METHODS: Isolation of compounds from G. segetum leaves was conducted using vacuum liquid chromatography (VLC) and column chromatography (CC). Two new compounds, namely 4,5,4'-trihydroxychalcone and 8,8'-(ethene-1,2-diyl)-dinaphtalene-1,4,5-triol, together with stigmasterol and β-sitosterol were isolated from G. segetum methanol extract and their structures were determined spectroscopically. The presence of gallic acid and rutin in the extract was determined quantitatively by a validated HPLC method. G. segetum methanol extract and its constituents were investigated for their effects on chemotaxis, phagocytosis, β2 integrin (CD18) expression, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs), lymphocytes proliferation, cytokine release and nitric oxide (NO) production of phagocytes.
RESULTS: All the samples significantly inhibited all the innate immune responses tested except CD 18 expression on surface of leukocytes. Among the samples, 8,8'-(ethene-1,2-diyl)-dinaphtalene-1,4,5-triol exhibited the strongest inhibitory on chemotaxis, phagocytosis, ROS and NO production. The compound exhibited exceptionally strong inhibitions on ROS and chemotaxis activities with IC50 values lower than the positive controls, aspirin and ibuprofen, respectively. 4,5,4'-Trihydroxychalcone revealed the strongest immunosuppressive activity on proliferation of lymphocytes (IC50 value of 1.52 μM) and on release of IL-1β (IC50 value of 6.69 μM). Meanwhile rutin was the most potent sample against release of TNF-α from monocytes (IC50, 16.96 μM).
CONCLUSION: The extract showed strong immunosuppressive effects on various components of the immune system and these activities were possibly contributed mainly by 4,5,4'-trihydroxychalcone, 8,8'-(ethene-1,2-diyl)-dinaphtalene-1,4,5-triol and rutin.
METHODS: The cytotoxic effect of 6-shogaol was determined by 3-(4,5-dimethythiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The neuritogenic activity was assessed by neurite outgrowth stimulation assay while the concentration of extracellular NGF in cell culture supernatant was assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Involvement of cellular signaling pathways, mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase1/2 (MEK/ERK1/2) and phosphoinositide-3-kinase/protein kinase B (PI3K/AKT) in 6-shogaol-stimulated neuritogenesis were examined by using specific pharmacological inhibitors.
RESULTS: 6-Shogaol (500 ng/ml) induced neuritogenesis that was comparable to NGF (50 ng/ml) and was not cytotoxic towards PC-12 cells. 6-Shogaol induced low level of NGF biosynthesis in PC-12 cells, showing that 6-shogaol stimulated neuritogenesis possibly by inducing NGF biosynthesis, and also acting as a substitute for NGF (NGF mimic) in PC-12 cells. The inhibitors of Trk receptor (K252a), MEK/ERK1/2 (U0126 and PD98059) and PI3K/AKT (LY294002) attenuated the neuritogenic activity of both NGF and 6-shogaol, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS: The present findings demonstrated that 6-shogaol induced neuritogenic activity in PC-12 cells via the activation MEK/ERK1/2 and PI3K/AKT signaling pathways. This study suggests that 6-shogaol could act as an NGF mimic, which may be beneficial for preventive and therapeutic uses in neurodegenerative diseases.
METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted by enrolling 937 students, pharmacy (437) and non-pharmacy (500), of Punjab University, Lahore. A self-administered questionnaire was used for data collection. Data were analyzed using SPSS. (IBM v22).
RESULTS: Data suggested that majority of students knew about the use of traditional herbs and considered massage (P: 84.4%, NP: 82%, p = 0.099), homeopathy, herbs (P: 86.5%, NP: 81%, p = 0.064], yoga [P: 357 (81.7%), NP: 84%), p = 0.42] and spiritual healing (P: 85.6%, NP: 86.2%, p = 0.55) as effective and least harmful CAM modalities. The pharmacy students had better knowledge about CAM modalities compared to non-pharmacy students. Despite utilizing non-reliable sources of CAM information and their belief that CAM is practiced by quacks, the majority of students had positive attitudes and perceptions about CAM usage. Students also believed that CAM had a positive impact on health outcomes [P: 3.19 ± 1.04, NP: 3.02 ± 1.09, p = 0.008] and acceded to include CAM in the pharmacy curriculum. However, non-pharmacy students scored higher in their beliefs that CAM usage should be discouraged due to the non-scientific basis of CAM (P: 3.04 ± 0.97, NP: 3.17 ± 1.02, p = 0.028) and a possible threat to public health (P: 3.81 ± 1.74, NP: 4.06 ± 1.56, p = 0.02). On the other hand, pharmacy students believed that patients might get benefits from CAM modalities (P: 4.31 ± 1.48, NP: 4.12 ± 1.45, p = 0.02). Majority of students perceived that spiritual healing is the most useful and safer CAM modality, while acupuncture (P: 25.4%, NP: 21.8%, p = 0.0005), hypnosis (P: 26.8%, NP: 19.6%, p = 0.001) and chiropractic (P: 18.8%, NP: 11.6%, p = 0.0005) were among the harmful ones.
CONCLUSION: In conclusion, despite poor knowledge about CAM, students demonstrated positive attitudes and beliefs regarding CAM. They exhibited better awareness about yoga, spiritual healing/prayer, herbs, and massage. Students also showed willingness to advance their knowledge about CAM and favored its inclusion in the curriculum.
METHODS: Stromal derived corneal fibroblasts from New Zealand White rabbit (n = 6) were isolated and cultured until passage 1. In vitro corneal ulcer was created using a 4 mm corneal trephine onto confluent cultures and treated with basal medium (FD), medium containing serum (FDS), with and without 0.025 % AH. Wound areas were recorded at day 0, 3 and 6 post wound creation. Genes and proteins associated with wound healing and differentiation such as aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH), vimentin, alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), collagen type I, lumican and matrix metalloproteinase 12 (MMP12) were evaluated using qRT-PCR and immunocytochemistry respectively.
RESULTS: Cells cultured with AH-enriched FDS media achieved complete wound closure at day 6 post wound creation. The cells cultured in AH-enriched FDS media increased the expression of vimentin, collagen type I and lumican genes and decreased the ALDH, α-SMA and MMP12 gene expressions. Protein expression of ALDH, vimentin and α-SMA were in accordance with the gene expression analyses.
CONCLUSION: These results demonstrated AH accelerate corneal fibroblasts migration and differentiation of the in vitro corneal ulcer model while increasing the genes and proteins associated with stromal wound healing.
METHODS: In assessing the safety of DC resin methanol extract, acute and sub-acute oral toxicity tests performed following OECD guidelines 423 and 407, respectively, with slight modifications. In acute oral toxicity test, DC resin methanol extract administered to female Sprague Dawley rats by oral gavage at a single dose of 300 and 2000 mg/kg body weight. Rats observed for toxic signs for 14 days. In sub-acute oral toxicity test, DC resin methanol extract administered to the rats by oral gavage at 500, 1000, and 1500 mg/kg body weight daily up to 28 days to male and female Spradgue Dawley rats. The control and high dose in satellite groups were also maintained and handled as the previous groups to determine the late onset toxicity of DC resin methanol extract. At the end of each test, hematological and biochemical analysis of the collected blood were performed as well as gross and microscopic pathology.
RESULTS: In acute oral toxicity, no treatment-related death or toxic signs were observed. It revealed that the DC resin methanol extract could be well tolerated up to the dose 2000 mg/kg body weight and could be classified as Category 5. The sub-acute test observations indicated that there are no treatment-related changes up to the high dose level compared to the control. Food consumption, body weight, organ weight, hematological parameters, biochemical parameters and histopathological examination (liver, kidney, heart, spleen and lung) revealed no abnormalities. Water intake was significantly higher in the DC resin methanol extract treated groups compared to the control.
CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates tolerability of DC resin methanol extract administered daily for 28 days up to 1500 mg/kg dose.
METHODS: The release of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and pro-inflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-1β in a culture supernatant was determined by ELISA. Determination of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) protein and the activation of MAPKs molecules (JNK, ERK and p38 MAPK), NF-κB and Akt in LPS-induced U937 human macrophages were investigated by immunoblot technique. The relative gene expression levels of COX-2 and pro-inflammatory cytokines were measured by using qRT-PCR. The major metabolites of P. amarus were qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed in the extract by using validated reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) methods.
RESULTS: P. amarus extract significantly inhibited the production of pro-inflammatory mediators (TNF-α, IL-1β, PGE2) and COX-2 protein expression in LPS-induced U937 human macrophages. P. amarus-pretreatment also significantly downregulated the increased mRNA transcription of pro-inflammatory markers (TNF-α, IL-1β, and COX-2) in respective LPS-induced U937 macrophages. It downregulated the phosphorylation of NF-κB (p65), IκBα, and IKKα/β and restored the degradation of IκBα, and attenuated the expression of Akt, JNK, ERK, and p38 MAPKs phosphorylation in a dose-dependent manner. P. amarus extract also downregulated the expression of upstream signaling molecules, TLR4 and MyD88, which play major role in activation of NF-κB, MAPK and PI3K-Akt signaling pathways. The quantitative amounts of lignans, phyllanthin, hypophyllahtin and niranthin, and polyphenols, gallic acid, geraniin, corilagin, and ellagic acid in the extract were determined by HPLC analysis.
CONCLUSION: The study revealed that P. amarus targeted the NF-κB, MAPK and PI3K-Akt signaling pathways to exert its anti- inflammatory effects by downregulating the prospective inflammatory signaling mediators.
METHODS: In this study, the anti-inflammatory effect of the NESTE aqueous extract and raw soybean aqueous extract (SBE) were evaluated by quantifying the inhibition of IL-1β, TNF-α and nitric oxide (NO) secretion in LPS treated RAW 264.7 cell in vitro. On the other hand, in vivo oral acute toxicity effect of the extract was tested on mice at the dose of 5000 mg/kg body weight. In vivo oral analgesic effect of both aqueous extracts at 200 and 1000 mg/kg body weight was evaluated by the hot plate test.
RESULTS: In the in vitro anti-inflammatory study, 5 mg/mL NESTE was able to inhibit 25.50 ± 2.20%, 35.88 ± 3.20% and 28.50 ± 3.50% of NO, IL-1β and TNF-α production in LPS treated RAW 264.7 cells without inducing cytotoxic effect on the cells. However, this effect was lower than 4 μg/mL of curcumin, which inhibited NO, IL-1β and TNF-α production by 89.50 ± 5.00%, 78.80 ± 6.20% and 87.30 ± 4.00%, respectively. In addition, 1.5 to 2.5-fold increase of latency period up to 120 min for mice in the hot plate test was achieved by 1000 mg/kg NESTE. The analgesic effect of NESTE was better than 400 mg/kg of acetyl salicylic acid, which only increased ~ 1.7-fold of latency period up to 90 min. Moreover, NESTE did not show acute toxicity (no LD50) up to 5000 mg/kg body weight.
CONCLUSION: NESTE is a nutritious food ingredient with potential anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects.
METHODS: Antibacterial activity of B. kockiana flower was evaluated qualitatively and quantitatively using disc diffusion assay and microbroth dilution method. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of extracts were examined. Phytochemical analysis was performed to determine the classes of phytochemicals in the extracts. Bioactivity guided isolation was employed to purify the antibacterial agents and identified via various spectroscopy methods. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) technique was used to evaluate the antibacterial mechanism of extract and compounds isolated.
RESULTS: B. kockiana flower was found to exhibit fairly strong antibacterial activity towards both strains of MRSA bacteria used, MIC varies from 62.5-250 μg/mL. Tannins and flavonoids have been detected in the phytochemical analysis. Gallic acid and its ester derivatives purified from ethyl acetate extract could inhibit MRSA at 250-500 μg/mL. SEM revealed that the cells have undergone plasmolysis upon treatment with the extract and compounds.
CONCLUSION: Tannins and polyphenols are the antibacterial components towards MRSA in B. kockiana. Massive leakage of the cell content observed in treated cells showed that the phytochemicals have changed the properties of the cell membranes. Amphiphilic nature of the compounds exhibited the antibacterial activity towards MRSA via three stages: (1) cell membrane attachment; (2) cell membrane fluidity modification; and (3) cell membrane structure disruption.
METHODS: In this study, the rats were randomly divided into six groups i.e., (1) Normal Diet (ND); (2) Normal Diet and 175 mg/kgBW of EECCL (ND + 175 mg/kgBW); (3) Normal Diet and 350 mg/kgBW of EECCL (ND + 350 mg/kgBW); (4) High Fat Diet (HFD); (5) High Fat Diet and 175 mg/kgBW of EECCL (HFD + 175 mg/kgBW); (6) High Fat Diet and 350 mg/kgBW of EECCL (HFD + 350 mg/kgBW). The anti-obesity potential was evaluated through analyses of changes in body weight, visceral fat weight, and blood biochemicals including total cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), leptin, insulin, adiponectin, ghrelin and fecal fat content. In addition, metabolite profiling of EECCL was carried out using NMR spectroscopy.
RESULTS: Rats receiving EECCL together with HFD showed significant (p 0.05) different with those of ND rats. Other related obesity biomarkers including plasma lipid profiles, insulin, leptin, ghrelin and adiponectin levels also showed significant improvement (p
METHODS: Lignosus rhinocerotis, Pleurotus giganteus, Hericium erinaceus, Schizophyllum commune and Ganoderma lucidium were selected for evaluation of their in-vitro anti-dengue virus serotype 2 (DENV-2) activities. Hot aqueous extracts (HAEs), ethanol extracts (EEs), hexane soluble extracts (HSEs), ethyl acetate soluble extracts (ESEs) and aqueous soluble extracts (ASEs) were prepared from the selected mushrooms. The cytotoxic effects of the extracts were evaluated by the MTT assay. The anti-DENV-2 activities of the extracts were evaluated in three different assays: simultaneous, attachment and penetration assays were perfomed using plaque reduction assays and RT-qPCR assays. The effect of the addition time on viral replication was assessed by the time of addition assay, and a virucidal assay was carried out to evaluate the direct effect of each mushroom extract on DENV-2. The chemical composition of glucans, and the protein and phenolic acid contents in the extracts were estimated.
RESULTS: We found that the HAEs and ASEs of L. rhinocerotis, P. giganteus, H. erinaceus and S. commune were the least toxic to Vero cells and showed very prominent anti-DENV2 activity. The 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of the ASEs ranged between 399.2-637.9 μg/ml, while for the HAEs the range was 312.9-680.6 μg/ml during simultaneous treatment. Significant anti-dengue activity was also detected in the penetration assay of ASEs (IC50: 226.3-315.4 μg/ml) and HAEs (IC50: 943.1-2080.2 μg/ml). Similarly, we observed a marked reduction in the expression levels of the ENV and NS5 genes in the simultaneous and penetration assays of the ASEs and HAEs. Time-of-addition experiments showed that the highest percent of anti-DENV2 activity was observed when the mushroom extracts were added immediately after virus adsorption. None of the extracts exhibited virucidal effect. Chemical composition analysis showed that the major components in the mushroom HAEs and ASEs were glucan (beta D-glucan) and proteins, however, there was no significant correlation between the anti-dengue activity and the concentration of glucans and proteins.
CONCLUSION: These findings demonstrated the potential of mushroom extracts as anti-dengue therapeutic agents with less toxic effects.