Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 452 in total

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  1. Woodward W
    N Z Nurs J, 1983 Sep;76(9):14-6.
    PMID: 6580571
    Matched MeSH terms: Primary Health Care
  2. Doshi HH
    Family Physician, 2003;11:9-11.
    In the light of present HIV worldwide epidemic. there is a need to teach the busy general practitioners how to recognise HIV & AIDS. Due to the deadly nature of this infection and its manifold presentations from opportunistic diseases. the busy general practitioners in primary care may be misled in making the correct diagnosis. In Malaysia. the doctors in the primary care level constitute 70 to 75% of the doctors' population. The rest are specialists in secondary and tertiary care institutions. Family Physicians from the Font liners to recognise and detect early cases of HlV in all its early manifestalions on the various systems. Any doctors in primary medicine whether from private or public sector, amy be confronted by patients who present with trivial complaints. These patients may be fee-paying, or particularly those doctors involved with welfare and health of factory workers and the other forms of the main work force should well arm themselves with updates in HIV and AIDS.
    Matched MeSH terms: Primary Health Care
  3. Liew SM
    Malays Fam Physician, 2017;12(2):1.
    PMID: 29423122
    Matched MeSH terms: Primary Health Care
  4. Hisham R, Ng CJ, Liew SM, Hamzah N, Ho GJ
    BMJ Open, 2016 Mar 09;6(3):e010565.
    PMID: 26962037 DOI: 10.1136/bmjopen-2015-010565
    OBJECTIVE: To explore the factors, including barriers and facilitators, influencing the practice of evidence-based medicine (EBM) across various primary care settings in Malaysia based on the doctors' views and experiences.
    RESEARCH DESIGN: The qualitative study was used to answer the research question. 37 primary care physicians participated in six focus group discussions and six individual in-depth interviews. A semistructured topic guide was used to facilitate both the interviews and focus groups, which were audio recorded, transcribed verbatim, checked and analysed using a thematic approach.
    PARTICIPANTS: 37 primary care doctors including medical officers, family medicine specialists, primary care lecturers and general practitioners with different working experiences and in different settings.
    SETTING: The study was conducted across three primary care settings-an academic primary care practice, private and public health clinics in Klang Valley, Malaysia.
    RESULTS: The doctors in this study were aware of the importance of EBM but seldom practised it. Three main factors influenced the implementation of EBM in the doctors' daily practice. First, there was a lack of knowledge and skills in searching for and applying evidence. Second, workplace culture influenced doctors' practice of EBM. Third, some doctors considered EBM as a threat to good clinical practice. They were concerned that rigid application of evidence compromised personalised patient care and felt that EBM did not consider the importance of clinical experience.
    CONCLUSIONS: Despite being aware of and having a positive attitude towards EBM, doctors in this study seldom practised EBM in their routine clinical practice. Besides commonly cited barriers such as having a heavy workload and lack of training, workplace 'EBM culture' had an important influence on the doctors' behaviour. Strategies targeting barriers at the practice level should be considered when implementing EBM in primary care.
    Study site: klinik kesihatan, general practice clinics, Klang Valley, Malaysia
    Matched MeSH terms: Primary Health Care/organization & administration*
  5. Watson D, Watson R
    Family Practitioner, 1977;2:44-46.
    Matched MeSH terms: Primary Health Care
  6. Balasundaram R
    Family Physician, 1996;8(1&2):1-2.
    Matched MeSH terms: Primary Health Care
  7. Aziz AF, Aziz NA, Nordin NA, Ali MF, Sulong S, Aljunid SM
    J Neurosci Rural Pract, 2013 Oct;4(4):413-20.
    PMID: 24347948 DOI: 10.4103/0976-3147.120243
    CONTEXT: Poststroke care in developing countries is inundated with poor concordance and scarce specialist stroke care providers. A primary care-driven health service is an option to ensure optimal care to poststroke patients residing at home in the community.

    AIMS: We assessed outcomes of a pilot long-term stroke care clinic which combined secondary prevention and rehabilitation at community level.

    SETTINGS AND DESIGN: A prospective observational study of stroke patients treated between 2008 and 2010 at a primary care teaching facility.

    SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Analysis of patients was done at initial contact and at 1-year post treatment. Clinical outcomes included stroke risk factor(s) control, depression according to Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ9), and level of independence using Barthel Index (BI).

    STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED: Differences in means between baseline and post treatment were compared using paired t-tests or Wilcoxon-signed rank test. Significance level was set at 0.05.

    RESULTS: Ninety-one patients were analyzed. Their mean age was 62.9 [standard deviation (SD) 10.9] years, mean stroke episodes were 1.30 (SD 0.5). The median interval between acute stroke and first contact with the clinic 4.0 (interquartile range 9.0) months. Mean systolic blood pressure decreased by 9.7 mmHg (t = 2.79, P = 0.007), while mean diastolic blood pressure remained unchanged at 80mmHg (z = 1.87, P = 0.06). Neurorehabilitation treatment was given to 84.6% of the patients. Median BI increased from 81 (range: 2-100) to 90.5 (range: 27-100) (Z = 2.34, P = 0.01). Median PHQ9 scores decreased from 4.0 (range: 0-22) to 3.0 (range: 0-19) though the change was not significant (Z= -0.744, P = 0.457).

    CONCLUSIONS: Primary care-driven long-term stroke care services yield favorable outcomes for blood pressure control and functional level.

    Matched MeSH terms: Primary Health Care
  8. Usha Devi B, Paul E, Munjeet K
    Family Physician, 2005;13:5-9.
    A study was conducted at the Outpatient Department (OPD) of Ipoh Hospital, an urban public primary healthcare facility, over a weekend, to determine the profile of patients attending the clinic, the reasons for encounter and the reasons for choosing after hours medical care. The data from this study would be useful in determining the need for and formulating a policy for after hours medical care at urban primary health care facilities in the country. The study showed there was a low proportion of acute illness in the weekend clinic. A total of 17% of the patients had an acute illness and a further 8% had aggravation of an existing illness. This group of patients requires access to weekend medical services. The main reason for choosing after hours care was social, that is the convenience of an off-day from work or school. Several options can be explored to provide after hours care, including volunteer government doctors or private general practitioners running the service. Another option is to direct public patients during the weekends to private general practitioners in their locality who will be subsidized. The cost of providing after hours care is expected to be higher. Misuse of services may have to be considered as the study showed 5 % of the patients were not ill during the encounter.

    Study site: Outpatient Department (OPD) of Hospital Ipoh
    Matched MeSH terms: Primary Health Care
  9. Teng CL
    Family Physician, 2005;13:21-21.
    Matched MeSH terms: Primary Health Care
  10. Sui CF, Ming LC, Neoh CF, Ibrahim B
    PMID: 26316735 DOI: 10.2147/COPD.S84618
    Background: This study utilized a validated combination of a COPD Population Screener
    (COPD-PS) questionnaire and a handheld spirometric device as a screening tool for patients at high risk of COPD, such as smokers. The study aimed to investigate and pilot the feasibility and application of this combined assessment, which we termed the “VitalQPlus”, as a screening tool for the early detection of COPD, especially in primary care settings.
    Methods: This was a cross-sectional study screening potentially undiagnosed COPD patients using a validated five-item COPD-PS questionnaire together with a handheld spirometric device. Patients were recruited from selected Malaysian government primary care health centers.
    Results: Of the total of 83 final participants, only 24.1% (20/83) were recruited from Perak and Penang (peninsular Malaysia) compared to 75.9% (63/83) from Sabah (Borneo region). Our dual assessment approach identified 8.4% of the surveyed patients as having potentially undiagnosed COPD. When only the Vitalograph COPD-6 screening tool was used, 15.8% of patients were detected with a forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced expiratory volume in 6 seconds (FEV1/FEV6) ratio at <0.75, while 35.9% of patients were detected with the COPD-PS questionnaire. These findings suggested that this dual assessment approach has a greater chance of identifying potentially undiagnosed COPD patients compared to the Vitalograph COPD-6 or COPD-PS questionnaire when used alone. Our findings show that patients with more symptoms (scores of >=5) yielded twice the percentage of outcomes of FEV1/FEV6 <0.75 compared to patients with fewer COPD symptoms (scores <5).
    Conclusion: With the availability of a simple screening questionnaire and the COPD-6, there is an opportunity easily to make patients more aware of their lung symptoms and to encourage the provision of early treatment. The proposed dual assessment approach, which we termed the VitalQPlus, may play a profound role in the early diagnosis of COPD, which is crucial in improving the clinical management of the disease.
    Keywords: spirometry, pulmonary function test, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease,
    airway obstruction
    Matched MeSH terms: Primary Health Care
  11. Chia YC, Ching SM, Lim HM
    J. Hypertens., 2017 05;35 Suppl 1:S50-S56.
    PMID: 28350621 DOI: 10.1097/HJH.0000000000001333
    OBJECTIVES: The current study aims to determine the relationship of long-term visit-to-visit variability of SBP to cardiovascular disease (CVD) in a multiethnic primary care setting.
    METHOD: This is a retrospective study of a cohort of 807 hypertensive patients over a period of 10 years. Three-monthly clinic blood pressure readings were used to derive blood pressure variability (BPV), and CVD events were captured from patient records.
    RESULTS: Mean age at baseline was 57.2 ± 9.8 years with 63.3% being women. The BPV and mean SBP over 10 years were 14.7 ± 3.5 and 142 ± 8 mmHg, respectively. Prevalence of cardiovascular event was 13%. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, BPV was the predictor of CVD events, whereas the mean SBP was not independently associated with cardiovascular events in this population. Those with lower SBP and lower BPV had fewer cardiovascular events than those with the same low mean SBP but higher BPV (10.5 versus 12.8%). Similarly those with higher mean SBP but lower BPV also had fewer cardiovascular events than those with the same high mean and higher BPV (11.6 versus 16.7%). Other variables like being men, diabetes and Indian compared with Chinese are more likely to be associated with cardiovascular events.
    CONCLUSION: BPV is associated with an increase in CVD events even in those who have achieved lower mean SBP. Thus, we should prioritize not only control of SBP levels but also BPV to reduce CVD events further.
    Matched MeSH terms: Primary Health Care*
  12. Suleiman AB
    Citation: Abu Bakar, Suleiman
    Keynote Address. Bengkel “Program Perubatan Keluarga: Posting Pusat Kesihatan”. Pusat Kesihatan Padang Serai, Kulim, Kedah, Malaysia, 27 Mac 1995
    Matched MeSH terms: Primary Health Care
  13. Ong SM, Lim YMF, Sivasampu S, Khoo EM
    BMC Geriatr, 2018 02 23;18(1):59.
    PMID: 29471806 DOI: 10.1186/s12877-018-0750-2
    BACKGROUND: Polypharmacy is particularly important in older persons as they are more likely to experience adverse events compared to the rest of the population. Despite the relevance, there is a lack of studies on the possible association of patient, prescriber and practice characteristics with polypharmacy. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine the rate of polypharmacy among older persons attending public and private primary care clinics, and its association with patient, prescriber and practice characteristics.

    METHODS: We used data from The National Medical Care Survey (NMCS), a national cross-sectional survey of patients' visits to primary care clinics in Malaysia. A weighted total of 22,832 encounters of patients aged ≥65 years were analysed. Polypharmacy was defined as concomitant use of five medications and above. Multilevel logistic regression was performed to examine the association of polypharmacy with patient, prescriber and practice characteristics.

    RESULTS: A total of 20.3% of the older primary care attenders experienced polypharmacy (26.7%% in public and 11.0% in private practice). The adjusted odds ratio (OR) of polypharmacy were 6.37 times greater in public practices. Polypharmacy was associated with patients of female gender (OR 1.49), primary education level (OR 1.61) and multimorbidity (OR 14.21). The variation in rate of polypharmacy was mainly found at prescriber level.

    CONCLUSION: Polypharmacy is common among older persons visiting primary care practices. Given the possible adverse outcomes, interventions to reduce the burden of polypharmacy are best to be directed at individual prescribers.

    Matched MeSH terms: Primary Health Care/standards; Primary Health Care/trends*; Primary Health Care/statistics & numerical data
  14. Abd Razak MA, Ahmad NA, Chan YY, Mohamad Kasim N, Yusof M, Abdul Ghani MKA, et al.
    Public Health, 2019 Apr;169:84-92.
    PMID: 30826688 DOI: 10.1016/j.puhe.2019.01.001
    OBJECTIVES: This systematic review aims to provide updated and comprehensive evidence on the validity and feasibility of screening tools for mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia among the elderly at primary healthcare level.

    STUDY DESIGN: A review of articles was performed.

    METHODS: A search strategy was used by using electronic bibliographic databases including PubMed, Embase and CENTRAL for published studies and reference list of published studies. The articles were exported to a bibliographic database for further screening process. Two reviewers worked independently to screen results and extract data from the included studies. Any discrepancies were resolved and confirmed by the consensus of all authors.

    RESULTS: There were three screening approaches for detecting MCI and dementia - screening by a healthcare provider, screening by a self-administered questionnaire and caretaker informant screening. Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) was the most common and preferable tool for MCI screening (sensitivity [Sn]: 81-97%; specificity [Sp]: 60-86%), whereas Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination (ACE) was the preferable tool for dementia screening (Sn: 79-100%; Sp: 86%).

    CONCLUSION: This systematic review found that there are three screening approaches for detecting early dementia and MCI at primary health care. ACE and MoCA are recommended tools for screening of dementia and MCI, respectively.

    Matched MeSH terms: Primary Health Care*
  15. Chia YC, Lim HM, Ching SM
    BMC Cardiovasc Disord, 2014 Nov 20;14:163.
    PMID: 25410585 DOI: 10.1186/1471-2261-14-163
    BACKGROUND: The Pooled Cohort Risk Equation was introduced by the American College of Cardiology (ACC) and American Heart Association (AHA) 2013 in their Blood Cholesterol Guideline to estimate the 10-year atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) risk. However, absence of Asian ethnicity in the contemporary cohorts and limited studies to examine the use of the risk score limit the applicability of the equation in an Asian population. This study examines the validity of the pooled cohort risk score in a primary care setting and compares the cardiovascular risk using both the pooled cohort risk score and the Framingham General Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) risk score.
    METHODS: This is a 10-year retrospective cohort study of randomly selected patients aged 40-79 years. Baseline demographic data, co-morbidities and cardiovascular (CV) risk parameters were captured from patient records in 1998. Pooled cohort risk score and Framingham General CVD risk score for each patient were computed. All ASCVD events (nonfatal myocardial infarction, coronary heart disease (CHD) death, fatal and nonfatal stroke) occurring from 1998-2007 were recorded.
    RESULTS: A total of 922 patients were studied. In 1998, mean age was 57.5 ± 8.8 years with 66.7% female. There were 47% diabetic patients and 59.9% patients receiving anti-hypertensive treatment. More than 98% of patients with pooled cohort risk score ≥7.5% had FRS >10%. A total of 45 CVD events occurred, 22 (7.2%) in males and 23 (3.7%) in females. The median pooled cohort risk score for the population was 10.1 (IQR 4.7-20.6) while the actual ASCVD events that occurred was 4.9% (45/922). Our study showed moderate discrimination with AUC of 0.63. There was good calibration with Hosmer-Lemeshow test χ2 = 12.6, P = 0.12.
    CONCLUSIONS: The pooled cohort risk score appears to overestimate CV risk but this apparent over-prediction could be a result of treatment. In the absence of a validated score in an untreated population, the pooled cohort risk score appears to be appropriate for use in a primary care setting.
    Matched MeSH terms: Primary Health Care
  16. Yunus A, Seet W, Md Adam B, Jamaiyah H
    Malays Fam Physician, 2013;8(1):5-11.
    PMID: 25606261 MyJurnal
    Objective: To validate the Malay version of Berlin Questionnaire (BQ) as a tool to screen for patients at risk of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in primary care Background: Most patients with OSA are unrecognised and untreated. Thus, the BQ has been used as a tool to screen for patients at risk for OSA. However, this tool has not been validated in Malay version. Materials and Methods: A parallel back-to-back translation method was applied to produce the Malay version (Berlin-M). The Malay version was administered to 150 patients in a tertiary respiratory medical centre.  Concurrent validity of the Berlin-M was determined using the Apnea Hypopnea Index (AHI) as the gold standard measure. The test-retest reliability and internal consistency of the Berlin-M were determined. Results: Most patients were males (64.0%) and majority of them were Malays (63.3%). Based on the sleep study test, 121 (84.0%) were classified as high risk while 23 (16.0%) as low risk using the Apnea Hypopnea Index (AHI) ≥5 as the cutoff point. The test–retest reliability Kappa value showed a good range between 0.864 – 1.000. The Cronbach’s alpha of BQ was 0.750 in category 1 and 0.888 in category 2. The sensitivity and specificity were 92% and 17% respectively. Conclusion: The BQ showed high sensitivity (92%) but low specificity (17%). Therefore, though the Berlin-M is useful as a screening tool, it is not a confirmatory diagnostic tool.
    Matched MeSH terms: Primary Health Care
  17. Mohd Sidik S, Arroll B, Goodyear-Smith F
    J Prim Health Care, 2012 Mar;4(1):5-11, A1.
    PMID: 22377544
    Introduction: Anxiety is a common mental health disorder in primary care, with a higher prevalence among women compared to men.
    Aim: This is the first study to validate the Generalised Anxiety Disorder-7 questionnaire (GAD-7) as a case-finding instrument for anxiety in a primary care setting in Malaysia. The objective was to determine the diagnostic accuracy of the Malay version of the GAD-7 in detecting anxiety among women.
    Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in a government-funded primary care clinic in Malaysia. Consecutive women participants attending the clinic during data collection were given self-administered questionnaires including the GAD-7 (Malay version). Participants then were selected using systematic weighted random sampling for Composite International Diagnostic Interviews (CIDI). The GAD-7 was validated against the CIDI reference standard.
    Results: The response rate was 87.5% for the questionnaire completion (895/1023), and 96.8% for diagnostic interviews (151/156). The prevalence of anxiety was 7.8%. The GAD-7 had a sensitivity of 76% (95% CI 61%–87%), a specificity of 94% (88%–97%), positive LR 13.7 (6.2–30.5) and negative LR 0.25 (0.14–0.45).
    Discussion: The Malay version of the GAD-7 was found to be valid and reliable in case-finding for anxiety in this study. Due to its brevity, it is a suitable case-finding instrument for detecting anxiety in primary care settings in Malaysia.
    Keywords: Validation; anxiety; primary care; women; Malaysia
    Questionnaire: Generalised Anxiety Disorder questionnaire; GAD-7; Composite International Diagnostic Interviews; CIDI; Patient Health Questionnaire; PHQ-9; General Health Questionnaire; GHQ-12
    Matched MeSH terms: Primary Health Care/methods*
  18. Chia YC, Gray SY, Ching SM, Lim HM, Chinna K
    BMJ Open, 2015;5(5):e007324.
    PMID: 25991451 DOI: 10.1136/bmjopen-2014-007324
    OBJECTIVE: This study aims to examine the validity of the Framingham general cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk chart in a primary care setting.
    DESIGN: This is a 10-year retrospective cohort study.
    SETTING: A primary care clinic in a teaching hospital in Malaysia.
    PARTICIPANTS: 967 patients' records were randomly selected from patients who were attending follow-up in the clinic.
    MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Baseline demographic data, history of diabetes and smoking, blood pressure (BP), and serum lipids were captured from patient records in 1998. Each patient's Framingham CVD score was computed from these parameters. All atherosclerotic CVD events occurring between 1998 and 2007 were counted.
    RESULTS: In 1998, mean age was 57 years with 33.8% men, 6.1% smokers, 43.3% diabetics and 59.7% hypertensive. Median BP was 140/80 mm Hg and total cholesterol 6.0 mmol/L (1.3). The predicted median Framingham general CVD risk score for the study population was 21.5% (IQR 1.2-30.0) while the actual CVD events that occurred in the 10 years was 13.1% (127/967). The median CVD points for men was 30.0, giving them a CVD risk of more than 30%; for women it is 18.5, a CVD risk of 21.5%. Our study found that the Framingham general CVD risk score to have moderate discrimination with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.63. It also discriminates well for Malay (AUC 0.65, p=0.01), Chinese (AUC 0.60, p=0.03), and Indians (AUC 0.65, p=0.001). There was good calibration with Hosmer-Lemeshow test χ(2)=3.25, p=0.78.
    CONCLUSIONS: Taking into account that this cohort of patients were already on treatment, the Framingham General CVD Risk Prediction Score predicts fairly accurately for men and overestimates somewhat for women. In the absence of local risk prediction charts, the Framingham general CVD risk prediction chart is a reasonable alternative for use in a multiethnic group in a primary care setting.
    Study site: Primary care clinic,University Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Primary Health Care*
  19. Mohamed IN, Helms PJ, McLay JS
    Basic Clin. Pharmacol. Toxicol., 2012 Dec;111(6):396-401.
    PMID: 22734606 DOI: 10.1111/j.1742-7843.2012.00917.x
    Drug switching is a common medical practice. It indicates continuation of treatment regardless of the reason why the original therapy was stopped and switched. Therefore, the aims of this study were to develop a novel method for determining drug switching from routinely acquired NHS health data and to explore the aspect of continuation of care for patients. Patients who were first prescribed ramipril, simvastatin and an angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) between 1 March 2004 and 28 February 2007 and discontinued their medication within 6 months of the index prescription were identified from the PTI database. The identified patients were then categorized into three groups: i) patients who were switched to a different drug for the same medical condition, ii) patients who were being prescribed with other types of antihypertensive/lipid-regulating drug prior to the initiation of study; and iii) patients who were without any continuation of care or therapy. Twenty percent (808), 29%(1429) and 14%(455) of the identified patients discontinued ramipril, simvastatin and ARB, respectively, within 6 months of an index prescription. Among the ramipril discontinuation group, 36.4% of the patients were switched to another antihypertensive, while another 31.6% of them were without continuation of care. In patients discontinuing ARB, 30.6% were switched, while another 30.1% were without continuation of treatment. In patients discontinuing simvastatin, 28.8% were switched to another lipid-regulating medicine, while another 63.1% of them were without continuation of care. The results of this study confirm that primary care prescribing databases can be used to determine drug-switching information and continuation of care/therapy.
    Matched MeSH terms: Primary Health Care*
  20. Syed A, Mohd Don Z, Ng CJ, Lee YK, Khoo EM, Lee PY, et al.
    BMJ Open, 2017 05 09;7(5):e014260.
    PMID: 28490553 DOI: 10.1136/bmjopen-2016-014260
    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether the use of apatient decision aid (PDA) for insulin initiation fulfils its purpose of facilitating patient-centred decision-making through identifying how doctors and patients interact when using the PDA during primary care consultations.
    DESIGN: Conversation analysis of seven single cases of audio-recorded/video-recorded consultations between doctors and patients with type 2 diabetes, using a PDA on starting insulin.
    SETTING: Primary care in three healthcare settings: (1) one private clinic; (2) two public community clinics and (3) one primary care clinic in a public university hospital, in Negeri Sembilan and the Klang Valley in Malaysia.
    PARTICIPANTS: Clinicians and seven patients with type 2 diabetes to whom insulin had been recommended. Purposive sampling was used to select a sample high in variance across healthcare settings, participant demographics and perspectives on insulin.
    PRIMARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Interaction between doctors and patients in a clinical consultation involving the use of a PDA about starting insulin.
    RESULTS: Doctors brought the PDA into the conversation mainly by asking information-focused 'yes/no' questions, and used the PDA for information exchange only if patients said they had not read it. While their contributions were limited by doctors' questions, some patients disclosed issues or concerns. Although doctors' PDA-related questions acted as a presequence to deliberation on starting insulin, their interactional practices raised questions on whether patients were informed and their preferences prioritised.
    CONCLUSIONS: Interactional practices can hinder effective PDA implementation, with habits from ordinary conversation potentially influencing doctors' practices and complicating their implementation of patient-centred decision-making. Effective interaction should therefore be emphasised in the design and delivery of PDAs and in training clinicians to use them.
    Matched MeSH terms: Primary Health Care
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