Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 24 in total

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  1. Chen PCY
    Asia Pac J Public Health, 1987;1(1):34-7.
    PMID: 3452377 DOI: 10.1177/101053958700100109
    Unlike much of Peninsular Malaysia, the Baram District of Sarawak remains sparsely populated and underserved, one of the most underserved peoples being the nomadic and semi-nomadic Penans of the Baram. Until quite recently these Penans lived as small nomadic bands of hunter-gatherers. More recently, they have begun to settle in longhouses. However, lacking the necessary skills to live a settled mode of life, these Penans suffer a great deal of hunger, malnutrition, disease and death. Primary health care with its emphasis on the seven essential elements, including food production and nutrition, environmental sanitation, good maternal and child health, knowledge of disease and how it can be prevented as well as the treatment and control of locally endemic diseases, is of critical value in the survival of the semi-nomadic Penans. The specially designed primary health care programme for the Penans of the Baram is outlined briefly in this paper.
    Keyword: Baram, Penans, Primary Health Care, Sarawak, Village Health Promoter.
    Matched MeSH terms: Primary Health Care/organization & administration*
  2. Mustapha F, Omar Z, Mihat O, Md Noh K, Hassan N, Abu Bakar R, et al.
    BMC Public Health, 2014;14 Suppl 2:S4.
    PMID: 25080846 DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-14-S2-S4
    The prevalence of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) and NCD risk factors in Malaysia have risen substantially in the last two decades. The Malaysian Ministry of Health responded by implementing, "The National Strategic Plan for Non-Communicable Diseases (NSP-NCD) 2010-2014", and the "NCD Prevention 1Malaysia" (NCDP-1M) programme. This paper outlines the primary health system context in which the NCDP-1M is framed. We also discuss the role of community in facilitating the integration of this programme, and outline some of the key challenges in addressing the sustainability of the plan over the next few years. The paper thus provides an analysis of an integration of a programme that involved a multi-sectoral approach with the view to contributing to a broader discourse on the development of responsive health systems.
    Matched MeSH terms: Primary Health Care/organization & administration*
  3. Muthupalaniappen L, Omar J, Omar K, Iryani T, Hamid SN
    PMID: 23431837
    We carried out a cross sectional study to detect emotional and behavioral problems among adolescents who smoke and their help-seeking behavior. This study was conducted in Sarawak, East Malaysia, between July and September 2006. Emotional and behavioral problems were measured using the Youth Self-Report (YSR/11-18) questionnaire; help seeking behavior was assessed using a help-seeking questionnaire. Three hundred ninety-nine students participated in the study; the smoking prevalence was 32.8%. The mean scores for emotional and behavioral problems were higher among smokers than non-smokers in all domains (internalizing, p = 0.028; externalizing, p = 0.001; other behavior, p = 0.001). The majority of students who smoked (94.7%) did not seek help from a primary health care provider for their emotional or behavioral problems. Common barriers to help-seeking were: the perception their problems were trivial (60.3%) and the preference to solve problems on their own (45.8%). Our findings suggest adolescent smokers in Sarawak, East Malaysia were more likely to break rules, exhibit aggressive behavior and have somatic complaints than non-smoking adolescents. Adolescent smokers preferred to seek help for their problems from informal sources. Physicians treating adolescents should inquire about smoking habits, emotional and behavioral problems and offer counseling if required.
    Matched MeSH terms: Primary Health Care/organization & administration
  4. Ho TM
    Int J Health Serv, 1988;18(2):281-91.
    PMID: 3378859 DOI: 10.2190/EJ77-C1UH-KHMQ-8HAX
    This article examines the numerous problems faced by primary health care in Malaysia, care that traditionally has been a private sector activity. While general practitioners have adapted, and are continually adapting, to the needs of a multiracial society with diverse cultural patterns, it is hoped that with the emergence of a dynamic discipline of family practice, family doctors will be able to provide a sophisticated form of primary health care that will serve the needs of the people.
    Matched MeSH terms: Primary Health Care/organization & administration*
  5. Chen PCY, Tan YK
    Med. J. Malaysia, 1982 Mar;37(1):25-34.
    PMID: 7121343
    A joint pilot project between the Ministry of Health and the Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, University of Malaya, to test the value of village aides in extending the health care system into isolated Iban communities was started in May 1979 in the Entabai District of Sarawak. A group of 15 village aides consisting of 11 traditional Iban manangs (medicine-men) and 4 youths were trained to provide primary health care including simple curative care, preventive care and to assist in the detection of malaria. Evaluation carried out 2 years later showed the following. In respect of curative care, the village aides were each, on the average, treating 70.6 patients per month, the most common illness being headaches (30.4 percent), which together with abdominal pain, constipation, bodyaches, diarrhoea, vomiting, fever, worm infestations, cough and sore throat, accounted for 89 percent of all illnesses seen by them. Subsequent to the introduction of village aides in the project area, the number ofseriously ill patients requiring admission to the rest beds of the klinik desa dropped by 43.8 percent and the number of emergency referrals to the back-up divisional hospitals fell by 46.1 percent showing that patients were coming to the klinik desa for treatment at an earlier stage. The 11 traditional Iban manangs, who had received training had, on their own accord, drastically reduced the use of traditional Iban modes of therapy in preference for "modern" medicine. During the 24 months immediately after the introduction of village aides into Entabai, 9 gravity feed water supply systems together with the related "health package" advocating general cleanliness, the use of latrines andfences were effected, whereas only 6 such systems were installed in the previous 24 months, indicating that it is likely that the village aides were of some assistance in mobilizing the community is respect of these self-help efforts. During the same period, the majority of longhouses in the area successfully established a number of vegetable gardens growing foods for home consumption, and continue to vigorously advocate breast feeding of infants in opposition to bottle feeding. During the 23 months after village aides were introduced, a total of 1,093 blood films were collected by the 15 village aides, the average number of blood films per village aide being 3.2 blood slides per month. Village aides are socially accepted by the Iban community who utilize their curative skills when mild illnesses disturb them, but who proceed directly to the klinik desa when more serious illnesses such as fevers strike them. The project has established clear lines of communication between the health team and the community, and has stimulated the community to organize itself to achieve an increasingly high level of health through community participation and self reliance. Plans have been approved in principle to train a further 2000 village aides in primary health care for the state of Sarawak.
    Matched MeSH terms: Primary Health Care/organization & administration*
  6. Chen PC, Tan YK
    Trop Geogr Med, 1981 Dec;33(4):403-9.
    PMID: 7342391
    Matched MeSH terms: Primary Health Care/organization & administration*
  7. Ng CW, How CH, Ng YP
    Singapore Med J, 2017 Feb;58(2):72-77.
    PMID: 28210741 DOI: 10.11622/smedj.2017006
    Major depression is a common condition seen in the primary care setting. This article describes the suicide risk assessment of a depressed patient, including practical aspects of history-taking, consideration of factors in deciding if a patient requires immediate transfer for inpatient care and measures to be taken if the patient is not hospitalised. It follows on our earlier article about the approach to management of depression in primary care.
    Matched MeSH terms: Primary Health Care/organization & administration*
  8. Ariffin F, Ramli AS, Daud MH, Haniff J, Abdul-Razak S, Selvarajah S, et al.
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2017 04;72(2):106-112.
    PMID: 28473673 MyJurnal
    INTRODUCTION: Non-communicable diseases (NCD) is a global health threat. the Chronic Care Model (CCM) was proven effective in improving NCD management and outcomes in developed countries. Evidence from developing countries including Malaysia is limited and feasibility of CCM implementation has not been assessed. this study intends to assess the feasibility of public primary health care clinics (PHC) in providing care according to the CCM.

    METHODOLOGY: A cross-sectional survey was conducted to assess the public PHC ability to implement the components of CCM. All public PHC with Family Medicine Specialist in Selangor and Kuala Lumpur were invited to participate. A site feasibility questionnaire was distributed to collect site investigator and clinic information as well as delivery of care for diabetes and hypertension.

    RESULTS: there were a total of 34 public PHC invited to participate with a response rate of 100%. there were 20 urban and 14 suburban clinics. the average number of patients seen per day ranged between 250-1000 patients. the clinic has a good mix of multidisciplinary team members. All clinics had a diabetic registry and 73.5% had a hypertensive registry. 23.5% had a dedicated diabetes and 26.5% had a dedicated hypertension clinic with most clinic implementing integrated care of acute and NCD cases.

    DISCUSSION: the implementation of the essential components of CCM is feasible in public PHCs, despite various constraints. Although variations in delivery of care exists, majority of the clinics have adequate staff that were willing to be trained and are committed to improving patient care.
    Matched MeSH terms: Primary Health Care/organization & administration*
  9. Low LL, Ab Rahim FI, Johari MZ, Abdullah Z, Abdul Aziz SH, Suhaimi NA, et al.
    BMC Health Serv Res, 2019 Jul 16;19(1):497.
    PMID: 31311538 DOI: 10.1186/s12913-019-4312-x
    BACKGROUND: Amid the current burden of non-communicable (NCD) diseases in Malaysia, there is a growing demand for more efficient service delivery of primary healthcare. A complex intervention is proposed to improve NCD management in Malaysia. This exploratory study aimed to assess primary healthcare providers' receptiveness towards change prior to implementation of the proposed complex intervention.

    METHOD: This study was conducted using an exploratory qualitative approach on purposely selected healthcare providers at primary healthcare clinics. Twenty focus group discussions and three in-depth interviews were conducted using a semi-structured interview guide. Consent was obtained prior to interviews and for audio-recordings. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and thematically analysed, guided by the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR), a framework comprised of five major domains promoting implementation theory development and verification across multiple contexts.

    RESULTS: The study revealed via CFIR that most primary healthcare providers were receptive towards any proposed changes or intervention for the betterment of NCD care management. However, many challenges were outlined across four CFIR domains-intervention characteristics, outer setting, inner setting, and individual characteristics-that included perceived barriers to implementation. Perception of issues that triggered proposed changes reflected the current situation, including existing facilitating aspects that can support the implementation of any future intervention. The importance of strengthening the primary healthcare delivery system was also expressed.

    CONCLUSION: Understanding existing situations faced at the primary healthcare setting is imperative prior to implementation of any intervention. Healthcare providers' receptiveness to change was explored, and using CFIR framework, challenges or perceived barriers among healthcare providers were identified. CFIR was able to outline the clinics' setting, individual behaviour and external agency factors that have direct impact to the organisation. These are important indicators in ensuring feasibility, effectiveness and sustainability of any intervention, as well as future scalability considerations.

    Matched MeSH terms: Primary Health Care/organization & administration*
  10. Hisham R, Ng CJ, Liew SM, Hamzah N, Ho GJ
    BMJ Open, 2016 Mar 09;6(3):e010565.
    PMID: 26962037 DOI: 10.1136/bmjopen-2015-010565
    OBJECTIVE: To explore the factors, including barriers and facilitators, influencing the practice of evidence-based medicine (EBM) across various primary care settings in Malaysia based on the doctors' views and experiences.
    RESEARCH DESIGN: The qualitative study was used to answer the research question. 37 primary care physicians participated in six focus group discussions and six individual in-depth interviews. A semistructured topic guide was used to facilitate both the interviews and focus groups, which were audio recorded, transcribed verbatim, checked and analysed using a thematic approach.
    PARTICIPANTS: 37 primary care doctors including medical officers, family medicine specialists, primary care lecturers and general practitioners with different working experiences and in different settings.
    SETTING: The study was conducted across three primary care settings-an academic primary care practice, private and public health clinics in Klang Valley, Malaysia.
    RESULTS: The doctors in this study were aware of the importance of EBM but seldom practised it. Three main factors influenced the implementation of EBM in the doctors' daily practice. First, there was a lack of knowledge and skills in searching for and applying evidence. Second, workplace culture influenced doctors' practice of EBM. Third, some doctors considered EBM as a threat to good clinical practice. They were concerned that rigid application of evidence compromised personalised patient care and felt that EBM did not consider the importance of clinical experience.
    CONCLUSIONS: Despite being aware of and having a positive attitude towards EBM, doctors in this study seldom practised EBM in their routine clinical practice. Besides commonly cited barriers such as having a heavy workload and lack of training, workplace 'EBM culture' had an important influence on the doctors' behaviour. Strategies targeting barriers at the practice level should be considered when implementing EBM in primary care.
    Study site: klinik kesihatan, general practice clinics, Klang Valley, Malaysia
    Matched MeSH terms: Primary Health Care/organization & administration*
  11. Khoo EM, Sararaks S, Lee WK, Liew SM, Cheong AT, Abdul Samad A, et al.
    Asia Pac J Public Health, 2015 Sep;27(6):670-7.
    PMID: 25563351 DOI: 10.1177/1010539514564007
    This study aimed to develop an intervention to reduce medical errors and to determine if the intervention can reduce medical errors in public funded primary care clinics. A controlled interventional trial was conducted in 12 conveniently selected primary care clinics. Random samples of outpatient medical records were selected and reviewed by family physicians for documentation, diagnostic, and management errors at baseline and 3 months post intervention. The intervention package comprised educational training, structured process change, review methods, and patient education. A significant reduction was found in overall documentation error rates between intervention (Pre 98.3% [CI 97.1-99.6]; Post 76.1% [CI 68.1-84.1]) and control groups (Pre 97.4% [CI 95.1-99.8]; Post 89.5% [85.3-93.6]). Within the intervention group, overall management errors reduced from 54.0% (CI 49.9-58.0) to 36.6% (CI 30.2-43.1) and medication error from 43.2% (CI 39.2-47.1) to 25.2% (CI 19.9-30.5). This low-cost intervention was useful to reduce medical errors in resource-constrained settings.
    Matched MeSH terms: Primary Health Care/organization & administration*
  12. Ramli AS, Lakshmanan S, Haniff J, Selvarajah S, Tong SF, Bujang MA, et al.
    BMC Fam Pract, 2014;15:151.
    PMID: 25218689 DOI: 10.1186/1471-2296-15-151
    Chronic disease management presents enormous challenges to the primary care workforce because of the rising epidemic of cardiovascular risk factors. The chronic care model was proven effective in improving chronic disease outcomes in developed countries, but there is little evidence of its effectiveness in developing countries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the EMPOWER-PAR intervention (multifaceted chronic disease management strategies based on the chronic care model) in improving outcomes for type 2 diabetes mellitus and hypertension using readily available resources in the Malaysian public primary care setting. This paper presents the study protocol.
    Matched MeSH terms: Primary Health Care/organization & administration
  13. Tong SF, Low WY, Ismail SB, Trevena L, Willcock S
    BMC Fam Pract, 2011;12:29.
    PMID: 21569395 DOI: 10.1186/1471-2296-12-29
    BACKGROUND: Men have been noted to utilise health care services less readily then women. Primary care settings provide an opportunity to engage men in health care activities because of close proximity to the target group (men in the community). Understanding attitudes towards men's health among Malaysian primary care doctors is important for the effective delivery of health services to men. We aimed to explore the opinions and attitudes of primary care doctors (PCDs) relating to men's health and help-seeking behaviour.
    METHODS: A qualitative approach to explore the opinions of 52 PCDs was employed, using fourteen in-depth interviews and eight focus group discussions in public and private settings. Purposive sampling of PCDs was done to ensure maximum variation in the PCD sample. Interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim for analysis. Open coding with thematic analysis was used to identify key issues raised in the interview.
    RESULTS: The understanding of the concept of men's health among PCDs was fragmented. Although many PCDs were already managing health conditions relevant and common to men, they were not viewed by PCDs as "men's health". Less attention was paid to men's help-seeking behaviour and their gender roles as a potential determinant of the poor health status of men. There were opposing views about whether men's health should focus on men's overall health or a more focused approach to sexual health. There was also disagreement about whether special attention was warranted for men's health services. Some doctors would prioritise more common conditions such as hypertension, diabetes and hypercholesterolaemia.
    CONCLUSIONS: The concept of men's health was new to PCDs in Malaysia. There was wide variation in understanding and opposing attitudes towards men's health among primary care doctors. Creating awareness and having a systematic approach would facilitate PCDs in delivering health service to men.
    Matched MeSH terms: Primary Health Care/organization & administration*
  14. Khoo EM, Kidd MR
    Asia Pac J Public Health, 2002;14(2):59-63.
    PMID: 12862408 DOI: 10.1177/101053950201400202
    The Australian and Malaysian systems of general practice were examined and compared. The issues of similarity and difference identified are discussed in this paper. Quality clinical practice and the importance of compulsory vocational training prior to entry into general practice and continuing professional development is one important area. A move towards preventive health care and chronic disease management was observed in both countries. Practice incentive programmes to support such initiatives as improved rates of immunisation and cervical smear testing and the implementation of information technology and information management systems need careful implementation. The Medicare system used in Australia may not be appropriate for general practitioners in Malaysia and, if used, a pharmaceutical benefit scheme would also need to be established. In both countries the corporatisation of medical practice is causing concern for the medical profession. Rural and aboriginal health issues remain important in both countries. Graduate medical student entry is an attractive option but workforce requirements mean that medical education will need individual tailoring for each country. Incorporating nurses into primary health care may provide benefits such as cost savings. The integration model of community centres in Malaysia involving doctors, nurses and allied health professionals, such as physiotherapists, in a single location deserves further examination.
    Matched MeSH terms: Primary Health Care/organization & administration*
  15. Lim ES
    PMID: 1364867
    The Malaria Eradication Program was started in 1967 in Peninsular Malaysia. Since then and up to 1980, there was a reduction in the number of reported malaria cases from 160,385 in 1966 to 9,110 cases for Peninsular Malaysia. Although the concept of eradication has changed to one of control in the 1980, the anti-malaria activities have remained the same. However, additional supplementary activities such as the use of impregnated bednets, and the Primary Health Care approach, have been introduced in malarious and malaria-prone areas. Focal spraying activity is instituted in localities with outbreaks in both malaria-prone and non-malarious areas. Passive case detection has been maintained in all operational areas. In 1990, 50,500 cases of malaria were reported of which 69.7% (35,190) were from Sabah, 27.8% (14,066) from Peninsular Malaysia and 2.5% (1,244) from Sarawak. Until June 1991 a total of 18,306 cases were reported for the country. Plasmodium falciparum continues to be the predominant species, contributing to 69.6% of the parasites involved. The case fatality rate for 1990 was 0.09%. There were 43 deaths all of which were attributed to cerebral malaria. The problems faced in the prevention and control of malaria include problems associated with the opening of land for agriculture, mobility of the aborigines of Peninsular Malaysia (Orang Asli) and inaccessibility of malaria problem areas. There is need to ensure prompt investigation and complete treatment of cases especially in malarious areas. The promotion of community participation in control activities should be intensified. Primary Health Care should be continued and intensified in the malarious areas.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
    Matched MeSH terms: Primary Health Care/organization & administration
  16. Hisham R, Liew SM, Ng CJ
    BMJ Open, 2018 07 12;8(7):e018933.
    PMID: 30002004 DOI: 10.1136/bmjopen-2017-018933
    OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to compare the evidence-based practices of primary care physicians between those working in rural and in urban primary care settings.

    RESEARCH DESIGN: Data from two previous qualitative studies, the Front-line Equitable Evidence-based Decision Making in Medicine and Creating, Synthesising and Implementing evidence-based medicine (EBM) in primary care studies, were sorted, arranged, classified and compared with the help of qualitative research software, NVivo V.10. Data categories were interrogated through comparison between and within datasets to identify similarities and differences in rural and urban practices. Themes were then refined by removing or recoding redundant and infrequent nodes into major key themes.

    PARTICIPANTS: There were 55 primary care physicians who participated in 10 focus group discussions (n=31) and 9 individual physician in-depth interviews.

    SETTING: The study was conducted across three primary care settings-an academic primary care practice and both private and public health clinics in rural (Pahang) and urban (Selangor and Kuala Lumpur) settings in Malaysia.

    RESULTS: We identified five major themes that influenced the implementation of EBM according to practice settings, namely, workplace factors, EBM understanding and awareness, work experience and access to specialist placement, availability of resources and patient population. Lack of standardised care is a contributing factor to differences in EBM practice, especially in rural areas.

    CONCLUSIONS: There were major differences in the practice of EBM between rural and urban primary care settings. These findings could be used by policy-makers, administrators and the physicians themselves to identify strategies to improve EBM practices that are targeted according to workplace settings.
    Matched MeSH terms: Primary Health Care/organization & administration*
  17. Tong SF, Khoo EM, Nordin S, Teng CL, Lee VK, Zailinawati AH, et al.
    Asia Pac J Public Health, 2012 Sep;24(5):764-75.
    PMID: 21659332 DOI: 10.1177/1010539511402190
    This study aimed to compare the process of care and the choice of antihypertensive medications used in both public and private primary care clinics in Malaysia. A cross-sectional survey was completed in 2008 on randomly selected 100 public health clinics and 114 private primary care clinics in Malaysia. A total of 4076 patient records, 3753 (92.1%) from public clinics and 323 (7.9%) from private clinics were analyzed. Less than 80% of the records documented the recommended clinical and laboratory assessments. The rates of documentation for smoking status, family history of premature death, retinal assessment, and urine albumin tests were lower in public clinics. Overall, 21% of the prescription practices were less than optimal. The process of care and the use of antihypertensive medications were not satisfactory in both settings.
    Matched MeSH terms: Primary Health Care/organization & administration*
  18. Khairani O, Zaiton S, Faridah MN
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2005 Jun;60(2):134-9.
    PMID: 16114152
    The aims of the study were to determine the prevalence of the common health problems namely acne, overweight, smoking and depressive symptoms among adolescents attending a primary healthcare clinic, whether they seek treatment for these problems and the reasons for not consulting health professionals. It was a clinic-based, crosssectional study. All adolescents aged 13 to 20 years who attended the clinic during the study period were included in the study. The respondents were given self-administered questionnaires and their weights were measured to assess if they had the above disorders. A total of 215 adolescents were included in the study. The proportion of adolescents who had acne were 70.7%, overweight 8.9%, smoking 41.9% and depressive symptoms 9.8%. Only 25% of those who had acne, 47% of those who were overweight, 9.5% who had depressive symptoms and none of those who smoked had ever sought treatment for these problems. The common reasons given for not consulting the health professionals were 'did not consider it as a problem', 'shy' and 'thought there was no treatment available'. The majority of the adolescents who attended the clinic did not consult health professionals the above common health problems. It is important to educate them on these disorders and encourage health-seeking behaviour in adolescents.
    Matched MeSH terms: Primary Health Care/organization & administration*
  19. Lim RBL
    J Pain Palliat Care Pharmacother, 2003;17(3-4):77-85; discussion 87-9.
    PMID: 15022953 DOI: 10.1080/j354v17n03_11
    Palliative care first began in Malaysia in 1991, and since then there has been a growing interest in the field and its development both from the government and nongovernmental organizations. It is important to recognize the potential advantages and disadvantages of palliative care provided by both government and private programs to maximize development for the greater benefit of patients. A close relationship between these two bodies must be created so that there is smooth continuity of service and no overlapping of roles. This article highlights some thoughts on how palliative care has developed over the years from the perspective of a clinician who is currently working in the government sector and cooperating with nongovernmental organizations to develop a palliative care network in the region.
    Matched MeSH terms: Primary Health Care/organization & administration
  20. Yadav H, Lin WY
    Asia Pac J Public Health, 2001;13 Suppl:S58-61.
    PMID: 12109251
    Malaysia enjoys a comprehensive range of health services, the government being committed to the principles of universal access to high quality health care, which the Ministry of Health provides through a wide variety of nation wide network of clinics and hospitals. One of the major problems is the availability of comprehensiveness and quality of health care in remote health centres. When patients are transferred from the health centres to the hospitals for further treatment, this not only incurs inconvenience to the patients and their family but also increases the cost to the health care system. Teleprimary care is one of the tools to overcome this problem. The doctors in the remote clinics are able to discuss the problem cases through teleconsultation with the doctors and specialist in the hospitals using an audiovisual system to provide better care in the health centers without transferring the patients to the hospitals. Only the essential and needy patients are referred to the hospitals. This has not only reduced the number of patients referred to the hospitals but it has reduced the cost to the health care system. It has also provided a more comprehensive care to the patients in the health centres. The doctors in the health centers are also provided training and are also updated on the latest in medicine. This method of training has made doctors in the health centers more efficient and satisfied.
    Matched MeSH terms: Primary Health Care/organization & administration
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