The whole plant extract of plant Sceletium tortuosum, plant native to South Africa, has been known
traditionally to have mood enhancing and stimulant properties. These properties have been confirmed before by proving serotonin-uptake inhibition activity. A further confirmation by using CB1 receptor binding assay has been performed in this study. The unfermented alkaloid extract was proved to posses a higher activity to bind CB1 receptor compared to that of the fermented one. GC-MS analysis confirmed that unfermented alkoloid extract contain more alkaloids than the fermented one. The ethanol extract was also more active than the fermented one, suggesting that non-alkaloid compounds in this extract could posses this activity. An additional test to check wether this extract can improve cognitive function and memory was performed by acetylcholinesterase inhibitory assay. Both fermented and unfermented alkaloid extracts could inhibit acetylcholinesterase with IC50 being 0.303 mg/ml and 0.330 mg/ml, respectively. However, the major alkaloid in the extract, mesembrine, did not show inhibition of the enzyme. A TLC based test proved that other alkaloids in the extract were responsible to the activity.
A new method for the simultaneous quantification of 12 mycotoxins was developed and optimized using reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) with a photodiode array (PDA) and fluorescence detector (FLD), a photochemical reactor for enhanced detection (PHRED) and post-column derivatization. The mycotoxins included aflatoxins (AFB(1), AFB(2), AFG(1), and AFG(2)), ochratoxin A (OTA), zearalenone (ZEA), deoxynivalenol (DON), fumonisins (FB(1), FB(2), and FB(3)), T-2 and HT-2 toxins. A double sample extraction with a phosphate-buffered saline solution (PBS) and methanol was used for co-extraction of mycotoxins, and a multifunctional immunoaffinity column was used for cleanup. Optimum conditions for separation of the mycotoxins were obtained to separate 12 mycotoxins in FLD and PDA chromatograms with a high resolution. The method gave recoveries in the range 72-111% when applied to spiked corn samples. The limits of detection (LOD) were 0.025 ng/g for AFB(1) and AFG(1), 0.012 ng/g for AFB(2) and AFG(2), 0.2 ng/g for OTA, 1.5 ng/g for ZEA, 6.2 ng/g for FB(1), FB(3) and HT-2 toxin, 9.4 ng/g for FB(2) and T-2 toxin, and 18.7 ng/g for DON. In addition, the limits of quantification (LOQ) ranged from 0.04 ng/g for AFB(2) and AFG(2) to 62 ng/g for DON. The method was successfully applied to the determination of these mycotoxins in 45 cereal samples obtained from the Malaysian market. The results indicated that the method can be applied for the multi-mycotoxin determination of cereals.
The metabolites of three species of Apiaceae, also known as Pegaga, were analyzed utilizing (1)H NMR spectroscopy and multivariate data analysis. Principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) resolved the species, Centella asiatica, Hydrocotyle bonariensis, and Hydrocotyle sibthorpioides, into three clusters. The saponins, asiaticoside and madecassoside, along with chlorogenic acids were the metabolites that contributed most to the separation. Furthermore, the effects of growth-lighting condition to metabolite contents were also investigated. The extracts of C. asiatica grown in full-day light exposure exhibited a stronger radical scavenging activity and contained more triterpenes (asiaticoside and madecassoside), flavonoids, and chlorogenic acids as compared to plants grown in 50% shade. This study established the potential of using a combination of (1)H NMR spectroscopy and multivariate data analyses in differentiating three closely related species and the effects of growth lighting, based on their metabolite contents and identification of the markers contributing to their differences.
The impact of tropical seasons (dry and wet) and growth stages (8, 10 and 12 weeks) of Cosmos caudatus on the antioxidant activity (AA), total phenolic content (TPC) as well as the level of bioactive compounds were evaluated using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The plant morphology (plant height) also showed variation between the two seasons. Samples planted from June to August (during the dry season) exhibited a remarkably higher bioactivity and height than those planted from October to December (during the wet season). The samples that were harvested at eight weeks of age during the dry season showed the highest bioactivity with values of 26.04 g GAE/100 g and 22.1 μg/ml for TPC and IC₅₀, respectively. Identification of phytochemical constituents in the C. caudatus extract was carried out by liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detection and electrospray tandem mass (LC-DAD-ESIMS/MS) technique and the confirmation of constituents was achieved by comparison with literature data and/or co-chromatography with authentic standards. Six compounds were indentified including quercetin 3-O-rhamnoside, quercetin 3-O-glucoside, rutin, quercetin 3-O-arabinofuranoside, quercetin 3-O-galactoside and chlorogenic acid. Their concentrations showed significant variance among the 8, 10 and 12-week-old herbs during both seasons.
Obesity and obesity-related complications are on the increase both in the developed and developing world. Since existing pharmaceuticals fail to come up with long-term solutions to address this issue, there is an ever-pressing need to find and develop new drugs and alternatives. Natural products, particularly medicinal plants, are believed to harbor potential antiobesity agents that can act through various mechanisms either by preventing weight gain or promoting weight loss amongst others. The inhibition of key lipid and carbohydrate hydrolyzing and metabolizing enzymes, disruption of adipogenesis, and modulation of its factors or appetite suppression are some of the plethora of targeted approaches to probe the antiobesity potential of medicinal plants. A new technology such as metabolomics, which deals with the study of the whole metabolome, has been identified to be a promising technique to probe the progression of diseases, elucidate their pathologies, and assess the effects of natural health products on certain pathological conditions. This has been applied to drug research, bone health, and to a limited extent to obesity research. This paper thus endeavors to give an overview of those plants, which have been reported to have antiobesity effects and highlight the potential and relevance of metabolomics in obesity research.
The amino-acid composition, 2, 2-Diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activity, and peptide patterns of tilapia protein hydrolysates produced by the enzymatic hydrolysis of Alcalase (AH), Flavourzyme (FH) and Protamex (PH) for 5h using pH-stat method were studied. The ratio of essential amino acids to non-essential amino acids increased after hydrolysis in all samples; however, no significant differences among them were observed. AH had a highest (P < 0.05) DPPH radical-scavenging activity, but no significant difference in the DPPH between FH and PH was observed. SDS-PAGE patterns for all the hydrolysates showed significant (P < 0.05) reduction in the number and the intensity of the bands with increasing time of hydrolysis. Flavourzyme showed the lowest rate of hydrolytic activity towards the tilapia mince.
The aim of the study was to analyze the influence of oven thermal processing of Cosmos caudatus on the total polyphenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant capacity (DPPH) of two different solvent extracts (80% methanol, and 80% ethanol). Sonication was used to extract bioactive compounds from this herb. The results showed that the optimised conditions for the oven drying method for 80% methanol and 80% ethanol were 44.5 °C for 4 h with an IC₅₀ of 0.045 mg/mL and 43.12 °C for 4.05 h with an IC₅₀ of 0.055 mg/mL, respectively. The predicted values for TPC under the optimised conditions for 80% methanol and 80% ethanol were 16.5 and 15.8 mg GAE/100 g DW, respectively. The results obtained from this study demonstrate that Cosmos caudatus can be used as a potential source of antioxidants for food and medicinal applications.
The volatile compounds in four selected African star apple fruit (Chrysophyllum albidum) varieties were isolated and identified using the headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A total of 59 compounds were identified. Application of the aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) to the aroma distillates from the fruits revealed 45 odour-active compounds in the flavour dilution (FD) factor range of 4-128. Among them, the highest odour activities (FD factors) were determined for methylhexanoate, acetophenone and ethyl dodecanoate. Moreover, aroma lipophilicity appears to reflect molecular conformation. Further analysis of the similarities and differences between the fruit varieties in terms of the key odourants by the application of PLS-DA and PLS-regression coefficient showed strong positive correlation between the very sweet/sweet varieties and 10 key odourants. The odourants included ethyl acetate, acetyl methyl carbinol, methylhexanoate, sabinene, p-cymene, methylbenzoate, ethylbenzoate, geraniol, cis-α-bergomotene, acetophenone, and ethyl dodecanoate.
In dairy product sector, butter is one of the potential sources of fat soluble vitamins, namely vitamin A, D, E, K; consequently, butter is taken into account as high valuable price from other dairy products. This fact has attracted unscrupulous market players to blind butter with other animal fats to gain economic profit. Animal fats like mutton fat (MF) are potential to be mixed with butter due to the similarity in terms of fatty acid composition. This study focused on the application of FTIR-ATR spectroscopy in conjunction with chemometrics for classification and quantification of MF as adulterant in butter. The FTIR spectral region of 3910-710 cm⁻¹ was used for classification between butter and butter blended with MF at various concentrations with the aid of discriminant analysis (DA). DA is able to classify butter and adulterated butter without any mistakenly grouped. For quantitative analysis, partial least square (PLS) regression was used to develop a calibration model at the frequency regions of 3910-710 cm⁻¹. The equation obtained for the relationship between actual value of MF and FTIR predicted values of MF in PLS calibration model was y = 0.998x + 1.033, with the values of coefficient of determination (R²) and root mean square error of calibration are 0.998 and 0.046% (v/v), respectively. The PLS calibration model was subsequently used for the prediction of independent samples containing butter in the binary mixtures with MF. Using 9 principal components, root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) is 1.68% (v/v). The results showed that FTIR spectroscopy can be used for the classification and quantification of MF in butter formulation for verification purposes.
The use of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy coupled with chemometric techniques to differentiate butter from beef fat (BF) was investigated. The spectral bands associated with butter, BF, and their mixtures were scanned, interpreted, and identified by relating them to those spectroscopically representative to pure butter and BF. For quantitative analysis, partial least square (PLS) regression was used to develop a calibration model at the selected fingerprint regions of 1500-1000 cm-1, with the values of coefficient of determination (R2) and root mean square error of calibration (RMSEC) are 0.999 and 0.89% (v/v), respectively. The PLS calibration model was subsequently used for the prediction of independent samples containing butter in the binary mixtures with BF. Using 6 principal components, root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) is 2.42% (v/v). These results proved that FTIR spectroscopy in combination with multivariate calibration can be used for the detection and quantification of BF in butter formulation for authentication use.
E. coli O157:H7 is associated with life threatening diseases such as hemorrhagic colitis (HC), hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) and thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP). Raw milk is considered a high risk food as it is highly nutritious and serves as an ideal medium for bacterial growth. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of E. coli O157:H7 in raw cow, goat and buffalo milk samples. MPN-PCR method targeting the major virulence rfbE gene and fliCH7gene of E. coli O157:H7 was used. Total of 177 raw milk samples were collected from local dairy farms in the state of Selangor, Malaysia. The highest prevalence of E. coli O157:H7 was found in raw cow milk (18.75%). E. coli O157:H7 was detected in 7.32% and 3.57% of raw goat and buffalo milk, respectively. The estimated quantity of E. coli O157:H7 in raw cow, goat and buffalo milk ranged from
The organic foods’ market is becoming one of the rapidly growing sections in agricultural economies in the world. During the last two decades, food-borne outbreaks associated with fresh produce have rapidly increased. E. coli O57:H7, the caustic agent of acute hemorrhagic diarrhea and abdominal cramps, is mainly associated with meat and poultry product outbreaks but frequent outbreaks linked to the consumption of vegetables have been reported. The aim of this study was to investigate prevalence of E. coli O157:H7 in some organic foods. A total of 230 organic food samples including four-winged bean, tomato, white radish, red cabbage, chinese cabbage, lettuce, cucumber and chicken form retailed groceries and supermarkets in Malaysia were investigated. Low prevalence of E. coli O157:H7 was detected in organic vegetables and chickens. The estimated quantity of E. coli O157:H7 in all samples ranged from 2400 MPN/g. The overall MPN/g estimate of E. coli O157:H7 in the samples from organic groceries was higher than supermarket with the maximum of >2400 MPN/g. Most of the samples from supermarket showed a minimum of
The objective of this study was to evaluate the precursors of acrylamide formation in sweet potato (SP) (Ipomoea batatas L. Lam) chips and to determine the effect of different types of vegetable oils (VOs), that is, palm olein, coconut oil, canola oil, and soya bean oil, on acrylamide formation. The reducing sugars and amino acids in the SP slices were analyzed, and the acrylamide concentrations of SP chips were measured. SP chips that were fried in a lower degree of unsaturation oils contained a lower acrylamide concentration (1443 μg/kg), whereas those fried with higher degree of unsaturated oils contained a higher acrylamide concentration (2019 μg/kg). SP roots were found to contain acrylamide precursors, that is, 4.17 mg/g glucose and 5.05 mg/g fructose, and 1.63 mg/g free asparagine. The type of VO and condition used for frying, significantly influenced acrylamide formation. This study clearly indicates that the contribution of lipids in the formation of acrylamide should not be neglected.
The present study was conducted to determine the effect of air (AD), oven (OD) and freeze drying (FD) on the free radical scavenging activity and total phenolic content (TPC) of Cosmos caudatus and the effect of storage time by the comparison with a fresh sample (FS). Among the three drying methods that were used, AD resulted in the highest free radical scavenging activity against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) (IC50 = 0.0223 mg/mL) and total phenolic content (27.4 g GAE/100 g), whereas OD produced the lowest scavenging activity and TPC value. After three months of storage, the dried samples showed a high and consistent free radical scavenging activity when compared to stored fresh material. The drying methods could preserve the quality of C. caudatus during storage and the stability of its bioactive components can be maintained.
Cosmos caudatus, which is known as "Ulam Raja," is an herbal plant used in Malaysia to enhance vitality. This study focused on the evaluation of the α-glucosidase inhibitory activity of different ethanolic extracts of C. caudatus. Six series of samples extracted with water, 20%, 40%, 60%, 80%, and 100% ethanol (EtOH) were employed. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and orthogonal partial least-squares (OPLS) analysis was used to correlate bioactivity of different extracts to different metabolite profiles of C. caudatus. The obtained OPLS scores indicated a distinct and remarkable separation into 6 clusters, which were indicative of the 6 different ethanol concentrations. GC-MS can be integrated with multivariate data analysis to identify compounds that inhibit α-glucosidase activity. In addition, catechin, α-linolenic acid, α-D-glucopyranoside, and vitamin E compounds were identified and indicate the potential α-glucosidase inhibitory activity of this herb.
The study investigated the changes in the metabolite, antioxidant and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities of Phyllanthus niruri after three drying treatments: air, freeze and oven dryings. Water extracts and extracts obtained using different solvent ratios of ethanol and methanol (50, 70, 80 and 100%) were compared. The relationships among the antioxidant, α-glucosidase inhibitory activity and metabolite levels of the extracts were evaluated using partial least-square analysis (PLS). The solvent selectivity was assessed based on the phytochemical constituents present in the extract and their concentrations quantitatively analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography. The freeze-dried P. niruri samples that were extracted with the mixture of ethanol or methanol with low ratio of water showed higher biological activity values compared with the other extracts. The PLS results for the ethanolic with different ratio and water extracts demonstrated that phenolic acids (chlorogenic acid and ellagic acid) and flavonoids were highly linked to strong α-glucosidase inhibitory and antioxidant activities.
The metabolite changes in three germplasm accessions of Malaysia Andrographis paniculata (Burm. F.) Nees, viz. 11265 (H), 11341 (P) and 11248 (T), due to their different harvesting ages and times were successfully evaluated by attenuated total reflectance (ATR)-Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and translated through multivariate data analysis of principal component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal partial least square-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA). This present study revealed the feasibility of ATR-FTIR in detecting the trend changes of the major metabolites - andrographolide and neoandrographolide - functional groups in A. paniculata leaves of different accessions. The harvesting parameter was set at three different ages of 120, 150 and 180 days after transplanting (DAT) and at two different time sessions of morning (7:30-10:30 am) and evening (2:30-5.30 pm).
Cosmos caudatus, which is a commonly consumed vegetable in Malaysia, is locally known as "Ulam Raja". It is a local Malaysian herb traditionally used as a food and medicinal herb to treat several maladies. Its bioactive or nutritional constituents consist of a wide range of metabolites, including glucosinolates, phenolics, amino acids, organic acids, and sugars. However, many of these metabolites are not stable and easily degraded or modified during storage. In order to investigate the metabolomics changes occurring during post-harvest storage, C. caudatus samples were subjected to seven different storage times (0 hours, 2 hours, 4 hours, 6 hours, 8 hours, 10 hours, and 12 hours) at room temperature. As the model experiment, the metabolites identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) were correlated with α-glucosidase inhibitory activity analyzed with multivariate data analysis (MVDA) to find out the variation among samples and metabolites contributing to the activity. Orthogonal partial least squares (OPLS) analysis was applied to investigate the metabolomics changes. A profound chemical alteration, both in primary and secondary metabolites, was observed. The α-tocopherol, catechin, cyclohexen-1-carboxylic acid, benzoic acid, myo-inositol, stigmasterol, and lycopene compounds were found to be the discriminating metabolites at early storage; however, sugars such as sucrose, α-d-galactopyranose, and turanose were detected, which was attributed to the discriminating metabolites for late storage. The result shows that the MVDA method is a promising technique to identify biomarker compounds relative to storage at different times.
Multivariate analysis of thin-layer chromatography (TLC) images was modeled to predict antioxidant activity of Pereskia bleo leaves and to identify the contributing compounds of the activity. TLC was developed in optimized mobile phase using the 'PRISMA' optimization method and the image was then converted to wavelet signals and imported for multivariate analysis. An orthogonal partial least square (OPLS) model was developed consisting of a wavelet-converted TLC image and 2,2-diphynyl-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging activity of 24 different preparations of P. bleo as the x- and y-variables, respectively. The quality of the constructed OPLS model (1 + 1 + 0) with one predictive and one orthogonal component was evaluated by internal and external validity tests. The validated model was then used to identify the contributing spot from the TLC plate that was then analyzed by GC-MS after trimethylsilyl derivatization. Glycerol and amine compounds were mainly found to contribute to the antioxidant activity of the sample. An alternative method to predict the antioxidant activity of a new sample of P. bleo leaves has been developed.