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  1. Gibson BA, Brown SE, Rutledge R, Wickersham JA, Kamarulzaman A, Altice FL
    Glob Public Health, 2016 Aug-Sep;11(7-8):1010-25.
    PMID: 26824463 DOI: 10.1080/17441692.2015.1134614
    Transgender women (TGW) face compounded levels of stigma and discrimination, resulting in multiple health risks and poor health outcomes. TGW identities are erased by forcing them into binary sex categories in society or treating them as men who have sex with men (MSM). In Malaysia, where both civil and religious law criminalise them for their identities, many TGW turn to sex work with inconsistent prevention methods, which increases their health risks. This qualitative study aims to understand how the identities of TGW sex workers shapes their healthcare utilisation patterns and harm reduction behaviours. In-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 21 male-to-female transgender (mak nyah) sex workers in Malaysia. Interviews were transcribed, translated into English, and analysed using thematic coding. Results suggest that TGW identity is shaped at an early age followed by incorporation into the mak nyah community where TGW were assisted in gender transition and introduced to sex work. While healthcare was accessible, it failed to address the multiple healthcare needs of TGW. Pressure for gender-affirming health procedures and fear of HIV and sexually transmitted infection screening led to potentially hazardous health behaviours. These findings have implications for developing holistic, culturally sensitive prevention and healthcare services for TGW.
    Matched MeSH terms: Adult
  2. Lim-Abrahan MA, Jain AB, Bebakar WM, Seah D, Soewondo P
    Diabetes Res. Clin. Pract., 2013 Apr;100 Suppl 1:S3-9.
    PMID: 23647715 DOI: 10.1016/S0168-8227(13)70003-2
    AIM:
    To determine the safety and effectiveness of biphasic insulin aspart 30 (BIAsp 30) in the ASEAN cohort of the A₁chieve study.

    METHODS:
    Type 2 diabetes patients from Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines and Singapore prescribed BIAsp 30 therapy were included. The primary outcome was evaluation of serious adverse drug reactions including major hypoglycaemia over 24 weeks. Secondary outcomes were changes in hypoglycaemic events, serious adverse events (SAEs) and effectiveness parameters.

    RESULTS:
    This sub-analysis included 2798 patients (insulin-naive, 1903; insulin-experienced, 895) with mean age ± SD, 55.3 ± 10.8 years, BMI, 24.9 ± 4.6 kg/m(2) and diabetes duration, 7.5 ± 5.9 years. Baseline HbA1c in the entire cohort was poor (9.9%, 85 mmol/mol). A total of 15 SAEs were reported in 7 insulin-experienced patients (1 moderate event was related to BIAsp 30). Overall hypoglycaemia at Week 24 was 0.88 events/patient-year compared to 1.71 events/patient-year reported at baseline (change in proportion of patients affected, p < 0.0001). No major hypoglycaemia was reported at Week 24. BIAsp 30 significantly improved glucose control (HbA1c, fasting plasma glucose and postprandial plasma glucose, p < 0.001) at Week 24. The proportion of patients achieving HbA1c <7.0% at Week 24 was 35.3% compared to 3.5% at baseline. The lipid profile and systolic blood pressure also improved significantly (p < 0.001). Quality of life was positively impacted (mean change in visual analogue scores from EQ-5D = 10.6 ± 13.8 points, p < 0.001).

    CONCLUSION:
    BIAsp 30 was well-tolerated and improved glucose control while decreasing the risk of hypoglycaemia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Adult
  3. Gan GG, Phipps ME, Lee MM, Lu LS, Subramaniam RY, Bee PC, et al.
    Ann. Hematol., 2011 Jun;90(6):635-41.
    PMID: 21110192 DOI: 10.1007/s00277-010-1119-6
    Within the Asian populations, Indian patients had been reported to require higher warfarin dose compared with the Chinese and Malay patients, and this could not entirely be explained by cytochrome P450 (CYP)2C9 gene variants. Genetic variants of vitamin K epoxide oxidase reductase complex subunit 1 (VKORC1) has been well established as one of key determinants in the different responses of warfarin amongst patients. Adult patients who attended an anticoagulation clinic with stable INR were recruited. VKORC1 and CYP2C9 genotype were sequenced, and clinical characteristics were assessed. A total of 91 Malays, 96 Chinese, and 46 Indian patients were recruited. The mean age was 55 years and 51.5% were males. The mean dose of warfarin for all patients was 3.7 mg, and the mean daily dose of warfarin was significantly higher in Indians compared with the Chinese and Malay patients, 4.9 versus 3.5 and 3.3 mg, respectively (p 
    Matched MeSH terms: Adult
  4. Chan CY, Kwan MK, Saw LB
    Eur Spine J, 2010 Jan;19(1):78-84.
    PMID: 19763636 DOI: 10.1007/s00586-009-1157-8
    The objective of this cadaveric study is to determine the safety and outcome of thoracic pedicle screw placement in Asians using the funnel technique. Pedicle screws have superior biomechanical as well as clinical data when compared to other methods of instrumentation. However, misplacement in the thoracic spine can result in major neurological implications. There is great variability of the thoracic pedicle morphometry between the Western and the Asian population. The feasibility of thoracic pedicle screw insertion in Asians has not been fully elucidated yet. A pre-insertion radiograph was performed and surgeons were blinded to the morphometry of the thoracic pedicles. 240 pedicle screws were inserted in ten Asian cadavers from T1 to T12 using the funnel technique. 5.0 mm screws were used from T1 to T6 while 6.0 mm screws were used from T7 to T12. Perforations were detected by direct visualization via a wide laminectomy. The narrowest pedicles are found between T3 and T6. T5 pedicle width is smallest measuring 4.1 +/- 1.3 mm. There were 24 (10.0%) Grade 1 perforations and only 1 (0.4%) Grade 2 perforation. Grade 2 or worse perforation is considered significant perforation which would threaten the neural structures. There were twice as many lateral and inferior perforations compared to medial perforations. 48.0% of the perforations occurred at T1, T2 and T3 pedicles. Pedicle fracture occurred in 10.4% of pedicles. Intra-operatively, the absence of funnel was found in 24.5% of pedicles. In conclusion, thoracic pedicle screws using 5.0 mm at T1-T6 and 6.0 mm at T7-T12 can be inserted safely in Asian cadavers using the funnel technique despite having smaller thoracic pedicle morphometry.
    Matched MeSH terms: Adult
  5. Hor SY, Lee SC, Wong CI, Lim YW, Lim RC, Wang LZ, et al.
    Pharmacogenomics J., 2008 Apr;8(2):139-46.
    PMID: 17876342
    Previously studied candidate genes have failed to account for inter-individual variability of docetaxel and doxorubicin disposition and effects. We genotyped the transcriptional regulators of CYP3A and ABCB1 in 101 breast cancer patients from 3 Asian ethnic groups, that is, Chinese, Malays and Indians, in correlation with the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of docetaxel and doxorubicin. While there was no ethnic difference in docetaxel and doxorubicin pharmacokinetics, ethnic difference in docetaxel- (ANOVA, P=0.001) and doxorubicin-induced (ANOVA, P=0.003) leukocyte suppression was observed, with Chinese and Indians experiencing greater degree of docetaxel-induced myelosuppression than Malays (Bonferroni, P=0.002, P=0.042), and Chinese experiencing greater degree of doxorubicin-induced myelosuppression than Malays and Indians (post hoc Bonferroni, P=0.024 and 0.025). Genotyping revealed both PXR and CAR to be well conserved; only a PXR 5'-untranslated region polymorphism (-24381A>C) and a silent CAR variant (Pro180Pro) were found at allele frequencies of 26 and 53%, respectively. Two non-synonymous variants were identified in HNF4alpha (Met49Val and Thr130Ile) at allele frequencies of 55 and 1%, respectively, with the Met49Val variant associated with slower neutrophil recovery in docetaxel-treated patients (ANOVA, P=0.046). Interactions were observed between HNF4alpha Met49Val and CAR Pro180Pro, with patients who were wild type for both variants experiencing least docetaxel-induced neutropenia (ANOVA, P=0.030). No other significant genotypic associations with pharmacokinetics or pharmacodynamics of either drug were found. The PXR-24381A>C variants were significantly more common in Indians compared to Chinese or Malays (32/18/21%, P=0.035) Inter-individual and inter-ethnic variations of docetaxel and doxorubicin pharmacokinetics or pharmacodynamics exist, but genotypic variability of the transcriptional regulators PAR, CAR and HNF4alpha cannot account for this variability.
    Matched MeSH terms: Adult
  6. Fazlina N, Maha A, Jamal R, Zarina AL, Cheong SK, Hamidah H, et al.
    Hematology, 2007 Feb;12(1):33-7.
    PMID: 17364990
    The expression of the multidrug resistance (MDR) proteins may influence the outcome of treatment in patients with acute leukemia. The aim of this study was to determine the IC50 of cytotoxic drugs (cytosine arabinoside, ara-C and daunorubicin, dnr) using the in vitro 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)2H-tetrazolium, inner salt (MTS) assay method. A total of 82 newly diagnosed acute leukemia cases (43 adult myeloid leukaemia, AML cases and 39 acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, ALL cases) and 16 relapsed cases (8 AML cases and 8 ALL cases) were studied. The MTS assay was performed using two cytotoxic drugs, dnr and ara-C. Cells were incubated with different concentrations of drugs for 4 days and the IC50 was extrapolated from the viability curve. In newly diagnosed cases, we found that childhood ALL samples showed higher IC50 values of dnr (0.040 +/- 2.320) compared to adult AML samples (0.021 +/- 0.158). In contrast, newly diagnosed adult AML samples showed higher IC50 values of ara-C (0.157 +/- 0.529) compared to childhood ALL samples (0.100 +/- 2.350). In relapsed cases, two samples of childhood ALL showed IC50 values of dnr (0.910 +/- 1.760) and ara-C (1.310 +/- 2.390), which was higher compared to childhood AML samples (0.129 +/- 0.214 and 0.210 +/- 0.003, respectively). However, there was no correlation between IC50 values of these drugs tested with clinical outcome. In conclusion, we found that MTS assay is an easy, rapid and non laborious method to study in vitro drug resistance in acute leukaemia cases.
    Matched MeSH terms: Adult
  7. Freestone B, Rajaratnam R, Hussain N, Lip GY
    Int. J. Cardiol., 2003 Oct;91(2-3):233-8.
    PMID: 14559136
    BACKGROUND: There are established differences in cardiovascular disease in different racial groups. Worldwide, the literature regarding the clinical epidemiology of atrial fibrillation in non-white populations is scarce.

    OBJECTIVES: To document the prevalence of atrial fibrillation (AF) in the multiracial population of Malaysia, and to describe the clinical features and management of these patients.

    SETTING: Busy city centre general hospital in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, over a 1-month period.

    SUBJECTS: One-thousand four hundred and thirty-five acute medical admissions, of whom 40 patients (2.8%) had AF.

    RESULTS: Of 1435 acute medical admissions to Kuala Lumpur General Hospital over the 4-week study period, 40 had AF (21 male, 19 female; mean age 65 years). Of these, 18 were Malay, 16 Chinese and six Indian. Nineteen patients had previously known AF (seven with paroxysmal AF) and 21 were newly diagnosed cases. The principal associated medical conditions were ischaemic heart disease (42.5%), hypertension (40%) and heart failure (40%). Dyspnoea was the commonest presentation, whilst stroke was the cause of presentation in only two patients. Investigations were under-utilised, with chest X-ray and echocardiography in only 62.5% of patients and thyroid function checked in 15%. Only 16% of those with previously diagnosed AF were on warfarin, with a further three on aspirin. Anticoagulant therapy was started in 13.5% of patients previously not on warfarin, and aspirin in 8%. Records of contraindications to warfarin were unreliable, being identified in only 25%. For those with known AF, 58% were on digoxin. For new onset AF, digoxin was again the most common rate-limiting treatment, initiated in 38%, whilst five patients with new onset AF were commenced on amiodarone. DC cardioversion was not used in any of the patients with new onset AF.

    CONCLUSION: Amongst acute medical admissions to a single centre in Malaysia the prevalence of AF was 2.8%. Consistent with previous similar surveys in mainly western (caucasian) populations, standard investigations in this Malaysian cohort were also inadequate and there was underuse of anticoagulation, medication for ventricular rate control and cardioversion to sinus rhythm.

    Matched MeSH terms: Adult
  8. Liam CK, Lim KH, Wong CM
    Respirology, 2000 Dec;5(4):355-61.
    PMID: 11192546
    This study aimed to determine whether the clinicopathological features of lung cancer in patients younger than 40 years differ from that of older patients in an Asian country.
    Matched MeSH terms: Adult
  9. Peh SC, Sandvej K, Pallesen G
    Int. J. Cancer, 1995 May 4;61(3):327-32.
    PMID: 7729943
    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) type B, a less potent transformer of B lymphocytes than type A, has rarely been detected in EBV-associated neoplasms except in AIDS-related lymphomas, in which about 50% of the cases contained this sub-type. In this study we analyzed the association of EBV and the distribution of virus sub-types in Asian non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) of the upper aerodigestive tract. We studied archival material of 29 NHL cases from Malaysia. B- and T-cell associated antigens were demonstrated by immunohistochemistry, and EBV early RNA EBER-1 was demonstrated using the RNA in situ hybridization technique. EBV was detected in the majority of tumour cells in 11/13 T-NHL but in only 1/16 B-NHL. EBV was sub-typed by single-step polymerase chain reaction of the EBNA-2 gene. This was successful in 9/10 cases of EBER-1-positive tumours and all contained type-A virus only. Our results showed a preponderance of T-cell lymphoma of the upper aerodigestive tract in the ethnic Chinese group of Malaysian patients, and EBV was strongly associated with T-NHL but not with B-NHL. Our results suggest that type-A EBV is the prevalent sub-type in Asian NHL of the upper aerodigestive tract, similarly to findings in Asian nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
    Matched MeSH terms: Adult
  10. Tee ES, Kandiah M, Ali J, Kandiah V, Zahari MR, Kuladevan R, et al.
    Malays J Reprod Health, 1984 Jun;2(1):32-50.
    PMID: 12267519
    The study presents recent data on the prevalence and pattern of nutritional anemia in the Maternity Hospital, Kuala Lumpur. A total of 309 pregnant women in their third trimester, of Malay, Chinese and Indian origin from the lower socio-economic strata were randomly selected for the study. Hematological indices (including Hb, PCV, MCHC, and TRBC), serum iron, transferrin saturation and ferritin, serum folate as well as protein and albumin were determined. Based on Hb and PCV values, 30-40 percent of the women could be considered anemic; approximately 50 percent of them presented with unsatisfactory serum iron, transferrin saturation and ferritin values; 60.9 percent had low serum folate levels; and about 30 percent may be considered to be of poor protein nutriture. Anemia in the study population was seen to be related mostly to iron and to a lesser extent, folate deficiency. Hematological, iron, folate and protein status was observed to be the poorest amongst the Indian women, better in the Malay group and generally the best amongst the Chinese women. Birth records of 169 of these women revealed that all of them had live births. Nearly all the infants were delivered by normal vaginal delivery (NVD) The mean gestational age was 38.6 weeks. One of the infants had a birth weight of <2.0 kg; incidence of low birth weight, <2.5 kg, was 8.3 percent. Although there was a trend of deteriorating hematological, iron and protein status of women from the 0, 1 -3 and >=4 parity groups, these differences were not statlstlcally significant.
    Matched MeSH terms: Adult
  11. Boyd MA, Amin J, Mallon PW, Kumarasamy N, Lombaard J, Wood R, et al.
    Lancet HIV, 2017 01;4(1):e13-e20.
    PMID: 27815068 DOI: 10.1016/S2352-3018(16)30189-8
    BACKGROUND: Lipoatrophy is one of the most feared complications associated with the use of nucleoside or nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (N[t]RTIs). We aimed to assess soft-tissue changes in participants with HIV who had virological failure of a first-line antiretroviral (ART) regimen containing a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor plus two N(t)RTIs and were randomly assigned to receive a second-line regimen containing a boosted protease inhibitor given with either N(t)RTIs or raltegravir.

    METHODS: Of the 37 sites that participated in the randomised, open-label, non-inferiority SECOND-LINE study, eight sites from five countries (Argentina, India, Malaysia, South Africa, and Thailand) participated in the body composition substudy. All sites had a dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scanner and all participants enrolled in SECOND-LINE were eligible for inclusion in the substudy. Participants were randomly assigned (1:1), via a computer-generated allocation schedule, to receive either ritonavir-boosted lopinavir plus raltegravir (raltegravir group) or ritonavir-boosted lopinavir plus two or three N(t)RTIs (N[t]RTI group). Randomisation was stratified by site and screening HIV-1 RNA. Participants and investigators were not masked to group assignment, but allocation was concealed until after interventions were assigned. DXA scans were done at weeks 0, 48, and 96. The primary endpoint was mean percentage and absolute change in peripheral limb fat from baseline to week 96. We did intention-to-treat analyses of available data. This substudy is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01513122.

    FINDINGS: Between Aug 1, 2010, and July 10, 2011, we recruited 211 participants into the substudy. The intention-to-treat population comprised 102 participants in the N(t)RTI group and 108 participants in the raltegravir group, of whom 91 and 105 participants, respectively, reached 96 weeks. Mean percentage change in limb fat from baseline to week 96 was 16·8% (SD 32·6) in the N(t)RTI group and 28·0% (37·6) in the raltegravir group (mean difference 10·2%, 95% CI 0·1-20·4; p=0·048). Mean absolute change was 1·04 kg (SD 2·29) in the N(t)RTI group and 1·81 kg (2·50) in the raltegravir group (mean difference 0·6, 95% CI -0·1 to 1·3; p=0·10).

    INTERPRETATION: Our findings suggest that for people with virological failure of a first-line regimen containing efavirenz plus tenofovir and lamivudine or emtricitabine, the WHO-recommended switch to a ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitor plus zidovudine (a thymidine analogue nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor) and lamivudine might come at the cost of peripheral lipoatrophy. Further study could help to define specific groups of people who might benefit from a switch to an N(t)RTI-sparing second-line ART regimen.

    FUNDING: The Kirby Institute and the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council.

    Matched MeSH terms: Adult
  12. Wu YL, Zhou C, Liam CK, Wu G, Liu X, Zhong Z, et al.
    Ann. Oncol., 2015 Sep;26(9):1883-9.
    PMID: 26105600 DOI: 10.1093/annonc/mdv270
    The phase III, randomized, open-label ENSURE study (NCT01342965) evaluated first-line erlotinib versus gemcitabine/cisplatin (GP) in patients from China, Malaysia and the Philippines with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation-positive non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC).
    Matched MeSH terms: Adult
  13. Menon R, Mohd Noor FS, Draman CR, Seman MR, Ghani AS
    Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl, 2012 Sep;23(5):1109-14.
    PMID: 22982937 DOI: 10.4103/1319-2442.100972
    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) has become the most common cause of end-stage renal failure. Early referral and specific nephrology treatment could delay the disease progression and should reduce the treatment cost, mortality and morbidity rate in these patients. This is a single-center, retrospective review of all DN patients referred to the nephrology clinic in Hospital Sultan Ahmad Shah, Temerloh, from 2000 to 2009, to study and define the clinical characteristics of DN patients at the time of the referral to the nephrology clinic. A total of 75 patient case records were reviewed. Forty-three (57.3%) of them were males, with a median age of 64.3 ± 8.5 years at the time of referral. Only 14.7% of them had blood pressure lower than 125/75 mmHg. Co-morbid and disease-related complications were also commonly diagnosed and 28.4% (n = 21) had ischemic heart disease, 23% (n = 17) had diabetic retinopathy and 20.3% (n = 15) had diabetic neuropathy. The mean serum creatinine at the time of referral was 339.8 ± 2.3 μmol/L, gylcated hemoglobin A 1c (HbA1C) was 8.1 ± 2.0 %, serum fasting glucose was 9.6 ± 4.7 mmol/L, serum cholesterol was 5.4 ± 1.2 mmol/L and hemoglobin level was 10.6 ± 2.9 g/dL. Although female patients were less frequently seen in the early stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD), they comprised at least 72.7% of CKD stage 5 (male:female; 6:16, P <0.05). Twenty-nine percent (n=22) of them were referred at CKD stage 5, 48% (n=36) were at CKD stage 4, 17.3% (n=13) were at CKD stage 3, 4% (n=3) were at CKD stage 2 and 1.3% (n=1) was at CKD stage 1. Advanced CKD patients were frequently prescribed with more antihypertensives. CKD stage 5 patients were prescribed with two-and-half types of antihypertensive as compared to two types of anti-hypertensive in CKD stage 2 and stage 3. Furthermore, ACE-inhibitors (ACE-I) were less frequently prescribed to them. Only 22.7% (n=5) of CKD stage 5 patients received ACE-I and 30% (n=11) in CKD stage 4 patients as compared to 53.4% (n=7) in CKD patients stage 3. This review shows that DN patients were referred late to the nephrologists and the overall disease management was suboptimal. Antihypertensive requirement was also increased and ACEIs were less frequently prescribed in the advanced diabetic nephropathy patients.
    Study site: Nephrology Clinic, Hospital Sultan Ahmad Shah, Temerloh, Pahang, Malaysia
    Matched MeSH terms: Adult
  14. Hong CY, Wong NK, Abdullah M
    Asian Pac. J. Allergy Immunol., 2015 Mar;33(1):26-32.
    PMID: 25840631 DOI: 10.12932/AP0463.33.1.2015
    Tamm-Horsfall glycoprotein (THP) and uromodulin are the most abundant glycoproteins in non-pregnant women's/men's and pregnant women's urine, respectively. However, the bioactivities of these glycoproteins are still unclear.
    Matched MeSH terms: Adult
  15. Park SC, Lee MS, Shinfuku N, Sartorius N, Park YC
    Aust N Z J Psychiatry, 2015 Sep;49(9):833-41.
    PMID: 25829482 DOI: 10.1177/0004867415579464
    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether there were gender-specific depressive symptom profiles or gender-specific patterns of psychotropic agent usage in Asian patients with depression.
    Matched MeSH terms: Adult
  16. O'Donnell MJ, Chin SL, Rangarajan S, Xavier D, Liu L, Zhang H, et al.
    Lancet, 2016 Aug 20;388(10046):761-75.
    PMID: 27431356 DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(16)30506-2
    BACKGROUND:Stroke is a leading cause of death and disability, especially in low-income and middle-income countries. We sought to quantify the importance of potentially modifiable risk factors for stroke in different regions of the world, and in key populations and primary pathological subtypes of stroke.
    METHODS:We completed a standardised international case-control study in 32 countries in Asia, America, Europe, Australia, the Middle East, and Africa. Cases were patients with acute first stroke (within 5 days of symptom onset and 72 h of hospital admission). Controls were hospital-based or community-based individuals with no history of stroke, and were matched with cases, recruited in a 1:1 ratio, for age and sex. All participants completed a clinical assessment and were requested to provide blood and urine samples. Odds ratios (OR) and their population attributable risks (PARs) were calculated, with 99% confidence intervals.
    FINDINGS: Between Jan 11, 2007, and Aug 8, 2015, 26 919 participants were recruited from 32 countries (13 447 cases [10 388 with ischaemic stroke and 3059 intracerebral haemorrhage] and 13 472 controls). Previous history of hypertension or blood pressure of 140/90 mm Hg or higher (OR 2·98, 99% CI 2·72-3·28; PAR 47·9%, 99% CI 45·1-50·6), regular physical activity (0·60, 0·52-0·70; 35·8%, 27·7-44·7), apolipoprotein (Apo)B/ApoA1 ratio (1·84, 1·65-2·06 for highest vs lowest tertile; 26·8%, 22·2-31·9 for top two tertiles vs lowest tertile), diet (0·60, 0·53-0·67 for highest vs lowest tertile of modified Alternative Healthy Eating Index [mAHEI]; 23·2%, 18·2-28·9 for lowest two tertiles vs highest tertile of mAHEI), waist-to-hip ratio (1·44, 1·27-1·64 for highest vs lowest tertile; 18·6%, 13·3-25·3 for top two tertiles vs lowest), psychosocial factors (2·20, 1·78-2·72; 17·4%, 13·1-22·6), current smoking (1·67, 1·49-1·87; 12·4%, 10·2-14·9), cardiac causes (3·17, 2·68-3·75; 9·1%, 8·0-10·2), alcohol consumption (2·09, 1·64-2·67 for high or heavy episodic intake vs never or former drinker; 5·8%, 3·4-9·7 for current alcohol drinker vs never or former drinker), and diabetes mellitus (1·16, 1·05-1·30; 3·9%, 1·9-7·6) were associated with all stroke. Collectively, these risk factors accounted for 90·7% of the PAR for all stroke worldwide (91·5% for ischaemic stroke, 87·1% for intracerebral haemorrhage), and were consistent across regions (ranging from 82·7% in Africa to 97·4% in southeast Asia), sex (90·6% in men and in women), and age groups (92·2% in patients aged ≤55 years, 90·0% in patients aged >55 years). We observed regional variations in the importance of individual risk factors, which were related to variations in the magnitude of ORs (rather than direction, which we observed for diet) and differences in prevalence of risk factors among regions. Hypertension was more associated with intracerebral haemorrhage than with ischaemic stroke, whereas current smoking, diabetes, apolipoproteins, and cardiac causes were more associated with ischaemic stroke (p<0·0001).
    INTERPRETATION: Ten potentially modifiable risk factors are collectively associated with about 90% of the PAR of stroke in each major region of the world, among ethnic groups, in men and women, and in all ages. However, we found important regional variations in the relative importance of most individual risk factors for stroke, which could contribute to worldwide variations in frequency and case-mix of stroke. Our findings support developing both global and region-specific programmes to prevent stroke.
    FUNDING: Canadian Institutes of Health Research, Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada, Canadian Stroke Network, Health Research Board Ireland, Swedish Research Council, Swedish Heart and Lung Foundation, The Health & Medical Care Committee of the Regional Executive Board, Region Västra Götaland (Sweden), AstraZeneca, Boehringer Ingelheim (Canada), Pfizer (Canada), MSD, Chest, Heart and Stroke Scotland, and The Stroke Association, with support from The UK Stroke Research Network.
    Matched MeSH terms: Adult
  17. Rasmussen LD, Pedersen C, Madsen HD, Laursen CB
    BMJ Case Rep, 2017 Nov 29;2017.
    PMID: 29191821 DOI: 10.1136/bcr-2017-221025
    A 36-year-old Danish man, living in Asia, was diagnosed with Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) and HIV in 2013 (CD4+ count: 6 cells/µL; viral load: 518 000 copies/mL). He initiated combination antiretroviral therapy. Later that year, he was also diagnosed with granulomatosis with polyangiitis and was treated with prednisolone. Despite complete viral suppression and increasing CD4+ count (162 cells/µL), he was readmitted with PCP in April 2015. Subsequently, he returned to Denmark (CD4+ count: 80 cells/µL, viral suppression). Over the following months, he developed progressive dyspnoea. Lung function tests demonstrated severely reduced lung capacity with an obstructive pattern and a moderately reduced diffusion capacity. High resolution computer tomography revealed minor areas with tree-in-bud pattern and no signs of air trapping on expiratory views. Lung biopsy showed lymphocytic infiltration surrounding the bronchioles with sparing of the alveolar septa. He was diagnosed with follicular bronchiolitis. The patient spontaneously recovered along with an improvement of the immune system.
    Matched MeSH terms: Adult
  18. Masir N, Akhter A, Roshan TM, Florence CS, Abdul-Rahman F, Tumian NR, et al.
    J. Clin. Pathol., 2019 Sep;72(9):630-635.
    PMID: 31189540 DOI: 10.1136/jclinpath-2019-205837
    AIMS: Heightened B-cell receptor (BCR) activity in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is well established, and a subset of patients with relapsed DLBCL can benefit from BCR-targeted therapies. Universal outreach of such emerging therapies mandates forming a global landscape of BCR molecular signalling in DLBCL, including Southeast Asia.

    METHODS: 79 patients with DLBCL (nodal, 59% and extranodal, 41%) treated with rituximab combined with cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisone (R-CHOP) therapy were selected. Expression levels of BCR and linked signalling pathway molecules were inter-related with Lymph2Cx-based cell of origin (COO) types and overall survival (OS).

    RESULTS: Activated B-cell (ABC) type DLBCL constituted 49% (39/79) compared with germinal centre B-cell (GCB) type DLBCL (29/79; 37%) and revealed poor prognosis (p=0.013). In ABC-DLBCL, high BTK expression exerted poor response to R-CHOP, while OS in ABC-DLBCL with low BTK expression was similar to GCB-DLBCL subtype (p=0.004). High LYN expression coupled with a poor OS for ABC-DLBCL as well as GCB-DLBCL subtypes (p=0.001). Furthermore, high coexpression of BTK/LYN (BTKhigh/LYNhigh) showed poor OS (p=0.019), which linked with upregulation of several genes associated with BCR repertoire and nuclear factor-kappa B pathway (p<0.01). In multivariate analysis, high BTK and LYN expression retained prognostic significance against established clinical predictive factors such as age, International Prognostic Index and COO (p<0.05).

    CONCLUSIONS: Our data provide a clear association between high BCR activity in DLBCL and response to therapy in a distinct population. Molecular data provided here will pave the pathway for the provision of promising novel-targeted therapies to patients with DLBCL in Southeast Asia.

    Matched MeSH terms: Adult
  19. Venkatason P, Zubairi YZ, Hafidz I, Wan WA, Zuhdi AS
    Ann Saudi Med, 2016 5 30;36(3):184-9.
    PMID: 27236389 DOI: 10.5144/0256-4947.2016.184
    BACKGROUND: The administration of evidence-based pharmacotherapy and timely primary percutaneous coronary intervention have been shown to improve outcome in ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). However, implementation remains a challenge due to the limitations in facilities, expertise and funding.

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate adherence to guideline-based management and mortality of STEMI patients in Malaysia.

    DESIGN: Retrospective analysis.

    SETTINGS: STEMI patients from 18 participating hospital across Malaysia included in the National Cardiovascular Database-Acute Coronary Syndrome (NCVD-ACS) registry year 2006 to 2013.

    PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients were categorized into four subgroups based on the year of admission (2006 to 2007, 2008 to 2009, 2010 to 2011 and 2012 to 2013). Baseline characteristics and clinical presentation, in-hospital pharmacotherapy, invasive revascularization and in-hospital/30-day mortality were analysed and compared between the subgroups.

    MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Rate of in-hospital catheterization/percutaneous coronary intervention.

    RESULTS: The registry contained data on 19483 patients. Intravenous thrombolysis was the main reperfusion therapy. Although the overall rate of in-hospital catheterisation/PCI more than doubled over the study period, while the use of primary PCI only slowly increased from 7.6% in 2006/2007 to 13.6% in 2012/2013. The use of evidence-based oral therapies increased steadily over the years except for ACe-inhibitors and angiotensin-receptor blockers. The adjusted risk ratios (RR) for in-hospital mortality for the four sub-groups have not shown any significant improvement. The 30-day adjusted risk ratios however showed a significant albeit gradual risk reduction (RR 0.773 95% CI 0.679-0.881, P < .001).

    CONCLUSION: Adherence to evidence-based treatment in STEMI in Malaysia is still poor especially in terms of the rate of primary PCI. Although there is a general trend toward reduced 30-day mortality, the reduction was only slight over the study period. Drastic effort is needed to improve adherence and clinical outcomes.

    LIMITATION: Retrospective registry data with inter-hospital variation.

    Matched MeSH terms: Adult
  20. Md Ralib A, Mat Nor MB, Pickering JW
    Nephrology (Carlton), 2017 May;22(5):412-419.
    PMID: 27062515 DOI: 10.1111/nep.12796
    AIM: Sepsis is the leading cause of intensive care unit (ICU) admission. Plasma Neutrophil Gelatinase Associated-Lipocalin (NGAL) is a promising biomarker for acute kidney injury (AKI) detection; however, it is also increased with inflammation and few studies have been conducted in non-Caucasian populations and/or in developing economies. Therefore, we evaluated plasma NGAL's diagnostic performance in the presence of sepsis and systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) in a Malaysian ICU cohort.

    METHODS: This is a prospective observational study on patients with SIRS. Plasma creatinine (pCr) and NGAL were measured on ICU admission. Patients were classified according to the occurrence of AKI and sepsis.

    RESULTS: Of 225 patients recruited, 129 (57%) had sepsis of whom 67 (52%) also had AKI. 96 patients (43%) had non-infectious SIRS, of whom 20 (21%) also had AKI. NGAL concentrations were higher in AKI patients within both the sepsis and non-infectious SIRS cohorts (both P 

    Matched MeSH terms: Adult
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