Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 607 in total

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  1. Lim HM, Dunn AG, Muhammad Firdaus Ooi S, Teo CH, Abdullah A, Woo WJ, et al.
    Fam Pract, 2020 Sep 24.
    PMID: 32968795 DOI: 10.1093/fampra/cmaa103
    BACKGROUND: mHealth apps potentially improve health care delivery and patient outcomes, but the uptake of mHealth in primary care is challenging, especially in low-middle-income countries.

    OBJECTIVE: To measure factors associated with mHealth adoption among primary care physicians (PCPs) in Malaysia.

    METHODS: A cross-sectional study using a self-administered questionnaire was conducted among PCPs. The usage of mHealth apps by the PCPs has divided into the use of mHealth apps to support PCPs' clinical work and recommendation of mHealth apps for patient's use. Factors associated with mHealth adoption were analysed using multivariable logistic regression.

    RESULTS: Among 217 PCPs in the study, 77.0% used mHealth apps frequently for medical references, 78.3% medical calculation and 30.9% interacting with electronic health records (EHRs). Only 22.1% of PCPs frequently recommended mHealth apps to patients for tracking health information, 22.1% patient education and 14.3% use as a medical device. Performance expectancy and facilitating conditions were associated with mHealth use for medical references. Family medicine trainees, working in a government practice and performance expectancy were the facilitators for the use of mHealth apps for medical calculation. Internet connectivity, performance expectancy and use by colleagues were associated with the use of mHealth with EHR. Performance expectancy was associated with mHealth apps' recommendation to patients to track health information and provide patient education.

    CONCLUSIONS: PCPs often used mHealth apps to support their clinical work but seldom recommended mHealth apps to their patients. Training for PCPs is needed on the appraisal and knowledge of the mHealth apps for patient use.

    Matched MeSH terms: Primary Health Care
  2. Woodward W
    N Z Nurs J, 1983 Sep;76(9):14-6.
    PMID: 6580571
    Matched MeSH terms: Primary Health Care
  3. Doshi HH
    Family Physician, 2003;11:9-11.
    In the light of present HIV worldwide epidemic. there is a need to teach the busy general practitioners how to recognise HIV & AIDS. Due to the deadly nature of this infection and its manifold presentations from opportunistic diseases. the busy general practitioners in primary care may be misled in making the correct diagnosis. In Malaysia. the doctors in the primary care level constitute 70 to 75% of the doctors' population. The rest are specialists in secondary and tertiary care institutions. Family Physicians from the Font liners to recognise and detect early cases of HlV in all its early manifestalions on the various systems. Any doctors in primary medicine whether from private or public sector, amy be confronted by patients who present with trivial complaints. These patients may be fee-paying, or particularly those doctors involved with welfare and health of factory workers and the other forms of the main work force should well arm themselves with updates in HIV and AIDS.
    Matched MeSH terms: Primary Health Care
  4. Liew SM
    Malays Fam Physician, 2017;12(2):1.
    PMID: 29423122
    Matched MeSH terms: Primary Health Care
  5. Hisham R, Ng CJ, Liew SM, Hamzah N, Ho GJ
    BMJ Open, 2016 Mar 09;6(3):e010565.
    PMID: 26962037 DOI: 10.1136/bmjopen-2015-010565
    OBJECTIVE: To explore the factors, including barriers and facilitators, influencing the practice of evidence-based medicine (EBM) across various primary care settings in Malaysia based on the doctors' views and experiences.
    RESEARCH DESIGN: The qualitative study was used to answer the research question. 37 primary care physicians participated in six focus group discussions and six individual in-depth interviews. A semistructured topic guide was used to facilitate both the interviews and focus groups, which were audio recorded, transcribed verbatim, checked and analysed using a thematic approach.
    PARTICIPANTS: 37 primary care doctors including medical officers, family medicine specialists, primary care lecturers and general practitioners with different working experiences and in different settings.
    SETTING: The study was conducted across three primary care settings-an academic primary care practice, private and public health clinics in Klang Valley, Malaysia.
    RESULTS: The doctors in this study were aware of the importance of EBM but seldom practised it. Three main factors influenced the implementation of EBM in the doctors' daily practice. First, there was a lack of knowledge and skills in searching for and applying evidence. Second, workplace culture influenced doctors' practice of EBM. Third, some doctors considered EBM as a threat to good clinical practice. They were concerned that rigid application of evidence compromised personalised patient care and felt that EBM did not consider the importance of clinical experience.
    CONCLUSIONS: Despite being aware of and having a positive attitude towards EBM, doctors in this study seldom practised EBM in their routine clinical practice. Besides commonly cited barriers such as having a heavy workload and lack of training, workplace 'EBM culture' had an important influence on the doctors' behaviour. Strategies targeting barriers at the practice level should be considered when implementing EBM in primary care.
    Study site: klinik kesihatan, general practice clinics, Klang Valley, Malaysia
    Matched MeSH terms: Primary Health Care/organization & administration*
  6. Watson D, Watson R
    Family Practitioner, 1977;2:44-46.
    Matched MeSH terms: Primary Health Care
  7. Balasundaram R
    Family Physician, 1996;8(1&2):1-2.
    Matched MeSH terms: Primary Health Care
  8. Tong WT, Ng CJ, Lee YK, Lee PY
    J Eval Clin Pract, 2020 Jun;26(3):755-764.
    PMID: 31115132 DOI: 10.1111/jep.13161
    RATIONALE, AIMS, AND OBJECTIVES: Few studies focus on patients' views on factors influencing implementation of patient decision aids (PDAs). This study aims to explore patients' views on the factors influencing implementation of an "insulin choice" PDA in a primary care setting.

    METHODS: This study used a descriptive qualitative study design. Interviews were conducted using a semistructured interview guide developed based on the theoretical domains framework. Nine in-depth interviews and three focus group discussions were conducted with patients with type 2 diabetes who have been advised to start insulin or were currently using insulin and those who had been seeking diabetes treatment in the clinic for more than 1 year. Interviews were conducted after the participants were familiarized with the PDA. Data were analysed using a thematic approach.

    RESULTS: Five themes emerged from the data analysis: (a) trust in the physician (patients preferred physicians to other health care providers in delivering the insulin PDA to them as they trusted physicians more when it comes to making decisions such as starting insulin), (b) physician's attitude (patients were more likely to trust a physician who is friendly and sympathetic hence would be more willing to use the insulin PDA), (c) physician's communication style (patients were more willing to use the insulin PDA if the physicians would take time and guide them in the PDA use), (d) conducive environment (patients preferred to read the PDA at home), and (e) cost (patients would not be willing to pay to use the insulin PDA unless they needed it).

    CONCLUSIONS: Patients want physicians to play a major role in the implementation of the insulin PDA; physicians' communication style and commitment may influence implementation outcomes. Health care authorities need to create a conducive environment and provide patients with free access to PDA to promote effective implementation.

    Matched MeSH terms: Primary Health Care
  9. Aziz AF, Aziz NA, Nordin NA, Ali MF, Sulong S, Aljunid SM
    J Neurosci Rural Pract, 2013 Oct;4(4):413-20.
    PMID: 24347948 DOI: 10.4103/0976-3147.120243
    CONTEXT: Poststroke care in developing countries is inundated with poor concordance and scarce specialist stroke care providers. A primary care-driven health service is an option to ensure optimal care to poststroke patients residing at home in the community.

    AIMS: We assessed outcomes of a pilot long-term stroke care clinic which combined secondary prevention and rehabilitation at community level.

    SETTINGS AND DESIGN: A prospective observational study of stroke patients treated between 2008 and 2010 at a primary care teaching facility.

    SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Analysis of patients was done at initial contact and at 1-year post treatment. Clinical outcomes included stroke risk factor(s) control, depression according to Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ9), and level of independence using Barthel Index (BI).

    STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED: Differences in means between baseline and post treatment were compared using paired t-tests or Wilcoxon-signed rank test. Significance level was set at 0.05.

    RESULTS: Ninety-one patients were analyzed. Their mean age was 62.9 [standard deviation (SD) 10.9] years, mean stroke episodes were 1.30 (SD 0.5). The median interval between acute stroke and first contact with the clinic 4.0 (interquartile range 9.0) months. Mean systolic blood pressure decreased by 9.7 mmHg (t = 2.79, P = 0.007), while mean diastolic blood pressure remained unchanged at 80mmHg (z = 1.87, P = 0.06). Neurorehabilitation treatment was given to 84.6% of the patients. Median BI increased from 81 (range: 2-100) to 90.5 (range: 27-100) (Z = 2.34, P = 0.01). Median PHQ9 scores decreased from 4.0 (range: 0-22) to 3.0 (range: 0-19) though the change was not significant (Z= -0.744, P = 0.457).

    CONCLUSIONS: Primary care-driven long-term stroke care services yield favorable outcomes for blood pressure control and functional level.

    Matched MeSH terms: Primary Health Care
  10. Ng CJ, Haidi NS
    Asia Pac Fam Med, 2005;4(3).
    Aim: To explore the help-seeking behavior of primary care doctors during illness. Methods: This qualitative study used focus group discussions to explore participants' help-seeking behavior during illness. It involved 22 primary care doctors (5 lecturers, 12 postgraduate trainees, 5 medical officers) working in a hospital-based primary care clinic. Result: Most primary care doctors in this study managed their illnesses without seeking help. Although most preferred to seek professional help for chronic illnesses and antenatal care, they tend to delay the consultations and were less likely to comply with treatment and follow-up. Explanations for their behavior include their ability to assess and treat themselves, difficulty to find suitable doctors, work commitment, easy access to drugs, and reluctance to assume a sick role. Conclusions: This study found that the help-seeking behavior of primary care doctors was similar to those in other studies. Due to their professional ability, heavy workload and expectations from peer and patients, primary care doctors were more likely to delay in seeking treatment especially for chronic and serious diseases. This highlights the need to enhance support services for doctors during illness. Key words: doctors, help-seeking behavior, illness
    Matched MeSH terms: Primary Health Care
  11. Usha Devi B, Paul E, Munjeet K
    Family Physician, 2005;13:5-9.
    A study was conducted at the Outpatient Department (OPD) of Ipoh Hospital, an urban public primary healthcare facility, over a weekend, to determine the profile of patients attending the clinic, the reasons for encounter and the reasons for choosing after hours medical care. The data from this study would be useful in determining the need for and formulating a policy for after hours medical care at urban primary health care facilities in the country. The study showed there was a low proportion of acute illness in the weekend clinic. A total of 17% of the patients had an acute illness and a further 8% had aggravation of an existing illness. This group of patients requires access to weekend medical services. The main reason for choosing after hours care was social, that is the convenience of an off-day from work or school. Several options can be explored to provide after hours care, including volunteer government doctors or private general practitioners running the service. Another option is to direct public patients during the weekends to private general practitioners in their locality who will be subsidized. The cost of providing after hours care is expected to be higher. Misuse of services may have to be considered as the study showed 5 % of the patients were not ill during the encounter.

    Study site: Outpatient Department (OPD) of Hospital Ipoh
    Matched MeSH terms: Primary Health Care
  12. Teng CL
    Family Physician, 2005;13:21-21.
    Matched MeSH terms: Primary Health Care
  13. Sui CF, Ming LC, Neoh CF, Ibrahim B
    PMID: 26316735 DOI: 10.2147/COPD.S84618
    Background: This study utilized a validated combination of a COPD Population Screener
    (COPD-PS) questionnaire and a handheld spirometric device as a screening tool for patients at high risk of COPD, such as smokers. The study aimed to investigate and pilot the feasibility and application of this combined assessment, which we termed the “VitalQPlus”, as a screening tool for the early detection of COPD, especially in primary care settings.
    Methods: This was a cross-sectional study screening potentially undiagnosed COPD patients using a validated five-item COPD-PS questionnaire together with a handheld spirometric device. Patients were recruited from selected Malaysian government primary care health centers.
    Results: Of the total of 83 final participants, only 24.1% (20/83) were recruited from Perak and Penang (peninsular Malaysia) compared to 75.9% (63/83) from Sabah (Borneo region). Our dual assessment approach identified 8.4% of the surveyed patients as having potentially undiagnosed COPD. When only the Vitalograph COPD-6 screening tool was used, 15.8% of patients were detected with a forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced expiratory volume in 6 seconds (FEV1/FEV6) ratio at <0.75, while 35.9% of patients were detected with the COPD-PS questionnaire. These findings suggested that this dual assessment approach has a greater chance of identifying potentially undiagnosed COPD patients compared to the Vitalograph COPD-6 or COPD-PS questionnaire when used alone. Our findings show that patients with more symptoms (scores of >=5) yielded twice the percentage of outcomes of FEV1/FEV6 <0.75 compared to patients with fewer COPD symptoms (scores <5).
    Conclusion: With the availability of a simple screening questionnaire and the COPD-6, there is an opportunity easily to make patients more aware of their lung symptoms and to encourage the provision of early treatment. The proposed dual assessment approach, which we termed the VitalQPlus, may play a profound role in the early diagnosis of COPD, which is crucial in improving the clinical management of the disease.
    Keywords: spirometry, pulmonary function test, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease,
    airway obstruction
    Matched MeSH terms: Primary Health Care
  14. Chia YC, Ching SM, Lim HM
    J Hypertens, 2017 05;35 Suppl 1:S50-S56.
    PMID: 28350621 DOI: 10.1097/HJH.0000000000001333
    OBJECTIVES: The current study aims to determine the relationship of long-term visit-to-visit variability of SBP to cardiovascular disease (CVD) in a multiethnic primary care setting.
    METHOD: This is a retrospective study of a cohort of 807 hypertensive patients over a period of 10 years. Three-monthly clinic blood pressure readings were used to derive blood pressure variability (BPV), and CVD events were captured from patient records.
    RESULTS: Mean age at baseline was 57.2 ± 9.8 years with 63.3% being women. The BPV and mean SBP over 10 years were 14.7 ± 3.5 and 142 ± 8 mmHg, respectively. Prevalence of cardiovascular event was 13%. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, BPV was the predictor of CVD events, whereas the mean SBP was not independently associated with cardiovascular events in this population. Those with lower SBP and lower BPV had fewer cardiovascular events than those with the same low mean SBP but higher BPV (10.5 versus 12.8%). Similarly those with higher mean SBP but lower BPV also had fewer cardiovascular events than those with the same high mean and higher BPV (11.6 versus 16.7%). Other variables like being men, diabetes and Indian compared with Chinese are more likely to be associated with cardiovascular events.
    CONCLUSION: BPV is associated with an increase in CVD events even in those who have achieved lower mean SBP. Thus, we should prioritize not only control of SBP levels but also BPV to reduce CVD events further.
    Matched MeSH terms: Primary Health Care*
  15. Suleiman AB
    Citation: Abu Bakar, Suleiman
    Keynote Address. Bengkel “Program Perubatan Keluarga: Posting Pusat Kesihatan”. Pusat Kesihatan Padang Serai, Kulim, Kedah, Malaysia, 27 Mac 1995
    Matched MeSH terms: Primary Health Care
  16. Ong SM, Lim YMF, Sivasampu S, Khoo EM
    BMC Geriatr, 2018 02 23;18(1):59.
    PMID: 29471806 DOI: 10.1186/s12877-018-0750-2
    BACKGROUND: Polypharmacy is particularly important in older persons as they are more likely to experience adverse events compared to the rest of the population. Despite the relevance, there is a lack of studies on the possible association of patient, prescriber and practice characteristics with polypharmacy. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine the rate of polypharmacy among older persons attending public and private primary care clinics, and its association with patient, prescriber and practice characteristics.

    METHODS: We used data from The National Medical Care Survey (NMCS), a national cross-sectional survey of patients' visits to primary care clinics in Malaysia. A weighted total of 22,832 encounters of patients aged ≥65 years were analysed. Polypharmacy was defined as concomitant use of five medications and above. Multilevel logistic regression was performed to examine the association of polypharmacy with patient, prescriber and practice characteristics.

    RESULTS: A total of 20.3% of the older primary care attenders experienced polypharmacy (26.7%% in public and 11.0% in private practice). The adjusted odds ratio (OR) of polypharmacy were 6.37 times greater in public practices. Polypharmacy was associated with patients of female gender (OR 1.49), primary education level (OR 1.61) and multimorbidity (OR 14.21). The variation in rate of polypharmacy was mainly found at prescriber level.

    CONCLUSION: Polypharmacy is common among older persons visiting primary care practices. Given the possible adverse outcomes, interventions to reduce the burden of polypharmacy are best to be directed at individual prescribers.

    Matched MeSH terms: Primary Health Care/standards; Primary Health Care/trends*; Primary Health Care/statistics & numerical data
  17. Abd Razak MA, Ahmad NA, Chan YY, Mohamad Kasim N, Yusof M, Abdul Ghani MKA, et al.
    Public Health, 2019 Apr;169:84-92.
    PMID: 30826688 DOI: 10.1016/j.puhe.2019.01.001
    OBJECTIVES: This systematic review aims to provide updated and comprehensive evidence on the validity and feasibility of screening tools for mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia among the elderly at primary healthcare level.

    STUDY DESIGN: A review of articles was performed.

    METHODS: A search strategy was used by using electronic bibliographic databases including PubMed, Embase and CENTRAL for published studies and reference list of published studies. The articles were exported to a bibliographic database for further screening process. Two reviewers worked independently to screen results and extract data from the included studies. Any discrepancies were resolved and confirmed by the consensus of all authors.

    RESULTS: There were three screening approaches for detecting MCI and dementia - screening by a healthcare provider, screening by a self-administered questionnaire and caretaker informant screening. Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) was the most common and preferable tool for MCI screening (sensitivity [Sn]: 81-97%; specificity [Sp]: 60-86%), whereas Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination (ACE) was the preferable tool for dementia screening (Sn: 79-100%; Sp: 86%).

    CONCLUSION: This systematic review found that there are three screening approaches for detecting early dementia and MCI at primary health care. ACE and MoCA are recommended tools for screening of dementia and MCI, respectively.

    Matched MeSH terms: Primary Health Care*
  18. Azam AF, Lai P, Abdullah A, Haidi Hanafi NS
    Malays Fam Physician, 2020;15(2):10-18.
    PMID: 32843940
    Introduction: The Patient Assessment on Chronic Illness Care (PACIC) was developed to assess patients' perspectives on the alignment of primary care to the chronic care model. The Malay PACIC has been validated; however, Malaysia is a multicultural society, and English is spoken by many Malaysians and expatriates. We sought to validate the English version of the PACIC among patients with diabetes mellitus in Malaysia, as Malaysians may interpret a questionnaire that was originally developed for Americans in a different way.

    Method: This study was conducted between November and December 2016 at two primary care clinics that offered integrated diabetes care at the time. These sites were selected to assess the discriminative validity of the PACIC. Site 1 is a Malaysian Ministry of Health-run primary care clinic while site 2 is a university-run hospital-based primary care clinic. Only site 1 annually monitors patient performance and encourages them to achieve their HbA1c targets using a standard checklist. Patients with diabetes mellitus who understood English were recruited. Participants were asked to fill out the PACIC at baseline and two weeks later.

    Results: A total of 200 out of the 212 invited agreed to participate (response rate=94.3%). Confirmatory factor analysis confirmed the 5-factor structure of the PACIC. The overall PACIC score and the score in two of the five domains were significantly higher at site 1 than at site 2. The overall Cronbach's alpha was 0.924. At test-retest, intra-class correlation coefficient values ranged from 0.641 to 0.882.

    Conclusion: The English version of the PACIC was found to be a valid and reliable instrument to assess the quality of care among patients with diabetes mellitus in Malaysia.

    Matched MeSH terms: Primary Health Care
  19. Bahrom NH, Ramli AS, Isa MR, Baharudin N, Badlishah-Sham SF, Mohamed-Yassin MS, et al.
    Malays Fam Physician, 2020;15(3):22-34.
    PMID: 33329860
    Introduction: The Patient Activation Measure (PAM) is one of the most extensively used, widely translated, and tested instruments worldwide in measuring patient activation levels in self-management. This study aimed to determine the validity and reliability of the PAM-13 Malay version among patients with Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) attending a primary care clinic.
    Methods: This work is a cross-sectional validation study among patients with MetS attending a university primary care clinic in Selangor. The PAM-13 Malay version underwent a validation process and field testing. Psychometric properties were examined using principal component analysis (PCA) with varimax rotation, scree plot, Monte Carlo simulation, internal consistency, and test-retest reliability analyses.
    Results: The content of the PAM-13 Malay version and the original version were conceptually equivalent. The questionnaire was refined after face validation by 10 patients with MetS. The refined version was then field-tested among 130 participants (response rate 89.7%). The Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin test was 0.767, and Bartlett's test of sphericity was ≤0.001, indicating sampling adequacy. Two factors were identified and labeled as (1) Passive and Building Knowledge, and (2) Taking Action and Maintaining Behavior. These labels were chosen as they were conceptually consistent with the items representing the levels of activation in PAM-13. The validated PAM-13 Malay version consisted of 13 items, framed into two domains. The overall Cronbach's α was 0.79, and the intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.45.
    Conclusions: The PAM-13 Malay version is valid, reliable, and fairly stable over time. This questionnaire can be used to evaluate the levels of activation among patients with MetS in primary care in Malaysia.
    Study site: Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM) primary care clinic, Sungai Buloh, Selangor, Malaysia
    Matched MeSH terms: Primary Health Care
  20. Azraii AB, Ramli AS, Ismail Z, Abdul-Razak S, Badlishah-Sham SF, Mohd-Kasim NA, et al.
    BMC Cardiovasc Disord, 2021 01 19;21(1):39.
    PMID: 33468051 DOI: 10.1186/s12872-020-01845-y
    BACKGROUND: Primary care physicians (PCP) play an important role in detecting Familial Hypercholesterolaemia (FH) early. However, knowledge, awareness and practice (KAP) regarding FH among Malaysian PCP are not well established, and there was no validated tool to assess their FH KAP. Thus, the aim of this study was to adapt an FH KAP questionnaire and determine its validity and reliability among Malaysian PCP.

    METHODS: This cross-sectional validation study involved Malaysian PCP with ≥ 1-year work experience in the primary care settings. In Phase 1, the original 19-item FH KAP questionnaire underwent content validation and adaptation by 7 experts. The questionnaire was then converted into an online survey instrument and was face validated by 10 PCP. In Phase 2, the adapted questionnaire was disseminated through e-mail to 1500 PCP. Data were collected on their KAP, demography, qualification and work experience. The construct validity was tested using known-groups validation method. The hypothesis was PCP holding postgraduate qualification (PCP-PG-Qual) would have better FH KAP compared with PCP without postgraduate qualification (PCP-noPG-Qual). Internal consistency reliability was calculated using Kuder Richardson formula-20 (KR-20) and test-retest reliability was tested on 26 PCP using kappa statistics.

    RESULTS: During content validation and adaptation, 10 items remained unchanged, 8 items were modified, 1 item was moved to demography and 7 items were added. The adapted questionnaire consisted of 25 items (11 knowledge, 5 awareness and 9 practice items). A total of 130 out of 1500 PCP (response rate: 8.7%) completed the questionnaire. The mean percentage knowledge score was found to be significantly higher in PCP-PG-Qual compared with PCP-noPG-Qual (53.5, SD ± 13.9 vs. 35.9, SD ± 11.79), t(128) = 6.90, p 

    Matched MeSH terms: Primary Health Care
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