Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 68 in total

  1. Naher L, Tan SG, Ho CL, Yusuf UK, Ahmad SH, Abdullah F
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2012;2012:647504.
    PMID: 22919345 DOI: 10.1100/2012/647504
    Basal stem rot (BSR) disease caused by the fungus Ganoderma boninense is the most serious disease affecting the oil palm; this is because the disease escapes the early disease detection. The biocontrol agent Trichoderma harzianum can protect the disease only at the early stage of the disease. In the present study, the expression levels of three oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) chitinases encoding EgCHI1, EgCHI2, and EgCHI3 at 2, 5, and 8 weeks inoculation were measured in oil palm leaves from plants treated with G. boninense or T. harzianum alone or both.
    Matched MeSH terms: Arecaceae/genetics*
  2. Ho CL, Kwan YY, Choi MC, Tee SS, Ng WH, Lim KA, et al.
    BMC Genomics, 2007;8:381.
    PMID: 17953740
    Oil palm is the second largest source of edible oil which contributes to approximately 20% of the world's production of oils and fats. In order to understand the molecular biology involved in in vitro propagation, flowering, efficient utilization of nitrogen sources and root diseases, we have initiated an expressed sequence tag (EST) analysis on oil palm.
    Matched MeSH terms: Arecaceae/genetics*
  3. Yusuf CYL, Abdullah JO, Shaharuddin NA, Abu Seman I, Abdullah MP
    Plant Cell Rep., 2018 Feb;37(2):265-278.
    PMID: 29090330 DOI: 10.1007/s00299-017-2228-7
    KEY MESSAGE: The oil palm EgPAL1 gene promoter and its regulatory region were functional as a promoter in the heterologous system of Arabidopsis according to the cis-acting elements present in that region. The promoter was developmentally regulated, vascular tissue specific and responsive to water stress agents. Phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL, EC is the key enzyme of the phenylpropanoid pathway which plays important roles in plant development and adaptation. To date, there is no report on the study of PAL from oil palm (Elaeis guineensis), an economically important oil crop. In this study, the 5' regulatory sequence of a highly divergent oil palm PAL gene (EgPAL1) was isolated and fused with GUS in Arabidopsis to create two transgenic plants carrying the minimal promoter with (2302 bp) and without its regulatory elements (139 bp). The regulatory sequence contained cis-acting elements known to be important for plant development and stress response including the AC-II element for lignin biosynthesis and several stress responsive elements. The promoter and its regulatory region were fully functional in Arabidopsis. Its activities were characterised by two common fundamental features of PAL which are responsive to plant internal developmental programme and external factors. The promoter was developmentally regulated in certain organs; highly active in young organs but less active or inactive in mature organs. The presence of the AC elements and global activity of the EgPAL1 promoter in all organs resembled the property of lignin-related genes. The existence of the MBS element and enhancement of the promoter activity by PEG reflected the behaviour of drought-responsive genes. Our findings provide a platform for evaluating oil palm gene promoters in the heterologous system of Arabidopsis and give insights into the activities of EgPAL1 promoter in oil palm.
    Matched MeSH terms: Arecaceae/genetics*
  4. Omidvar V, Abdullah SN, Ho CL, Mahmood M, Al-Shanfari AB
    Mol. Biol. Rep., 2012 Sep;39(9):8907-18.
    PMID: 22722992 DOI: 10.1007/s11033-012-1758-x
    Abscisic acid (ABA) is an important phytohormone involved in the abiotic stress resistance in plants. The ABA-responsive element (ABRE) binding factors play significant roles in the plant development and response to abiotic stresses, but none so far have been isolated and characterized from the oil palm. Two ABA-responsive cDNA clones, named EABF and EABF1, were isolated from the oil palm fruits using yeast one-hybrid system. The EABF had a conserved AP2/EREBP DNA-binding domain (DNA-BD) and a potential nuclear localization sequence (NLS). No previously known DNA-BD was identified from the EABF1 sequence. The EABF and EABF1 proteins were classified as DREB/CBF and bZIP family members based on the multiple sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis. Both proteins showed ABRE-binding and transcriptional activation properties in yeast. Furthermore, both proteins were able to trans-activate the down-stream expression of the LacZ reporter gene in yeast. An electrophoretic mobility shift assay revealed that in addition to the ABRE sequence, both proteins could bind to the DRE sequence as well. Transcriptional analysis revealed that the expression of EABF was induced in response to the ABA in the oil palm fruits and leaves, but not in roots, while the EABF1 was constitutively induced in all tissues. The expressions of both genes were strongly induced in fruits in response to the ABA, ethylene, methyl jasmonate, drought, cold and high-salinity treatments, indicating that the EABF and EABF1 might act as connectors among different stress signal transduction pathways. Our results indicate that the EABF and EABF1 are novel stress-responsive transcription factors, which are involved in the abiotic stress response and ABA signaling in the oil palm and could be used for production of stress-tolerant transgenic crops.
    Matched MeSH terms: Arecaceae/genetics*
  5. Pipatchartlearnwong K, Swatdipong A, Vuttipongchaikij S, Apisitwanich S
    BMC Genet., 2017 10 12;18(1):88.
    PMID: 29025415 DOI: 10.1186/s12863-017-0554-y
    BACKGROUND: Borassus flabellifer or Asian Palmyra palm is an important crop for local economies in the South and Southeast Asia for its fruit and palm sugar production. Archeological and historical evidence indicated the presence of this species in Southeast Asia dating back at least 1500 years. B. flabellifer is believed to be originated in Africa, spread to South Asia and introduced into Southeast Asia through commercial routes and dissemination of cultures, however, the nature of its invasion and settlement in Thailand is unclear.

    RESULTS: Here, we analyzed genetic data of 230 B. flabellifer accessions across Thailand using 17 EST-SSR and 12 gSSR polymorphic markers. Clustering analysis revealed that the population consisted of two genetic clusters (STRUCTURE K = 2). Cluster I is found mainly in southern Thailand, while Cluster II is found mainly in the northeastern. Those found in the central are of an extensive mix between the two. These two clusters are in moderate differentiation (F ST = 0.066 and N M = 3.532) and have low genetic diversity (HO = 0.371 and 0.416; AR = 2.99 and 3.19, for the cluster I and II respectively). The minimum numbers of founders for each genetic group varies from 3 to 4 individuals, based on simulation using different allele frequency assumptions. These numbers coincide with that B. flabellifer is dioecious, and a number of seeds had to be simultaneously introduced for obtaining both male and female founders.

    CONCLUSIONS: From these data and geographical and historical evidence, we hypothesize that there were at least two different invasive events of B. flabellifer in Thailand. B. flabellifer was likely brought through the Straits of Malacca to be propagated in the southern Thailand as one of the invasive events before spreading to the central Thailand. The second event likely occurred in Khmer Empire, currently Cambodia, before spreading to the northeastern Thailand.

    Matched MeSH terms: Arecaceae/genetics*
  6. Teh CK, Muaz SD, Tangaya P, Fong PY, Ong AL, Mayes S, et al.
    Sci Rep, 2017 06 08;7(1):3118.
    PMID: 28596562 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-017-03225-7
    The fundamental trait in selective breeding of oil palm (Eleais guineensis Jacq.) is the shell thickness surrounding the kernel. The monogenic shell thickness is inversely correlated to mesocarp thickness, where the crude palm oil accumulates. Commercial thin-shelled tenera derived from thick-shelled dura × shell-less pisifera generally contain 30% higher oil per bunch. Two mutations, sh MPOB (M1) and sh AVROS (M2) in the SHELL gene - a type II MADS-box transcription factor mainly present in AVROS and Nigerian origins, were reported to be responsible for different fruit forms. In this study, we have tested 1,339 samples maintained in Sime Darby Plantation using both mutations. Five genotype-phenotype discrepancies and eight controls were then re-tested with all five reported mutations (sh AVROS , sh MPOB , sh MPOB2 , sh MPOB3 and sh MPOB4 ) within the same gene. The integration of genotypic data, pedigree records and shell formation model further explained the haploinsufficiency effect on the SHELL gene with different number of functional copies. Some rare mutations were also identified, suggesting a need to further confirm the existence of cis-compound mutations in the gene. With this, the prediction accuracy of fruit forms can be further improved, especially in introgressive hybrids of oil palm. Understanding causative variant segregation is extremely important, even for monogenic traits such as shell thickness in oil palm.
    Matched MeSH terms: Arecaceae/genetics*
  7. Teh CK, Lee HL, Abidin H, Ong AL, Mayes S, Chew FT, et al.
    BMC Plant Biol., 2019 Nov 05;19(1):470.
    PMID: 31690276 DOI: 10.1186/s12870-019-2062-x
    BACKGROUND: Legitimacy in breeding and commercial crop production depends on optimised protocols to ensure purity of crosses and correct field planting of material. In oil palm, the presence of three fruit forms permits these assumptions to be tested, although only after field planting. The presence of incorrect fruit forms in a cross is a clear sign of illegitimacy. Given that tenera forms produce 30% more oil for the same weight of fruit as dura, the presence of low levels of dura contamination can have major effect during the economic lifespan of an oil palm, which is around 25 years. We evaluated two methods for legitimacy test 1) The use of SHELL markers to the gene that determines the shell-thickness trait 2) The use of SNP markers, to determine the legitimacy of the cross.

    RESULTS: Our results indicate that the SHELL markers can theoretically reduce the major losses due to dura contamination of tenera planting material. However, these markers cannot distinguish illegitimate tenera, which reduces the value of having bred elite tenera for commercial planting and in the breeding programme, where fruit form is of limited utility, and incorrect identity could lead to significant problems. We propose an optimised approach using SNPs for routine quality control.

    CONCLUSIONS: Both dura and tenera contamination can be identified and removed at or before the nursery stage. An optimised legitimacy assay using SNP markers coupled with a suitable sampling scheme is now ready to be deployed as a standard control for seed production and breeding in oil palm. The same approach will also be an effective solution for other perennial crops, such as coconut and date palm.

    Matched MeSH terms: Arecaceae/genetics*
  8. Kwong QB, Teh CK, Ong AL, Heng HY, Lee HL, Mohamed M, et al.
    Mol Plant, 2016 Aug 01;9(8):1132-1141.
    PMID: 27112659 DOI: 10.1016/j.molp.2016.04.010
    High-density single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping arrays are powerful tools that can measure the level of genetic polymorphism within a population. To develop a whole-genome SNP array for oil palms, SNP discovery was performed using deep resequencing of eight libraries derived from 132 Elaeis guineensis and Elaeis oleifera palms belonging to 59 origins, resulting in the discovery of >3 million putative SNPs. After SNP filtering, the Illumina OP200K custom array was built with 170 860 successful probes. Phenetic clustering analysis revealed that the array could distinguish between palms of different origins in a way consistent with pedigree records. Genome-wide linkage disequilibrium declined more slowly for the commercial populations (ranging from 120 kb at r(2) = 0.43 to 146 kb at r(2) = 0.50) when compared with the semi-wild populations (19.5 kb at r(2) = 0.22). Genetic fixation mapping comparing the semi-wild and commercial population identified 321 selective sweeps. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) detected a significant peak on chromosome 2 associated with the polygenic component of the shell thickness trait (based on the trait shell-to-fruit; S/F %) in tenera palms. Testing of a genomic selection model on the same trait resulted in good prediction accuracy (r = 0.65) with 42% of the S/F % variation explained. The first high-density SNP genotyping array for oil palm has been developed and shown to be robust for use in genetic studies and with potential for developing early trait prediction to shorten the oil palm breeding cycle.
    Matched MeSH terms: Arecaceae/genetics*
  9. Teh HF, Neoh BK, Hong MP, Low JY, Ng TL, Ithnin N, et al.
    PLoS ONE, 2013;8(4):e61344.
    PMID: 23593468 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0061344
    To better understand lipid biosynthesis in oil palm mesocarp, in particular the differences in gene regulation leading to and including de novo fatty acid biosynthesis, a multi-platform metabolomics technology was used to profile mesocarp metabolites during six critical stages of fruit development in comparatively high- and low-yielding oil palm populations. Significantly higher amino acid levels preceding lipid biosynthesis and nucleosides during lipid biosynthesis were observed in a higher yielding commercial palm population. Levels of metabolites involved in glycolysis revealed interesting divergence of flux towards glycerol-3-phosphate, while carbon utilization differences in the TCA cycle were proven by an increase in malic acid/citric acid ratio. Apart from insights into the regulation of enhanced lipid production in oil palm, these results provide potentially useful metabolite yield markers and genes of interest for use in breeding programmes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Arecaceae/genetics
  10. Neoh BK, Wong YC, Teh HF, Ng TLM, Tiong SH, Ooi TEK, et al.
    PLoS ONE, 2019;14(3):e0213591.
    PMID: 30856213 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0213591
    To investigate limiters of photosynthate assimilation in the carbon-source limited crop, oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.), we measured differential metabolite, gene expression and the gas exchange in leaves in an open field for palms with distinct mesocarp oil content. We observed higher concentrations of glucose 1-phosphate, glucose 6-phosphate, sucrose 6-phosphate, and sucrose in high-oil content palms with the greatest difference being at 11:00 (p-value ≤0.05) immediately after the period of low morning light intensity. Three important photosynthetic genes were identified using differentially expressed gene analysis (DEGs) and were found to be significantly enriched through Gene Ontology (GO) and pathway enrichment: chlorophyll a-b binding protein (CAB-13), photosystem I (PSI), and Ferredoxin-NADP reductase (FNR), particularly for sampling points at non-peak light (11:00 and 19:00), ranging from 3.3-fold (PSI) and 5.6-fold (FNR) to 10.3-fold (CAB-13). Subsequent gas exchange measurements further supported increased carbon assimilation through higher level of internal CO2 concentration (Ci), stomatal conductance (gs) and transpiration rate (E) in high-oil content palms. The selection for higher expression of key photosynthesis genes together with CO2 assimilation under low light is likely to be important for crop improvement, in particular at full maturity and under high density planting regimes where light competition exists between palms.
    Matched MeSH terms: Arecaceae/genetics*
  11. Kamaladini H, Abdullah SN, Aziz MA
    J. Biosci. Bioeng., 2011 Feb;111(2):217-25.
    PMID: 21044862 DOI: 10.1016/j.jbiosc.2010.09.010
    Reporter gene activity under the regulation of the oil palm metallothionein-like gene, MT3-A promoter was assessed in prokaryotes. Vector constructs containing MT3-A promoter with (W1MT3-A) and without (W2MT3-A) five prime untranslated region (5'-UTR) fused to ß-glucuronidase (GUS) gene in pCAMBIA 1304 vector were produced. 5'-rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) using mRNA isolated from Escherichia coli and Agrobacterium tumefaciens harboring W1MT3-A confirmed that fusion transcripts of MT3-A 5'-UTR-GUS were successfully produced in both bacteria. Competitive PCR and GUS fluorometric assay showed changes in the level of GUS gene transcripts and enzyme activity in response to increasing concentrations of Cu²+ and Zn²+. The application of Cu²+ increased GUS activity and GUS mRNA level in both bacteria. In E. coli, a high level of GUS activity driven by W1MT3-A and W2MT3-A was observed in treatment with 25 μM Cu²+ resulting in an increase in the GUS mRNA level to 7.2 and 7.5 x 10⁻⁴ pmol/μl respectively, compared to the control (5.1 x 10⁻⁴ pmol/μl). The lowest GUS activity and GUS mRNA level were obtained for W1MT3-A and W2MT3-A in the presence of 100 μM Cu²+ in both bacteria compared to the control (without Cu²+). The application of different Zn²+ concentrations resulted in a strong decrease in the GUS activity and GUS mRNA level in E. coli and A. tumefaciens. These findings showed that the oil palm MT3-A promoter is functional in prokaryotes and produced detectable GUS transcripts and enzyme activities. This promoter may potentially be used in prokaryotic systems which require metal inducible gene expression.
    Matched MeSH terms: Arecaceae/genetics*
  12. Wong CK, Bernardo R
    Theor. Appl. Genet., 2008 Apr;116(6):815-24.
    PMID: 18219476 DOI: 10.1007/s00122-008-0715-5
    Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) requires 19 years per cycle of phenotypic selection. The use of molecular markers may reduce the generation interval and the cost of oil-palm breeding. Our objectives were to compare, by simulation, the response to phenotypic selection, marker-assisted recurrent selection (MARS), and genomewide selection with small population sizes in oil palm, and assess the efficiency of each method in terms of years and cost per unit gain. Markers significantly associated with the trait were used to calculate the marker scores in MARS, whereas all markers were used (without significance tests) to calculate the marker scores in genomewide selection. Responses to phenotypic selection and genomewide selection were consistently greater than the response to MARS. With population sizes of N = 50 or 70, responses to genomewide selection were 4-25% larger than the corresponding responses to phenotypic selection, depending on the heritability and number of quantitative trait loci. Cost per unit gain was 26-57% lower with genomewide selection than with phenotypic selection when markers cost US $1.50 per data point, and 35-65% lower when markers cost $0.15 per data point. With population sizes of N = 50 or 70, time per unit gain was 11-23 years with genomewide selection and 14-25 years with phenotypic selection. We conclude that for a realistic yet relatively small population size of N = 50 in oil palm, genomewide selection is superior to MARS and phenotypic selection in terms of gain per unit cost and time. Our results should be generally applicable to other tree species that are characterized by long generation intervals, high costs of maintaining breeding plantations, and small population sizes in selection programs.
    Matched MeSH terms: Arecaceae/genetics*
  13. Singh R, Tan SG, Panandam JM, Rahman RA, Ooi LC, Low ET, et al.
    BMC Plant Biol., 2009;9:114.
    PMID: 19706196 DOI: 10.1186/1471-2229-9-114
    Marker Assisted Selection (MAS) is well suited to a perennial crop like oil palm, in which the economic products are not produced until several years after planting. The use of DNA markers for selection in such crops can greatly reduce the number of breeding cycles needed. With the use of DNA markers, informed decisions can be made at the nursery stage, regarding which individuals should be retained as breeding stock, which are satisfactory for agricultural production, and which should be culled. The trait associated with oil quality, measured in terms of its fatty acid composition, is an important agronomic trait that can eventually be tracked using molecular markers. This will speed up the production of new and improved oil palm planting materials.
    Matched MeSH terms: Arecaceae/genetics*
  14. Tan HS, Liddell S, Ong Abdullah M, Wong WC, Chin CF
    J Proteomics, 2016 06 30;143:334-345.
    PMID: 27130535 DOI: 10.1016/j.jprot.2016.04.039
    Oil palm tissue culture is one way to produce superior oil palm planting materials. However, the low rate of embryogenesis is a major hindrance for the adoption of this technology in oil palm tissue culture laboratories. In this study, we use proteomic technologies to compare differential protein profiles in leaves from palms of high and low proliferation rates in tissue culture in order to understand the underlying biological mechanism for the low level of embryogenesis. Two protein extraction methods, namely trichloroacetic acid/acetone precipitation and polyethylene glycol fractionation were used to produce total proteins and fractionated protein extracts respectively, with the aim of improving the resolution of protein species using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. A total of 40 distinct differential abundant protein spots were selected from leaf samples collected from palms with proven high and low proliferation rates. The variant proteins were subsequently identified using mass spectrometric analysis. Twelve prominent protein spots were then characterised using real-time polymerase chain reaction to compare the mRNA expression and protein abundant profiles. Three proteins, namely triosephosphate isomerase, l-ascorbate peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase were identified to be potential biomarker candidates at both the protein abundant and mRNA expression levels.

    BIOLOGICAL SIGNIFICANCE: In this study, proteomic analysis was used to identify abundant proteins from total protein extracts. PEG fractionation was used to reveal lower abundant proteins from both high and low proliferation embryogenic lines of oil palm samples in tissue culture. A total of 40 protein spots were found to be significant in abundance and the mRNA levels of 12 of these were assessed using real time PCR. Three proteins namely, triosephosphate isomerase, l-ascorbate peroxidase and superoxide dismutase were found to be concordant in their mRNA expression and protein abundance. Triosephosphate isomerase is a key enzyme in glycolysis. Both l-ascorbate peroxidase and superoxide dismutase play a role in anti-oxidative scavenging defense systems. These proteins have potential for use as biomarkers to screen for high and low embryogenic oil palm samples.

    Matched MeSH terms: Arecaceae/genetics
  15. Alizadeh F, Abdullah SN, Khodavandi A, Abdullah F, Yusuf UK, Chong PP
    J. Plant Physiol., 2011 Jul 1;168(10):1106-13.
    PMID: 21333381 DOI: 10.1016/j.jplph.2010.12.007
    The expression profiles of Δ9 stearoyl-acyl carrier protein desaturase (SAD1 and SAD2) and type 3 metallothionein (MT3-A and MT3-B) were investigated in seedlings of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) artificially inoculated with the pathogenic fungus Ganoderma boninense and the symbiotic fungus Trichoderma harzianum. Expression of SAD1 and MT3-A in roots and SAD2 in leaves were significantly up-regulated in G. boninense inoculated seedlings at 21 d after treatment when physical symptoms had not yet appeared and thereafter decreased to basal levels when symptoms became visible. Our finding demonstrated that the SAD1 expression in leaves was significantly down-regulated to negligible levels at 42 and 63 d after treatment. The transcripts of MT3 genes were synthesized in G. boninense inoculated leaves at 42 d after treatment, and the analyses did not show detectable expression of these genes before 42 d after treatment. In T. harzianum inoculated seedlings, the expression levels of SAD1 and SAD2 increased gradually and were stronger in roots than leaves, while for MT3-A and MT3-B, the expression levels were induced in leaves at 3d after treatment and subsequently maintained at same levels until 63d after treatment. The MT3-A expression was significantly up-regulated in roots at 3d after treatment and thereafter were maintained at this level. Both SAD and MT3 expression were maintained at maximum levels or at levels higher than basal. This study demonstrates that oil palm was able to distinguish between pathogenic and symbiotic fungal interactions, thus resulting in different transcriptional activation profiles of SAD and MT3 genes. Increases in expression levels of SAD and MT3 would lead to enhanced resistance against G. boninense and down-regulation of genes confer potential for invasive growth of the pathogen. Differences in expression profiles of SAD and MT3 relate to plant resistance mechanisms while supporting growth enhancing effects of symbiotic T. harzianum.
    Matched MeSH terms: Arecaceae/genetics*
  16. Kamaladini H, Nor Akmar Abdullah S, Aziz MA, Ismail IB, Haddadi F
    J. Plant Physiol., 2013 Feb 15;170(3):346-54.
    PMID: 23290536 DOI: 10.1016/j.jplph.2012.10.017
    Metallothioneins (MTs) are cysteine-rich metal-binding proteins that are involved in cell growth regulation, transportation of metal ions and detoxification of heavy metals. A mesocarp-specific metallothionein-like gene (MT3-A) promoter was isolated from the oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq). A vector construct containing the MT3-A promoter fused to the β-glucuronidase (GUS) gene in the pCAMBIA 1304 vector was produced and used in Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of tomato. Histochemical GUS assay of different tissues of transgenic tomato showed that the MT3-A promoter only drove GUS expression in the reproductive tissues and organs, including the anther, fruit and seed coat. Competitive RT-PCR and GUS fluorometric assay showed changes in the level of GUS mRNA and enzyme activity in the transgenic tomato (T(0)). No GUS mRNA was found in roots and leaves of transgenic tomato. In contrast, the leaves of transgenic tomato seedlings (T(1)) produced the highest GUS activity when treated with 150 μM Cu(2+) compared to the control (without Cu(2+)). However, Zn(2+) and Fe(2+) treatments did not show GUS expression in the leaves of the transgenic tomato seedlings. Interestingly, the results showed a breaking-off tissue-specific activity of the oil palm MT3-A promoter in T(1) seedlings of tomato when subjected to Cu(2+) ions.
    Matched MeSH terms: Arecaceae/genetics*
  17. Kwong QB, Teh CK, Ong AL, Chew FT, Mayes S, Kulaveerasingam H, et al.
    BMC Genet., 2017 Dec 11;18(1):107.
    PMID: 29228905 DOI: 10.1186/s12863-017-0576-5
    BACKGROUND: Genomic selection (GS) uses genome-wide markers as an attempt to accelerate genetic gain in breeding programs of both animals and plants. This approach is particularly useful for perennial crops such as oil palm, which have long breeding cycles, and for which the optimal method for GS is still under debate. In this study, we evaluated the effect of different marker systems and modeling methods for implementing GS in an introgressed dura family derived from a Deli dura x Nigerian dura (Deli x Nigerian) with 112 individuals. This family is an important breeding source for developing new mother palms for superior oil yield and bunch characters. The traits of interest selected for this study were fruit-to-bunch (F/B), shell-to-fruit (S/F), kernel-to-fruit (K/F), mesocarp-to-fruit (M/F), oil per palm (O/P) and oil-to-dry mesocarp (O/DM). The marker systems evaluated were simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). RR-BLUP, Bayesian A, B, Cπ, LASSO, Ridge Regression and two machine learning methods (SVM and Random Forest) were used to evaluate GS accuracy of the traits.

    RESULTS: The kinship coefficient between individuals in this family ranged from 0.35 to 0.62. S/F and O/DM had the highest genomic heritability, whereas F/B and O/P had the lowest. The accuracies using 135 SSRs were low, with accuracies of the traits around 0.20. The average accuracy of machine learning methods was 0.24, as compared to 0.20 achieved by other methods. The trait with the highest mean accuracy was F/B (0.28), while the lowest were both M/F and O/P (0.18). By using whole genomic SNPs, the accuracies for all traits, especially for O/DM (0.43), S/F (0.39) and M/F (0.30) were improved. The average accuracy of machine learning methods was 0.32, compared to 0.31 achieved by other methods.

    CONCLUSION: Due to high genomic resolution, the use of whole-genome SNPs improved the efficiency of GS dramatically for oil palm and is recommended for dura breeding programs. Machine learning slightly outperformed other methods, but required parameters optimization for GS implementation.

    Matched MeSH terms: Arecaceae/genetics*
  18. Tan YC, Wong MY, Ho CL
    Plant Physiol. Biochem., 2015 Nov;96:296-300.
    PMID: 26322853 DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2015.08.014
    Basal stem rot is one of the major diseases of oil palm (Elaies guineensis Jacq.) caused by pathogenic Ganoderma species. Trichoderma and mycorrhizae were proposed to be able to reduce the disease severity. However, their roles in improving oil palm defence system by possibly inducing defence-related genes in the host are not well characterized. To better understand that, transcript profiles of eleven putative defence-related cDNAs in the roots of oil palm inoculated with Trichoderma harzianum T32 and mycorrhizae at different time points were studied. Transcripts encoding putative Bowman-Birk protease inhibitor (EgBBI2) and defensin (EgDFS) increased more than 2 fold in mycorrhizae-treated roots at 6 weeks post inoculation (wpi) compared to those in controls. Transcripts encoding putative dehydrin (EgDHN), glycine-rich RNA binding protein (EgGRRBP), isoflavone reductase (EgIFR), type 2 ribosome inactivating protein (EgT2RIP), and EgDFS increased in the oil palm roots treated with T. harzianum at 6 and/or 12 wpi compared to those in the controls. Some of these genes were also expressed in oil palm roots treated with Ganoderma boninense. This study provides an insight of some defence-related genes induced by Trichoderma and mycorrhizae, and their roles as potential agents to boost the plant defence system.
    Matched MeSH terms: Arecaceae/genetics*
  19. Tan YC, Yeoh KA, Wong MY, Ho CL
    J. Plant Physiol., 2013 Nov 1;170(16):1455-60.
    PMID: 23769496 DOI: 10.1016/j.jplph.2013.05.009
    Basal stem rot (BSR) is a major disease of oil palm caused by a pathogenic fungus, Ganoderma boninense. However, the interaction between the host plant and its pathogen is not well characterized. To better understand the response of oil palm to G. boninense, transcript profiles of eleven putative defence-related genes from oil palm were measured by quantitative reverse-transcription (qRT)-PCR in the roots of oil palms treated with G. boninense from 3 to 12 weeks post infection (wpi). These transcripts encode putative Bowman-Birk serine protease inhibitors (EgBBI1 and 2), defensin (EgDFS), dehydrin (EgDHN), early methionine-labeled polypeptides (EgEMLP1 and 2), glycine-rich RNA binding protein (EgGRRBP), isoflavone reductase (EgIFR), metallothionein-like protein (EgMT), pathogenesis-related-1 protein (EgPRP), and type 2 ribosome-inactivating protein (EgT2RIP). The transcript abundance of EgBBI2 increased in G. boninense-treated roots at 3 and 6wpi compared to those of controls; while the transcript abundance of EgBBI1, EgDFS, EgEMLP1, EgMT, and EgT2RIP increased in G. boninense-treated roots at 6 or 12wpi. Meanwhile, the gene expression of EgDHN was up-regulated at all three time points in G. boninense-treated roots. The expression profiles of the eleven transcripts were also studied in leaf samples upon inoculation of G. boninense and Trichoderma harzianum to identify potential biomarkers for early detection of BSR. Two candidate genes (EgEMLP1 and EgMT) that have different profiles in G. boninense-treated leaves compared to those infected by T. harzianum may have the potential to be developed as biomarkers for early detection of G. boninense infection.
    Matched MeSH terms: Arecaceae/genetics*
  20. Yeoh KA, Othman A, Meon S, Abdullah F, Ho CL
    Mol. Biol. Rep., 2013 Jan;40(1):147-58.
    PMID: 23065213 DOI: 10.1007/s11033-012-2043-8
    Chitinases are glycosyl hydrolases that cleave the β-1,4-glycosidic linkages between N-acetylglucosamine residues in chitin which is a major component of fungal cell wall. Plant chitinases hydrolyze fungal chitin to chitin oligosaccharides that serve as elicitors of plant defense system against fungal pathogens. However, plants synthesize many chitinase isozymes and some of them are not pathogenesis-related. In this study, three full-length cDNA sequences encoding a putative chitinase (EgChit3-1) and two chitinase-like proteins (EgChit1-1 and EgChit5-1) have been cloned from oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The abundance of these transcripts in the roots and leaves of oil palm seedlings treated with Ganoderma boninense (a fungal pathogen) or Trichoderma harzianum (an avirulent symbiont), and a combination of both fungi at 3, 6 and 12 weeks post infection were profiled by real time quantitative reverse-transcription (qRT)-PCR. Our findings showed that the gene expression of EgChit3-1 increased significantly in the roots of oil palm seedlings treated with either G. boninense or T. harzianum and a combination of both; whereas the gene expression of EgChit1-1 in the treated roots of oil palm seedlings was not significantly higher compared to those of the untreated oil palm roots. The gene expression of EgChit5-1 was only higher in the roots of oil palm seedlings treated with T. harzianum compared to those of the untreated oil palm roots. In addition, the gene expression of EgChit1-1 and EgChit3-1 showed a significantly higher gene expression in the leaf samples of oil palm seedlings treated with either G. boninense or T. harzianum.
    Matched MeSH terms: Arecaceae/genetics*
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