2) M, lambda = 254 nm, pH = 11), gives a degradation of 93.2%. At dye concentration of 10(-3) M, the performance was reduced to 53.1%.
  3. Aris A, Sharratt PN
    Environ Technol, 2006 Oct;27(10):1153-61.
    PMID: 17144264
    The effect of initial dissolved oxygen concentration (IDOC) on Fenton's reagent degradation of a dyestuff, Reactive Black 5 was explored in this study. The study was designed, conducted and analysed based on Central Composite Rotatable Design using a 3-1 lab-scale reactor. The participation of O2 in the process was experimentally observed and appears to be affected by the dosage of the reagents used in the study. The IDOC was found to have a significant influence on the process. Reducing the IDOC from 7.5 mg l(-1) to 2.5 mg l(-1) increased the removal of TOC by an average of about 10%. Reduction of IDOC from 10 mg l(-1) to 0 mg l(-1) enhanced the TOC removal by about 30%. The negative influence of IDOC is likely to be caused by the competition between the O2 and the reagents for the organoradicals. A model describing the relationship between initial TOC removal, reagent dosage and IDOC has also been developed.
  4. Zakaria ZA, Gopalan HK, Zainal H, Mohd Pojan NH, Morsid NA, Aris A, et al.
    Yakugaku Zasshi, 2006 Nov;126(11):1171-8.
    PMID: 17077618
    AIM: The present study was carried out to evaluate the antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic effects of chloroform extract of Solanum nigrum leaves using various animal models.

    METHODS: The extract was prepared by soaking (1:20; w/v) the air-dried powdered leaves (20 g) in chloroform for 72 hrs followed by evaporation (40 degrees C) under reduced pressure to dryness (1.26 g) and then dissolved (1:50; w/v) in dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO). The supernatant, considered as the stock solution with dose of 200 mg/kg, was diluted using DMSO to 20 and 100 mg/kg, and all doses were administered (s.c.; 10 ml/kg) in mice/rats 30 min prior to tests.

    RESULTS: The extract exhibited significant (p<0.05) antinociceptive activity when assessed using the abdominal constriction, hot plate and formalin tests. The extract also produced significant (p<0.05) anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activities when assessed using the carrageenan-induced paw edema and brewer's yeast-induced pyrexia tests. Overall, the activities occurred in a dose-independent manner.

    CONCLUSION: The present study demonstrated that the lipid-soluble extract of S. nigrum leaves possessed antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory and anti-pyretic properties and confirmed the traditional claims.

  5. Praveena SM, Ahmed A, Radojevic M, Abdullah MH, Aris AZ
    Bull Environ Contam Toxicol, 2008 Jul;81(1):52-6.
    PMID: 18506379 DOI: 10.1007/s00128-008-9460-3
    Spatial variations in estuarine intertidal sediment have been often related to such environmental variables as salinity, sediment types, heavy metals and base cations. However, there have been few attempts to investigate the difference condition between high and low tides relationships and to predict their likely responses in an estuarine environment. This paper investigates the linkages between environmental variables and tides of estuarine intertidal sediment in order to provide a basis for describing the effect of tides in the Mengkabong lagoon, Sabah. Multivariate statistical technique, principal components analysis (PCA) was employed to better interpret information about the sediment and its controlling factors in the intertidal zone. The calculation of Geoaccumulation Index (I(geo)) suggests the Mengkabong mangrove sediments are having background concentrations for Al, Cu, Fe, and Zn and unpolluted for Pb. Extra efforts should therefore pay attention to understand the mechanisms and quantification of different pathways of exchange within and between intertidal zones.
  6. Zakaria ZA, Sulaiman MR, Morsid NA, Aris A, Zainal H, Pojan NH, et al.
    Methods Find Exp Clin Pharmacol, 2009 Mar;31(2):81-8.
    PMID: 19455262 DOI: 10.1358/mf.2009.31.2.1353876
    The present study was carried out to evaluate the antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic effects of the aqueous extract of Solanum nigrum leaves using various animal models. The extract, at concentrations of 10, 50 and 100%, was prepared by soaking (1:20; w/v) air-dried powdered leaves (20 g) in distilled water (dH2O) for 72 h. The extract solutions were administered subcutaneously in mice/rats 30 min prior to the tests. The extract exhibited significant (P < 0.05) antinociceptive activity when assessed using the abdominal constriction, hot plate and formalin tests. The extract also produced significant (P < 0.05) anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activities when assessed using the carrageenan-induced paw edema and brewer's yeast-induced pyrexia tests, respectively. Overall, these activities occurred in a concentration-dependent manner, except for the 50% concentration of the extract, which was not effective in the abdominal constriction test. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that S. nigrum leaves possessed antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic effects and thus supported traditional claims of its medicinal uses.
  7. Ibrahim Z, Amin MF, Yahya A, Aris A, Umor NA, Muda K, et al.
    Water Sci Technol, 2009;60(3):683-8.
    PMID: 19657163 DOI: 10.2166/wst.2009.440
    Microbial flocs formed from raw textile wastewater in a prototype Aerobic Biofilm Reactor (ABR) system were characterised and studied for their potential use in the treatment of textile wastewater. After 90-100 days of operation, microbial flocs of loose irregular structures were obtained from the reactor with good settling velocity of 33 m/h and sludge volume index (SVI) of 48.2 mL/g. Molecular analysis of the flocs using PCR-amplified 16S rDNA sequence showed 98% homology to those of Bacillus sp, Paenibacillus sp and Acromobacter sp. Detection of Ca(2+)(131 mg/g) and Fe(2+)(131 mg/g) using atomic absorption spectrometer might be implicated with the flocs formation. In addition, presence of Co(2+) and Ni(2+) were indicative of the flocs ability to accumulate at least a fraction of the metals' present in the wastewater. When the flocs were used for the treatment of raw textile wastewater, they showed good removal of COD and colour about 55% and 70% respectively, indicating their potential application.
  8. Muda K, Aris A, Salim MR, Ibrahim Z, Yahya A, van Loosdrecht MC, et al.
    Water Res, 2010 Aug;44(15):4341-50.
    PMID: 20580402 DOI: 10.1016/j.watres.2010.05.023
    Microbial granular sludge that is capable to treat textile wastewater in a single reactor under intermittent anaerobic and aerobic conditions was developed in this study. The granules were cultivated using mixed sewage and textile mill sludge in combination with anaerobic granules collected from an anaerobic sludge blanket reactor as seed. The granules were developed in a single sequential batch reactor (SBR) system under alternating anaerobic and aerobic condition fed with synthetic textile wastewater. The characteristics of the microbial granular sludge were monitored throughout the study period. During this period, the average size of the granules increased from 0.02 +/- 0.01 mm to 2.3 +/- 1.0 mm and the average settling velocity increased from 9.9 +/- 0.7 m h(-1) to 80 +/- 8 m h(-1). This resulted in an increased biomass concentration (from 2.9 +/- 0.8 g L(-1) to 7.3 +/- 0.9 g L(-1)) and mean cell residence time (from 1.4 days to 8.3 days). The strength of the granules, expressed as the integrity coefficient also improved. The sequential batch reactor system demonstrated good removal of COD and ammonia of 94% and 95%, respectively, at the end of the study. However, only 62% of color removal was observed. The findings of this study show that granular sludge could be developed in a single reactor with an intermittent anaerobic-aerobic reaction phase and is capable in treating the textile wastewater.
  9. Ibrahim Z, Amin MF, Yahya A, Aris A, Muda K
    Water Sci Technol, 2010;61(5):1279-88.
    PMID: 20220250 DOI: 10.2166/wst.2010.021
    Textile wastewater, one of the most polluted industrial effluents, generally contains substantial amount of dyes and chemicals that will cause increase in the COD, colour and toxicity of receiving water bodies if not properly treated. Current treatment methods include chemical and biological processes; the efficiency of the biological treatment method however, remains uncertain since the discharged effluent is still highly coloured. In this study, granules consisting mixed culture of decolourising bacteria were developed and the physical and morphological characteristics were determined. After the sixth week of development, the granules were 3-10 mm in diameter, having good settling property with settling velocity of 70 m/h, sludge volume index (SVI) of 90 to 130 mL/g, integrity coefficient of 3.7, and density of 66 g/l. Their abilities to treat sterilised raw textile wastewater were evaluated based on the removal efficiencies of COD (initial ranging from 200 to 3,000 mg/L), colour (initial ranging from 450 to 2000 ADMI) of sterilised raw textile wastewater with pH from 6.8 to 9.4. Using a sequential anaerobic-aerobic treatment cycle with hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 24 h, maximum removal of colour and COD achieved was 90% and 80%, respectively.
  10. Muda K, Aris A, Salim MR, Ibrahim Z, van Loosdrecht MC, Ahmad A, et al.
    Water Res, 2011 Oct 15;45(16):4711-21.
    PMID: 21714982 DOI: 10.1016/j.watres.2011.05.012
    The physical characteristics, microbial activities and kinetic properties of the granular sludge biomass were investigated under the influence of different hydraulic retention times (HRT) along with the performance of the system in removal of color and COD of synthetic textile wastewater. The study was conducted in a column reactor operated according to a sequential batch reactor with a sequence of anaerobic and aerobic reaction phases. Six stages of different HRTs and different anaerobic and aerobic reaction time were evaluated. It was observed that the increase in HRT resulted in the reduction of organic loading rate (OLR). This has caused a decrease in biomass concentration (MLSS), reduction in mean size of the granules, lowered the settling ability of the granules and reduction of oxygen uptake rate (OUR), overall specific biomass growth rate (ìoverall), endogeneous decay rate (kd) and biomass yield (Yobs, Y). When the OLR was increased by adding carbon sources (glucose, sodium acetate and ethanol), there was a slight increase in the MLSS, the granules mean size, ìoverall, and biomass yield. Under high HRT, increasing the anaerobic to aerobic reaction time ratio caused an increase in the concentration of MLSS, mean size of granules and lowered the SVI value and biomass yield. The ìoverall and biomass yield increased with the reduction in anaerobic/aerobic time ratio. The HRT of 24 h with anaerobic and aerobic reaction time of 17.8 and 5.8 h respectively appear to be the best cycle operation of SBR. Under these conditions, not only the physical properties of the biogranules have improved, the highest removal of color (i.e. 94.1±0.6%) and organics (i.e. 86.5±0.5%) of the synthetic textile dyeing wastewater have been achieved.
  11. Al-Amri A, Salim MR, Aris A
    Water Sci Technol, 2011;64(7):1398-405.
    PMID: 22179635 DOI: 10.2166/wst.2011.421
    A study has been carried out to define the effect of drastic temperature changes on the performance of lab-scale hollow-fibre MBR in treating municipal wastewater at a flux of 10 L m(-2) h(-1) (LMH). The objectives of the study were to estimate the activated sludge properties, the removal efficiencies of COD and NH(3)-N and the membrane fouling tendency under critical conditions of drastic temperature changes (23, 33, 42 & 33 °C) and MLSS concentration ranged between 6,382 and 8,680 mg/L. The study exhibited that the biomass reduction, the low sludge settleability and the supernatant turbidity were results of temperature increase. The temperature increase led to increase in SMP carbohydrate and protein, and to decrease in EPS carbohydrate and protein. The BRE of COD dropped from 80% at 23 °C to 47% at 42 °C, while the FRE was relatively constant at about 90%. Both removal efficiencies of NH(3)-N trended from about 100% at 33 °C to less than 50% at 42 °C. TMP and BWP ascended critically with temperature increase up to 336 and 304 mbar respectively by the end of the experiment. The values of suspended solids (SS) and the turbidity in the final effluent were negligible. The DO in the mixed liquor was varying with temperature change, while the pH was within the range of 6.7-8.3.
  12. Hadibarata T, Yusoff AR, Aris A, Kristanti RA
    J Environ Sci (China), 2012;24(4):728-32.
    PMID: 22894109
    Armillaria sp. F022, a white rot fungus isolated from tropical rain forest (Samarinda, Indonesia) was used to biodegrade naphthalene in cultured medium. Transformation of naphthalene by Armillaria sp. F022 which is able to use naphthalene, a two ring-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) as a source of carbon and energy was investigated. The metabolic pathway was elucidated by identifying metabolites, biotransformation studies and monitoring enzyme activities in cell-free extracts. The identification of metabolites suggests that Armillaria sp. F022 initiates its attack on naphthalene by dioxygenation at its C-1 and C-4 positions to give 1,4-naphthoquinone. The intermediate 2-hydroxybenzaldehyde and salicylic acid, and the characteristic of the meta-cleavage of the resulting diol were identified in the long-term incubation. A part from typical metabolites of naphthalene degradation known from mesophiles, benzoic acid was identified as the next intermediate for the naphthalene pathway of this Armillaria sp. F022. Neither phthalic acid, catechol and cis,cis-muconic acid metabolites were detected in culture extracts. Several enzymes (manganese peroxidase, lignin peroxidase, laccase, 1,2-dioxygenase and 2,3-dioxygenase) produced by Armillaria sp. F022 were detected during the incubation.
  13. Zainal-Abideen M, Aris A, Yusof F, Abdul-Majid Z, Selamat A, Omar SI
    Water Sci Technol, 2012;65(3):496-503.
    PMID: 22258681 DOI: 10.2166/wst.2012.561
    In this study of coagulation operation, a comparison was made between the optimum jar test values for pH, coagulant and coagulant aid obtained from traditional methods (an adjusted one-factor-at-a-time (OFAT) method) and with central composite design (the standard design of response surface methodology (RSM)). Alum (coagulant) and polymer (coagulant aid) were used to treat a water source with very low pH and high aluminium concentration at Sri-Gading water treatment plant (WTP) Malaysia. The optimum conditions for these factors were chosen when the final turbidity, pH after coagulation and residual aluminium were within 0-5 NTU, 6.5-7.5 and 0-0.20 mg/l respectively. Traditional and RSM jar tests were conducted to find their respective optimum coagulation conditions. It was observed that the optimum dose for alum obtained through the traditional method was 12 mg/l, while the value for polymer was set constant at 0.020 mg/l. Through RSM optimization, the optimum dose for alum was 7 mg/l and for polymer was 0.004 mg/l. Optimum pH for the coagulation operation obtained through traditional methods and RSM was 7.6. The final turbidity, pH after coagulation and residual aluminium recorded were all within acceptable limits. The RSM method was demonstrated to be an appropriate approach for the optimization and was validated by a further test.
  14. Lim CK, Bay HH, Aris A, Abdul Majid Z, Ibrahim Z
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2013 Jul;20(7):5056-66.
    PMID: 23334551 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-013-1476-5
    Reactive dyes account for one of the major sources of dye wastes in textile effluent. In this study, decolorization of the monoazo dye, Acid Orange 7 (AO7) by the Enterococcus faecalis strain ZL that isolated from a palm oil mill effluent treatment plant has been investigated. Decolorization efficiency of azo dye is greatly affected by the types of nutrients and the size of inoculum used. In this work, one-factor-at-a-time (method and response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to optimize these operational factors and also to study the combined interaction between them. Analysis of AO7 decolorization was done using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, desorption study, UV-Vis spectral analysis, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The optimum condition via RSM for the color removal of AO7 was found to be as follows: yeast extract, 0.1% w/v, glycerol concentration of 0.1% v/v, and inoculum density of 2.5% v/v at initial dye concentration of 100 mg/L at 37 °C. Decolorization efficiency of 98% was achieved in only 5 h. The kinetic of AO7 decolorization was found to be first order with respect to dye concentration with a k value of 0.87/h. FTIR, desorption study, UV-Vis spectral analysis, FESEM, and HPLC findings indicated that the decolorization of AO7 was mainly due to the biosorption as well as biodegradation of the bacterial cells. In addition, HPLC analyses also showed the formation of sulfanilic acid as a possible degradation product of AO7 under facultative anaerobic condition. This study explored the ability of E. faecalis strain ZL in decolorizing AO7 by biosorption as well as biodegradation process.
  15. Lim CK, Bay HH, Neoh CH, Aris A, Abdul Majid Z, Ibrahim Z
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2013 Oct;20(10):7243-55.
    PMID: 23653315 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-013-1725-7
    In this study, the adsorption behavior of azo dye Acid Orange 7 (AO7) from aqueous solution onto macrocomposite (MC) was investigated under various experimental conditions. The adsorbent, MC, which consists of a mixture of zeolite and activated carbon, was found to be effective in removing AO7. The MC were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray, point of zero charge, and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area analysis. A series of experiments were performed via batch adsorption technique to examine the effect of the process variables, namely, contact time, initial dye concentration, and solution pH. The dye equilibrium adsorption was investigated, and the equilibrium data were fitted to Langmuir, Freundlich, and Tempkin isotherm models. The Langmuir isotherm model fits the equilibrium data better than the Freundlich isotherm model. For the kinetic study, pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order, and intraparticle diffusion model were used to fit the experimental data. The adsorption kinetic was found to be well described by the pseudo-second-order model. Thermodynamic analysis indicated that the adsorption process is a spontaneous and endothermic process. The SEM, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, ultraviolet-visible spectral and high performance liquid chromatography analysis were carried out before and after the adsorption process. For the phytotoxicity test, treated AO7 was found to be less toxic. Thus, the study indicated that MC has good potential use as an adsorbent for the removal of azo dye from aqueous solution.
  16. Omar, N. A., Praveena, S. M., Hashim, Z., Aris, A. Z.
    Rice is a carbohydrate, one of the plant-based foods that can accumulate heavy metal from soil and the irrigation water. Since total heavy metal always overestimates the amount of heavy metal available in rice, bioavailability of heavy metal is always preferred. Many studies have been done and found that in vitro methods offer an appealing alternative to human and animal studies. They can be simple, rapid, low in cost and may provide insights which not achievable in the in vivo studies. In vitro digestion model for rice may differ from other in vitro digestion models applied in soil or other type of foods studies. This review aims to provide an overview of in vitro digestion model used to determine bioavailability of heavy metal in rice, summarize health risk assessment application of heavy metal in rice studies and highlight the importance of health risk assessment to be included in the studies. Future exploration of in vitro digestion model and health risk assessment application on the bioavailability of heavy metal in rice was also suggested.
  17. Aris A. Z., Ismail F. A., Ng, H. Y., Praveena, S. M.
    This study was conducted using crab shells as a biosorbent to remove Cu and Cd with different initial concentrations of 1, 5, 10, 15, and 20 mg/L in a biosorption treatment process. Crab shells were selected as biosorbents due to their abundance in the environment and ready availability as waste products from the market place. This study aimed to determine the ability of Scylla Serrata shells to remove Cu and Cd in an aqueous solution, as well as to provide a comparison of the removal rate between the two metals. The data were incorporated into hydrochemical software, PHREEQC, to investigate the chemical speciation distribution of each heavy metal. The shells of S. serrata were found to have a significant (p< 0.05) ability to remove Cu and Cd following the treatment. After six hours of treatment, the crab shells had removed 60 to 80% of both metals. However, the highest removal percentage was achieved for Cu with up to 94.7% removal rate in 5 mg/L initial Cu concentration, while 85.1% of Cd was removed in 1 mg/L initial solution, respectively. It can be concluded that the shells of S. serrata could remove Cu and Cd better with significant results (p
  18. Omar NA, Praveena SM, Aris AZ, Hashim Z
    Food Chem, 2015 Dec 1;188:46-50.
    PMID: 26041162 DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2015.04.087
    Little is known about the bioavailability of heavy metal contamination and its health risks after rice ingestion. This study aimed to determine bioavailability of heavy metal (As, Cd, Cu, Cr, Co, Al, Fe, Zn and Pb) concentrations in cooked rice and human Health Risk Assessment (HRA). The results found Zn was the highest (4.3±0.1 mg/kg), whereas As showed the lowest (0.015±0.001 mg/kg) bioavailability of heavy metal concentration in 22 varieties of cooked rice. For single heavy metal exposure, no potential of non carcinogenic health risks was found, while carcinogenic health risks were found only for As. Combined heavy metal exposures found that total Hazard Quotient (HQtotal) values for adult were higher than the acceptable range (HQTotal<1), whereas total Lifetime Cancer Risk (LCRTotal) values were higher than the acceptable range (LCRTotal values >1×10(-4)) for both adult and children. This study is done to understand that the inclusion of bioavailability heavy metal into HRA produces a more realistic estimation of human heavy metal exposure.
  19. Ab Razak NH, Praveena SM, Aris AZ, Hashim Z
    Public Health, 2016 Feb;131:103-11.
    PMID: 26715317 DOI: 10.1016/j.puhe.2015.11.006
    Information about the quality of drinking water, together with analysis of knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) analysis and health risk assessment (HRA) remain limited. The aims of this study were: (1) to ascertain the level of KAP regarding heavy metal contamination of drinking water in Pasir Mas; (2) to determine the concentration of heavy metals (Al, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, Zn and Cd) in drinking water in Pasir Mas; and (3) to estimate the health risks (non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic) caused by heavy metal exposure through drinking water using hazard quotient and lifetime cancer risk.
  20. Vijaya Bhaskar Reddy A, Yusop Z, Jaafar J, Bin Aris A, Abdul Majid Z, Umar K, et al.
    J Sep Sci, 2016 Jun;39(12):2276-83.
    PMID: 27095506 DOI: 10.1002/jssc.201600155
    A sensitive and selective gas chromatography with mass spectrometry method was developed for the simultaneous determination of three organophosphorus pesticides, namely, chlorpyrifos, malathion, and diazinon in three different food commodities (milk, apples, and drinking water) employing solid-phase extraction for sample pretreatment. Pesticide extraction from different sample matrices was carried out on Chromabond C18 cartridges using 3.0 mL of methanol and 3.0 mL of a mixture of dichloromethane/acetonitrile (1:1 v/v) as the eluting solvent. Analysis was carried out by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry using selected-ion monitoring mode. Good linear relationships were obtained in the range of 0.1-50 μg/L for chlorpyrifos, and 0.05-50 μg/L for both malathion and diazinon pesticides. Good repeatability and recoveries were obtained in the range of 78.54-86.73% for three pesticides under the optimized experimental conditions. The limit of detection ranged from 0.02 to 0.03 μg/L, and the limit of quantification ranged from 0.05 to 0.1 μg/L for all three pesticides. Finally, the developed method was successfully applied for the determination of three targeted pesticides in milk, apples, and drinking water samples each in triplicate. No pesticide was found in apple and milk samples, but chlorpyrifos was found in one drinking water sample below the quantification level.
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