Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 41 in total

  1. Akbar MA, Mohd Yusof NY, Tahir NI, Ahmad A, Usup G, Sahrani FK, et al.
    Mar Drugs, 2020 Feb 05;18(2).
    PMID: 32033403 DOI: 10.3390/md18020103
    Saxitoxin is an alkaloid neurotoxin originally isolated from the clam Saxidomus giganteus in 1957. This group of neurotoxins is produced by several species of freshwater cyanobacteria and marine dinoflagellates. The saxitoxin biosynthesis pathway was described for the first time in the 1980s and, since then, it was studied in more than seven cyanobacterial genera, comprising 26 genes that form a cluster ranging from 25.7 kb to 35 kb in sequence length. Due to the complexity of the genomic landscape, saxitoxin biosynthesis in dinoflagellates remains unknown. In order to reveal and understand the dynamics of the activity in such impressive unicellular organisms with a complex genome, a strategy that can carefully engage them in a systems view is necessary. Advances in omics technology (the collective tools of biological sciences) facilitated high-throughput studies of the genome, transcriptome, proteome, and metabolome of dinoflagellates. The omics approach was utilized to address saxitoxin-producing dinoflagellates in response to environmental stresses to improve understanding of dinoflagellates gene-environment interactions. Therefore, in this review, the progress in understanding dinoflagellate saxitoxin biosynthesis using an omics approach is emphasized. Further potential applications of metabolomics and genomics to unravel novel insights into saxitoxin biosynthesis in dinoflagellates are also reviewed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biosynthetic Pathways
  2. Butt FI, Muhammad N, Hamid A, Moniruzzaman M, Sharif F
    Int J Biol Macromol, 2018 Dec;120(Pt A):1294-1305.
    PMID: 30189278 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2018.09.002
    PHAs (polyhydroxyalkanoates) have emerged as biodegradable plastics more strongly in the 20th century. A wide range of bacterial species along with fungi, plants, oilseed crops and carbon sources have been used extensively to synthesize PHA on large scales. Alteration of PHA monomers in their structures and composition has led to the development of biodegradable and biocompatible polymers with highly specific mechanical properties. This leads to the incorporation of PHA in numerous biomedical applications within the previous decade. PHAs have been fabricated in various forms to perform tissue engineering to repair liver, bone, cartilage, heart tissues, cardiovascular tissues, bone marrow, and to act as drug delivery system and nerve conduits. A large number of animal trials have been carried out to assess the biomedical properties of PHA monomers, which also confirms the high compatibility of PHA family for this field. This review summarizes the synthesis of PHA from different sources, and biosynthetic pathways and biomedical applications of biosynthesized polyhydroxyalkanoates.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biosynthetic Pathways/genetics*
  3. Chang Y, Liu H, Liu M, Liao X, Sahu SK, Fu Y, et al.
    Gigascience, 2019 03 01;8(3).
    PMID: 30535374 DOI: 10.1093/gigascience/giy152
    BACKGROUND: The expanding world population is expected to double the worldwide demand for food by 2050. Eighty-eight percent of countries currently face a serious burden of malnutrition, especially in Africa and south and southeast Asia. About 95% of the food energy needs of humans are fulfilled by just 30 species, of which wheat, maize, and rice provide the majority of calories. Therefore, to diversify and stabilize the global food supply, enhance agricultural productivity, and tackle malnutrition, greater use of neglected or underutilized local plants (so-called orphan crops, but also including a few plants of special significance to agriculture, agroforestry, and nutrition) could be a partial solution.

    RESULTS: Here, we present draft genome information for five agriculturally, biologically, medicinally, and economically important underutilized plants native to Africa: Vigna subterranea, Lablab purpureus, Faidherbia albida, Sclerocarya birrea, and Moringa oleifera. Assembled genomes range in size from 217 to 654 Mb. In V. subterranea, L. purpureus, F. albida, S. birrea, and M. oleifera, we have predicted 31,707, 20,946, 28,979, 18,937, and 18,451 protein-coding genes, respectively. By further analyzing the expansion and contraction of selected gene families, we have characterized root nodule symbiosis genes, transcription factors, and starch biosynthesis-related genes in these genomes.

    CONCLUSIONS: These genome data will be useful to identify and characterize agronomically important genes and understand their modes of action, enabling genomics-based, evolutionary studies, and breeding strategies to design faster, more focused, and predictable crop improvement programs.

    Matched MeSH terms: Biosynthetic Pathways/genetics
  4. Chee MJ, Lycett GW, Khoo TJ, Chin CF
    Mol Biotechnol, 2017 Jan;59(1):1-8.
    PMID: 27826796 DOI: 10.1007/s12033-016-9986-2
    Production of vanillin by bioengineering has gained popularity due to consumer demand toward vanillin produced by biological systems. Natural vanillin from vanilla beans is very expensive to produce compared to its synthetic counterpart. Current bioengineering works mainly involve microbial biotechnology. Therefore, alternative means to the current approaches are constantly being explored. This work describes the use of vanillin synthase (VpVAN), to bioconvert ferulic acid to vanillin in a plant system. The VpVAN enzyme had been shown to directly convert ferulic acid and its glucoside into vanillin and its glucoside, respectively. As the ferulic acid precursor and vanillin were found to be the intermediates in the phenylpropanoid biosynthetic pathway of Capsicum species, this work serves as a proof-of-concept for vanillin production using Capsicum frutescens (C. frutescens or hot chili pepper). The cells of C. frutescens were genetically transformed with a codon optimized VpVAN gene via biolistics. Transformed explants were selected and regenerated into callus. Successful integration of the gene cassette into the plant genome was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction. High-performance liquid chromatography was used to quantify the phenolic compounds detected in the callus tissues. The vanillin content of transformed calli was 0.057% compared to 0.0003% in untransformed calli.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biosynthetic Pathways
  5. Ebrahimi M, Abdullah SN, Abdul Aziz M, Namasivayam P
    J. Plant Physiol., 2016 Sep 01;202:107-20.
    PMID: 27513726 DOI: 10.1016/j.jplph.2016.07.001
    CBF/DREB1 is a group of transcription factors that are mainly involved in abiotic stress tolerance in plants. They belong to the AP2/ERF superfamily of plant-specific transcription factors. A gene encoding a new member of this group was isolated from ripening oil palm fruit and designated as EgCBF3. The oil palm fruit demonstrates the characteristics of a climacteric fruit like tomato, in which ethylene has a major impact on the ripening process. A transgenic approach was used for functional characterization of the EgCBF3, using tomato as the model plant. The effects of ectopic expression of EgCBF3 were analyzed based on expression profiling of the ethylene biosynthesis-related genes, anti-freeze proteins (AFPs), abiotic stress tolerance and plant growth and development. The EgCBF3 tomatoes demonstrated altered phenotypes compared to the wild type tomatoes. Delayed leaf senescence and flowering, increased chlorophyll content and abnormal flowering were the consequences of overexpression of EgCBF3 in the transgenic tomatoes. The EgCBF3 tomatoes demonstrated enhanced abiotic stress tolerance under in vitro conditions. Further, transcript levels of ethylene biosynthesis-related genes, including three SlACSs and two SlACOs, were altered in the transgenic plants' leaves and roots compared to that in the wild type tomato plant. Among the eight AFPs studied in the wounded leaves of the EgCBF3 tomato plants, transcript levels of SlOSM-L, SlNP24, SlPR5L and SlTSRF1 decreased, while expression of the other four, SlCHI3, SlPR1, SlPR-P2 and SlLAP2, were up-regulated. These findings indicate the possible functions of EgCBF3 in plant growth and development as a regulator of ethylene biosynthesis-related and AFP genes, and as a stimulator of abiotic stress tolerance.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biosynthetic Pathways/drug effects; Biosynthetic Pathways/genetics
  6. Ee SF, Mohamed-Hussein ZA, Othman R, Shaharuddin NA, Ismail I, Zainal Z
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:840592.
    PMID: 24678279 DOI: 10.1155/2014/840592
    Polygonum minus is an aromatic plant, which contains high abundance of terpenoids, especially the sesquiterpenes C15H24. Sesquiterpenes were believed to contribute to the many useful biological properties in plants. This study aimed to functionally characterize a full length sesquiterpene synthase gene from P. minus. P. minus sesquiterpene synthase (PmSTS) has a complete open reading frame (ORF) of 1689 base pairs encoding a 562 amino acid protein. Similar to other sesquiterpene synthases, PmSTS has two large domains: the N-terminal domain and the C-terminal metal-binding domain. It also consists of three conserved motifs: the DDXXD, NSE/DTE, and RXR. A three-dimensional protein model for PmSTS built clearly distinguished the two main domains, where conserved motifs were highlighted. We also constructed a phylogenetic tree, which showed that PmSTS belongs to the angiosperm sesquiterpene synthase subfamily Tps-a. To examine the function of PmSTS, we expressed this gene in Arabidopsis thaliana. Two transgenic lines, designated as OE3 and OE7, were further characterized, both molecularly and functionally. The transgenic plants demonstrated smaller basal rosette leaves, shorter and fewer flowering stems, and fewer seeds compared to wild type plants. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of the transgenic plants showed that PmSTS was responsible for the production of β -sesquiphellandrene.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biosynthetic Pathways
  7. Eng-Chong T, Yean-Kee L, Chin-Fei C, Choon-Han H, Sher-Ming W, Li-Ping CT, et al.
    PMID: 23243448 DOI: 10.1155/2012/473637
    Boesenbergia rotunda is a herb from the Boesenbergia genera under the Zingiberaceae family. B. rotunda is widely found in Asian countries where it is commonly used as a food ingredient and in ethnomedicinal preparations. The popularity of its ethnomedicinal usage has drawn the attention of scientists worldwide to further investigate its medicinal properties. Advancement in drug design and discovery research has led to the development of synthetic drugs from B. rotunda metabolites via bioinformatics and medicinal chemistry studies. Furthermore, with the advent of genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics, new insights on the biosynthetic pathways of B. rotunda metabolites can be elucidated, enabling researchers to predict the potential bioactive compounds responsible for the medicinal properties of the plant. The vast biological activities exhibited by the compounds obtained from B. rotunda warrant further investigation through studies such as drug discovery, polypharmacology, and drug delivery using nanotechnology.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biosynthetic Pathways
  8. Foong LC, Loh CWL, Ng HS, Lan JC
    World J Microbiol Biotechnol, 2021 Jan 04;37(1):12.
    PMID: 33392834 DOI: 10.1007/s11274-020-02967-3
    Carotenoids are a diverse group of lipid-soluble pigments that exhibit potent biological activities such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and provitamin A activities. The potent health benefits of carotenoids result in the surge in the market demands for carotenoids, especially natural carotenoids from sustainable sources. Microbial carotenoids have attracted considerable interests for many industrial applications because of the low costs and ease of scaling-up with shorter production time. There is a growing interest in the search of new and sustainable microbial sources and cost-efficient production strategies following the high economical values and vast commercial applications of carotenoids. This article presents a review on the industrial production strategies of microbial carotenoids from microalgae, fungi, and bacteria sources. The industrial significance of the mass production of microbial carotenoids is also discussed. The structure, classification, and biosynthesis pathway of the carotenoids are also presented in this review.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biosynthetic Pathways
  9. Furusawa G, Lau NS, Shu-Chien AC, Jaya-Ram A, Amirul AA
    Mar Genomics, 2015 Feb;19:39-44.
    PMID: 25468060 DOI: 10.1016/j.margen.2014.10.006
    The genus Aureispira consisting of two species, Aureispira marina and Aureispira maritima is an arachidonic acid-producing bacterium and produces secondary metabolites. In this study, we isolated a new Aureispira strain, Aureispira sp. CCB-QB1 from coastal area of Penang, Malaysia and the genome sequence of this strain was determined. The draft genome of this strain is composed of 185 contigs for 7,370,077 bases with 35.6% G+C content and contains 5911 protein-coding genes and 76 RNA genes. Linoleoyl-CoA desaturase, the key gene in arachidonic acid biosynthesis, is present in the genome. It was found that this strain uses mevalonate pathway for the synthesis of geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGPP), which is precursor of diterpenoid, and novel pathway via futalosine for the synthesis of menaquinones. This is the first draft genome sequence of a member of the genus Aureispira.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biosynthetic Pathways/genetics*
  10. Gan HM, Thomas BN, Cavanaugh NT, Morales GH, Mayers AN, Savka MA, et al.
    PeerJ, 2017;5:e4030.
    PMID: 29158974 DOI: 10.7717/peerj.4030
    In industry, the yeast Rhodotorula mucilaginosa is commonly used for the production of carotenoids. The production of carotenoids is important because they are used as natural colorants in food and some carotenoids are precursors of retinol (vitamin A). However, the identification and molecular characterization of the carotenoid pathway/s in species belonging to the genus Rhodotorula is scarce due to the lack of genomic information thus potentially impeding effective metabolic engineering of these yeast strains for improved carotenoid production. In this study, we report the isolation, identification, characterization and the whole nuclear genome and mitogenome sequence of the endophyte R. mucilaginosa RIT389 isolated from Distemonanthus benthamianus, a plant known for its anti-fungal and antibacterial properties and commonly used as chewing sticks. The assembled genome of R. mucilaginosa RIT389 is 19 Mbp in length with an estimated genomic heterozygosity of 9.29%. Whole genome phylogeny supports the species designation of strain RIT389 within the genus in addition to supporting the monophyly of the currently sequenced Rhodotorula species. Further, we report for the first time, the recovery of the complete mitochondrial genome of R. mucilaginosa using the genome skimming approach. The assembled mitogenome is at least 7,000 bases larger than that of Rhodotorula taiwanensis which is largely attributed to the presence of large intronic regions containing open reading frames coding for homing endonuclease from the LAGLIDADG and GIY-YIG families. Furthermore, genomic regions containing the key genes for carotenoid production were identified in R. mucilaginosa RIT389, revealing differences in gene synteny that may play a role in the regulation of the biotechnologically important carotenoid synthesis pathways in yeasts.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biosynthetic Pathways
  11. Gemiarto AT, Ninyio NN, Lee SW, Logis J, Fatima A, Chan EW, et al.
    Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek, 2015 Aug;108(2):491-504.
    PMID: 26059863 DOI: 10.1007/s10482-015-0503-6
    The emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacterial pathogens, especially Gram-negative bacteria, has driven investigations into suppressing bacterial virulence via quorum sensing (QS) inhibition strategies instead of bactericidal and bacteriostatic approaches. Here, we investigated several bee products for potential compound(s) that exhibit significant QS inhibitory (QSI) properties at the phenotypic and molecular levels in Chromobacterium violaceum ATCC 12472 as a model organism. Manuka propolis produced the strongest violacein inhibition on C. violaceum lawn agar, while bee pollen had no detectable QSI activity and honey had bactericidal activity. Fractionated manuka propolis (pooled fraction 5 or PF5) exhibited the largest violacein inhibition zone (24.5 ± 2.5 mm) at 1 mg dry weight per disc. In C. violaceum liquid cultures, at least 450 µg/ml of manuka propolis PF5 completely inhibited violacein production. Gene expression studies of the vioABCDE operon, involved in violacein biosynthesis, showed significant (≥two-fold) down-regulation of vioA, vioD and vioE in response to manuka propolis PF5. A potential QSI compound identified in manuka propolis PF5 is a hydroxycinnamic acid-derivative, isoprenyl caffeate, with a [M-H] of 247. Complete violacein inhibition in C. violaceum liquid cultures was achieved with at least 50 µg/ml of commercial isoprenyl caffeate. In silico docking experiments suggest that isoprenyl caffeate may act as an inhibitor of the violacein biosynthetic pathway by acting as a competitor for the FAD-binding pockets of VioD and VioA. Further studies on these compounds are warranted toward the development of anti-pathogenic drugs as adjuvants to conventional antibiotic treatments, especially in antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biosynthetic Pathways/drug effects
  12. Ghasemzadeh A, Jaafar HZ, Karimi E
    Int J Mol Sci, 2012;13(11):14828-44.
    PMID: 23203096 DOI: 10.3390/ijms131114828
    The effect of foliar application of salicylic acid (SA) at different concentrations (10-3 M and 10-5 M) was investigated on the production of secondary metabolites (flavonoids), chalcone synthase (CHS) activity, antioxidant activity and anticancer activity (against breast cancer cell lines MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231) in two varieties of Malaysian ginger, namely Halia Bentong and Halia Bara. The results of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis showed that application of SA induced the synthesis of anthocyanin and fisetin in both varieties. Anthocyanin and fisetin were not detected in the control plants. Accordingly, the concentrations of some flavonoids (rutin and apigenin) decreased significantly in plants treated with different concentrations of SA. The present study showed that SA enhanced the chalcone synthase (CHS) enzyme activity (involving flavonoid synthesis) and recorded the highest activity value of 5.77 nkat /mg protein in Halia Bara with the 10-5 M SA treatment. As the SA concentration was decreased from 10-3 M to 10-5 M, the free radical scavenging power (FRAP) increased about 23% in Halia Bentong and 10.6% in Halia Bara. At a concentration of 350 μg mL-1, the DPPH antioxidant activity recorded the highest value of 58.30%-72.90% with the 10-5 M SA treatment followed by the 10-3 M SA (52.14%-63.66%) treatment. The lowest value was recorded in the untreated control plants (42.5%-46.7%). These results indicate that SA can act not only as an inducer but also as an inhibitor of secondary metabolites. Meanwhile, the highest anticancer activity against MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cell lines was observed for H. Bara extracts treated with 10-5 M SA with values of 61.53 and 59.88%, respectively. The results suggest that the high anticancer activity in these varieties may be related to the high concentration of potent anticancer components including fisetin and anthocyanin. The results thus indicate that the synthesis of flavonoids in ginger can be increased by foliar application of SA in a controlled environment and that the anticancer activity in young ginger extracts could be improved.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biosynthetic Pathways
  13. Goh LPW, Mahmud F, Lee PC
    Data Brief, 2021 Jun;36:107128.
    PMID: 34095378 DOI: 10.1016/j.dib.2021.107128
    The genome data of Streptomyces sp. FH025 comprised of 8,381,474 bp with a high GC content of 72.51%. The genome contains 7035 coding sequences spanning 1261 contigs. Streptomyces sp. FH025 contains 57 secondary metabolite gene clusters including polyketide synthase, nonribosomal polyketide synthase and other biosynthetic pathways such as amglyccycl, butyrolactone, terpenes, siderophores, lanthipeptide-class-iv, and ladderane. 16S rRNA analysis of Streptomyces sp. FH025 is similar to the Streptomyces genus. This whole genome project has been deposited at NCBI under the accession JAFLNG000000000.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biosynthetic Pathways
  14. Harun S, Abdullah-Zawawi MR, Goh HH, Mohamed-Hussein ZA
    J Agric Food Chem, 2020 Jul 15;68(28):7281-7297.
    PMID: 32551569 DOI: 10.1021/acs.jafc.0c01916
    Glucosinolates (GSLs) are plant secondary metabolites comprising sulfur and nitrogen mainly found in plants from the order of Brassicales, such as broccoli, cabbage, and Arabidopsis thaliana. The activated forms of GSL play important roles in fighting against pathogens and have health benefits to humans. The increasing amount of data on A. thaliana generated from various omics technologies can be investigated more deeply in search of new genes or compounds involved in GSL biosynthesis and metabolism. This review describes a comprehensive inventory of A. thaliana GSLs identified from published literature and databases such as KNApSAcK, KEGG, and AraCyc. A total of 113 GSL genes encoding for 23 transcription components, 85 enzymes, and five protein transporters were experimentally characterized in the past two decades. Continuous efforts are still on going to identify all molecules related to the production of GSLs. A manually curated database known as SuCCombase (http://plant-scc.org) was developed to serve as a comprehensive GSL inventory. Realizing lack of information on the regulation of GSL biosynthesis and degradation mechanisms, this review also includes relevant information and their connections with crosstalk among various factors, such as light, sulfur metabolism, and nitrogen metabolism, not only in A. thaliana but also in other crucifers.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biosynthetic Pathways
  15. Hasan H, Abd Rahim MH, Campbell L, Carter D, Abbas A, Montoya A
    N Biotechnol, 2019 Sep 25;52:19-24.
    PMID: 30995533 DOI: 10.1016/j.nbt.2019.04.003
    Lovastatin is widely prescribed to reduce elevated levels of cholesterol and prevent heart-related diseases. Cultivation of Aspergillus terreus (ATCC 20542) with carbohydrates or low-value feedstocks such as glycerol produces lovastatin as a secondary metabolite and (+)-geodin as a by-product. An A. terreus mutant strain was developed (gedCΔ) with a disrupted (+)-geodin biosynthesis pathway. The gedCΔ mutant was created by inserting the antibiotic marker hygromycin B (hyg) within the gedC gene that encodes emodin anthrone polyketide synthase (PKS), a primary gene responsible for initiating (+)-geodin biosynthesis. The effects of emodin anthrone PKS gene disruption on (+)-geodin and lovastatin biosynthesis and the production of the precursors acetyl-CoA and malonyl-CoA were investigated with cultures based on glycerol alone and in combination with lactose. The gedCΔ strain showed improved lovastatin production, particularly when cultivated on the glycerol-lactose mixture, increasing lovastatin production by 80% (113 mg/L) while simultaneously inhibiting (+)-geodin biosynthesis compared to the wild-type strain. This study thus shows that suppression of the (+)-geodin pathway increases lovastatin yield and demonstrates a practical approach of manipulating carbon flux by modulating enzyme activity.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biosynthetic Pathways*
  16. Ikram NK, Zhan X, Pan XW, King BC, Simonsen HT
    Front Plant Sci, 2015;6:129.
    PMID: 25852702 DOI: 10.3389/fpls.2015.00129
    Plants biosynthesize a great diversity of biologically active small molecules of interest for fragrances, flavors, and pharmaceuticals. Among specialized metabolites, terpenoids represent the greatest molecular diversity. Many terpenoids are very complex, and total chemical synthesis often requires many steps and difficult chemical reactions, resulting in a low final yield or incorrect stereochemistry. Several drug candidates with terpene skeletons are difficult to obtain by chemical synthesis due to their large number of chiral centers. Thus, biological production remains the preferred method for industrial production for many of these compounds. However, because these chemicals are often found in low abundance in the native plant, or are produced in plants which are difficult to cultivate, there is great interest in engineering increased production or expression of the biosynthetic pathways in heterologous hosts. Although there are many examples of successful engineering of microbes such as yeast or bacteria to produce these compounds, this often requires extensive changes to the host organism's metabolism. Optimization of plant gene expression, post-translational protein modifications, subcellular localization, and other factors often present challenges. To address the future demand for natural products used as drugs, new platforms are being established that are better suited for heterologous production of plant metabolites. Specifically, direct metabolic engineering of plants can provide effective heterologous expression for production of valuable plant-derived natural products. In this review, our primary focus is on small terpenoids and we discuss the benefits of plant expression platforms and provide several successful examples of stable production of small terpenoids in plants.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biosynthetic Pathways
  17. Jahromi MF, Liang JB, Ho YW, Mohamad R, Goh YM, Shokryazdan P
    J. Biomed. Biotechnol., 2012;2012:196264.
    PMID: 23118499 DOI: 10.1155/2012/196264
    Ability of two strains of Aspergillus terreus (ATCC 74135 and ATCC 20542) for production of lovastatin in solid state fermentation (SSF) using rice straw (RS) and oil palm frond (OPF) was investigated. Results showed that RS is a better substrate for production of lovastatin in SSF. Maximum production of lovastatin has been obtained using A. terreus ATCC 74135 and RS as substrate without additional nitrogen source (157.07 mg/kg dry matter (DM)). Although additional nitrogen source has no benefit effect on enhancing the lovastatin production using RS substrate, it improved the lovastatin production using OPF with maximum production of 70.17 and 63.76 mg/kg DM for A. terreus ATCC 20542 and A. terreus ATCC 74135, respectively (soybean meal as nitrogen source). Incubation temperature, moisture content, and particle size had shown significant effect on lovastatin production (P < 0.01) and inoculums size and pH had no significant effect on lovastatin production (P > 0.05). Results also have shown that pH 6, 25°C incubation temperature, 1.4 to 2 mm particle size, 50% initial moisture content, and 8 days fermentation time are the best conditions for lovastatin production in SSF. Maximum production of lovastatin using optimized condition was 175.85 and 260.85 mg/kg DM for A. terreus ATCC 20542 and ATCC 74135, respectively, using RS as substrate.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biosynthetic Pathways/drug effects
  18. Kabir, M.U., Abdulkarim, S.M., Son, R., Azizah, A.H., Saari, N.B.
    Phytochemicals belonging to the group’s phenols, terpenes, betalains, organosulfides, indoles and protein inhibitors are important components in fruits, vegetables, legumes, whole grains and nuts that have health promoting benefits and a variety of applications in food and pharmaceutical industries. Initially only a few of these important phytochemicals are produced commercially by chemical synthesis. However, recent developments in the field of biotechnology have provided metabolic engineering strategies that use microorganisms as cell factories for high production of these products. This review will discuss the general biosynthetic pathways, metabolic engineering and optimization strategies of functional phytochemicals that have received a lot of attention from investigators.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biosynthetic Pathways
  19. Khalidah-Syahirah Ashari, Zeti-Azura Mohamed-Hussein, Muhammad-Redha Abdullah-Zawawi, Sarahani Harun
    Sains Malaysiana, 2018;47:2993-3002.
    Aliphatic glucosinolate is an important secondary metabolite responsible in plant defense mechanism and carcinogenic
    activity. It plays a crucial role in plant adaptation towards changes in the environment such as salinity and drought.
    However, in many plant genomes, there are thousands of genes encoding proteins still with putative functions and
    incomplete annotations. Therefore, the genome of Arabidopsis thaliana was selected to be investigated further to identify
    any putative genes that are potentially involved in the aliphatic glucosinolate biosynthesis pathway, most of its gene are
    with incomplete annotation. Known genes for aliphatic glucosinolates were retrieved from KEGG and AraCyc databases.
    Three co-expression databases i.e., ATTED-II, GeneMANIA and STRING were used to perform the co-expression network
    analysis. The integrated co-expression network was then being clustered, annotated and visualized using Cytoscape plugin,
    MCODE and ClueGO. Then, the regulatory network of A. thaliana from AtRegNet was mapped onto the co-expression
    network to build the transcriptional regulatory network. This study showed that a total of 506 genes were co-expressed
    with the 61 aliphatic glucosinolate biosynthesis genes. Five transcription factors have been predicted to be involved
    in the biosynthetic pathway of aliphatic glucosinolate, namely SEPALLATA 3 (SEP3), PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTOR
    3-like 5 (AtbHLH15/PIL5), ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL 5 (HY5), AGAMOUS-like 15 (AGL15) and GLABRA 3 (GL3). Meanwhile,
    three other genes with high potential to be involved in the aliphatic glucosinolates biosynthetic pathway were identified,
    i.e., methylthioalkylmalate-like synthase 4 (MAML-4) and aspartate aminotransferase (ASP1 and ASP4). These findings
    can be used to complete the aliphatic glucosinolate biosynthetic pathway in A. thaliana and to update the information
    on the glucosinolate-related pathways in public metabolic databases.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biosynthetic Pathways
  20. Lajis AFB, Ariff AB
    J Cosmet Dermatol, 2019 Jun;18(3):703-727.
    PMID: 30866156 DOI: 10.1111/jocd.12900
    Human skin pigmentation is a result of constitutive and facultative pigmentation. Facultative pigmentation is frequently stimulated by UV radiation, pharmacologic drugs, and hormones whereby leads to the development of abnormal skin hyperpigmentation. To date, many state-of-art depigmenting compounds have been studied using in vitro model to treat hyperpigmentation problems for cosmetic dermatological applications; little attention has been made to compare the effectiveness of these depigmenting compounds and their mode of actions. In this present article, new and recent depigmenting compounds, their melanogenic pathway targets, and modes of action are reviewed. This article compares the effectiveness of these new depigmenting compounds to modulate several melanogenesis-regulatory enzymes and proteins such as tyrosinase (TYR), TYR-related protein-1 (TRP1), TYR-related protein-2 (TRP2), microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and N-terminal kinases (JNK) and mitogen-activated protein kinase p38 (p38 MAPK). Other evidences from in vitro assays such as inhibition on melanosomal transfer, proteasomes, nitric oxide, and inflammation-induced melanogenesis are also highlighted. This article also reviews analytical techniques in different assays performed using in vitro model as well as their advantages and limitations. This article also provides an insight on recent finding and re-examination of some protocols as well as their effectiveness and reliability in the evaluation of depigmenting compounds. Evidence and support from related patents are also incorporated in this present article to give an overview on current patented technology, latest trends, and intellectual values of some depigmenting compounds and protocols, which are rarely highlighted in the literatures.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biosynthetic Pathways/drug effects
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