Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 170 in total

  1. Syahrom A, Abdul Kadir MR, Abdullah J, Öchsner A
    Med Biol Eng Comput, 2011 Dec;49(12):1393-403.
    PMID: 21947767 DOI: 10.1007/s11517-011-0833-0
    The relationship between microarchitecture to the failure mechanism and mechanical properties can be assessed through experimental and computational methods. In this study, both methods were utilised using bovine cadavers. Twenty four samples of cancellous bone were extracted from fresh bovine and the samples were cleaned from excessive marrow. Uniaxial compression testing was performed with displacement control. After mechanical testing, each specimen was ashed in a furnace. Four of the samples were exemplarily scanned using micro-computed tomography (μCT) and three dimensional models of the cancellous bones were reconstructed for finite element simulation. The mechanical properties and the failure modes obtained from numerical simulations were then compared to the experiments. Correlations between microarchitectural parameters to the mechanical properties and failure modes were then made. The Young's modulus correlates well with the bone volume fraction with R² = 0.615 and P value 0.013. Three different types of failure modes of cancellous bone were observed: oblique fracture (21.7%), perpendicular global fracture (47.8%), and scattered localised fracture (30.4%). However, no correlations were found between the failure modes to the morphological parameters. The percentage of error between computer predictions and the actual experimental test was from 6 to 12%. These mechanical properties and information on failure modes can be used for the development of synthetic cancellous bone.
    Matched MeSH terms: Stress, Mechanical
  2. Corda JV, Shenoy BS, Ahmad KA, Lewis L, K P, Khader SMA, et al.
    Comput Methods Programs Biomed, 2022 Feb;214:106538.
    PMID: 34848078 DOI: 10.1016/j.cmpb.2021.106538
    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Neonates are preferential nasal breathers up to 3 months of age. The nasal anatomy in neonates and infants is at developing stages whereas the adult nasal cavities are fully grown which implies that the study of airflow dynamics in the neonates and infants are significant. In the present study, the nasal airways of the neonate, infant and adult are anatomically compared and their airflow patterns are investigated.

    METHODS: Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) approach is used to simulate the airflow in a neonate, an infant and an adult in sedentary breathing conditions. The healthy CT scans are segmented using MIMICS 21.0 (Materialise, Ann arbor, MI). The patient-specific 3D airway models are analyzed for low Reynolds number flow using ANSYS FLUENT 2020 R2. The applicability of the Grid Convergence Index (GCI) for polyhedral mesh adopted in this work is also verified.

    RESULTS: This study shows that the inferior meatus of neonates accounted for only 15% of the total airflow. This was in contrast to the infants and adults who experienced 49 and 31% of airflow at the inferior meatus region. Superior meatus experienced 25% of total flow which is more than normal for the neonate. The highest velocity of 1.8, 2.6 and 3.7 m/s was observed at the nasal valve region for neonates, infants and adults, respectively. The anterior portion of the nasal cavity experienced maximum wall shear stress with average values of 0.48, 0.25 and 0.58 Pa for the neonates, infants and adults.

    CONCLUSIONS: The neonates have an underdeveloped nasal cavity which significantly affects their airway distribution. The absence of inferior meatus in the neonates has limited the flow through the inferior regions and resulted in uneven flow distribution.

    Matched MeSH terms: Stress, Mechanical
  3. Low YJ, Kittur MI, Andriyana A, Ang BC, Zainal Abidin NI
    J Mech Behav Biomed Mater, 2023 Apr;140:105723.
    PMID: 36821908 DOI: 10.1016/j.jmbbm.2023.105723
    Poly(glycolide-co-caprolactone) (PGCL) has become a novice to the bioresorbable suture owing to the synergistic properties taken from the homo-polyglycolide (PGA) and polycaprolactone (PCL) such as excellent bioresorption and flexibility. In addition to under conventional monotonic loading, the understanding of mechanical responses of PGCL copolymers under complex loading conditions such as cyclic and stress relaxation is crucial for its application as a surgical suture. Consequently, the present work focuses on evaluating the mechanical responses of PGCL sutures under monotonic, cyclic, and stress relaxation loading conditions. Under monotonic loading, the stress-strain behavior of the PGCL suture was found to be non-linear with noticeable strain-rate dependence. Under cyclic loading, inelastic responses including stress-softening, hysteresis and permanent set were observed. During cyclic loading, both stress-softening and hysteresis were found to increase with the maximum strain. In multi-step stress relaxation, the PGCL sutures were observed to exhibit a strong viscoelastic response. In an attempt to describe the relationship between the stress-relaxation and strain-induced crystallization (SIC) occurring during the loading and relaxation processes, a schematic illustration of the conformational change of polymer chains in PGCL sutures was proposed in this work. Results showed that SIC was dependent on the strain level as well as the loading and relaxation durations. The inelastic phenomena observed in PGCL sutures can be thus correlated to the combined effect of stress relaxation and SIC.
    Matched MeSH terms: Stress, Mechanical
  4. Salih AM, Ahmad MB, Ibrahim NA, Dahlan KZ, Tajau R, Mahmood MH, et al.
    Molecules, 2015;20(8):14191-211.
    PMID: 26248072 DOI: 10.3390/molecules200814191
    Over the past few decades, there has been an increasing demand for bio-based polymers and resins in industrial applications, due to their potential lower cost and environmental impact compared with petroleum-based counterparts. The present research concerns the synthesis of epoxidized palm oil acrylate (EPOLA) from an epoxidized palm oil product (EPOP) as environmentally friendly material. EPOP was acrylated by acrylic acid via a ring opening reaction. The kinetics of the acrylation reaction were monitored throughout the reaction course and the acid value of the reaction mixture reached 10 mg KOH/g after 16 h, indicating the consumption of the acrylic acid. The obtained epoxy acrylate was investigated intensively by means of FTIR and NMR spectroscopy, and the results revealed that the ring opening reaction was completed successfully with an acrylation yield about 82%. The UV free radical polymerization of EPOLA was carried out using two types of photoinitiators. The radiation curing behavior was determined by following the conversion of the acrylate groups. The cross-linking density and the hardness of the cured EPOLA films were measured to evaluate the effect of the photoinitiator on the solid film characteristics, besides, the thermal and mechanical properties were also evaluated.
    Matched MeSH terms: Stress, Mechanical
  5. Baig MR, Ariff FT, Yunus N
    Indian J Dent Res, 2011 Mar-Apr;22(2):210-2.
    PMID: 21891887 DOI: 10.4103/0970-9290.84288
    BACKGROUND: The clinical success of relining depends on the ability of reline resin to bond to denture base. Surface preparations may influence reline bond strength of urethane-based dimethacrylate denture base resin.
    AIM: To investigate the effect of bur preparation on the surface roughness (R a ) of eclipse denture base resin and its shear bond strength (SBS) to an intra-oral self-curing reline material. The mode of reline bonding failure was also examined.
    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-four cylindrical Eclipse™ specimens were prepared and separated into three groups of eight specimens each. Two groups were subjected to mechanical preparation using standard and fine tungsten carbide (TC) burs and the third group (control) was left unprepared. The R a of all specimens was measured using a contact stylus profilometer. Subsequently, relining was done on the prepared surface and SBS testing was carried out a day later using a universal testing machine.
    RESULTS: One-way ANOVA revealed significant differences (P<0.05) in R a and SBS values for all the groups. Post-hoc Tukey's HSD test showed significant differences (P<0.05) between all the groups in the R a values. For SBS also there were significant differences (P<0.05), except between standard bur and control.
    CONCLUSIONS: 1) There was a statistically significant difference in the R a of Eclipse™ specimens prepared using different carbide burs (P<0.05). 2) There was a statistically significant difference in the relined SBS (P<0.05) when prepared using different burs, but the difference between the standard bur and the control group was not statistically significant.
    Matched MeSH terms: Stress, Mechanical
  6. Kamangar S, Badruddin IA, Badarudin A, Nik-Ghazali N, Govindaraju K, Salman Ahmed NJ, et al.
    Comput Methods Biomech Biomed Engin, 2017 Mar;20(4):365-372.
    PMID: 27612619 DOI: 10.1080/10255842.2016.1233402
    The current study investigates the hyperemic flow effects on heamodynamics parameters such as velocity, wall shear stress in 3D coronary artery models with and without stenosis. The hyperemic flow is used to evaluate the functional significance of stenosis in the current era. Patients CT scan data of having healthy and coronary artery disease was chosen for the reconstruction of 3D coronary artery models. The diseased 3D models of coronary artery shows a narrowing of >50% lumen area. Computational fluid dynamics was performed to simulate the hyperemic flow condition. The results showed that the recirculation zone was observed immediate to the stenosis and highest wall shear stress was observed across the stenosis. The decrease in pressure was found downstream to the stenosis as compared to the coronary artery without stenosis. Our analysis provides an insight into the distribution of wall shear stress and pressure drop, thus improving our understanding of hyperemic flow effect under both conditions.
    Matched MeSH terms: Stress, Mechanical
  7. Sia S, Shibazaki T, Koga Y, Yoshida N
    Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop, 2009 Jan;135(1):36-41.
    PMID: 19121498 DOI: 10.1016/j.ajodo.2007.01.034
    This study was designed to determine the optimum vertical height of the retraction force on the power arm that is required for efficient anterior tooth retraction during space closure with sliding mechanics.
    Matched MeSH terms: Stress, Mechanical
  8. Ooi CH, Ling YP, Abdullah WZ, Mustafa AZ, Pung SY, Yeoh FY
    J Mater Sci Mater Med, 2019 Mar 30;30(4):44.
    PMID: 30929088 DOI: 10.1007/s10856-019-6247-5
    Hydroxyapatite is an ideal biomaterial for bone tissue engineering due to its biocompatibility and hemocompatibility which have been widely studied by many researchers. The incorporation of nanoporosity into hydroxyapatite could transform the biomaterial into an effective adsorbent for uremic toxins removal especially in artificial kidney system. However, the effect of nanoporosity incorporation on the hemocompatibility of hydroxyapatite has yet to be answered. In this study, nanoporous hydroxyapatite was synthesized using hydrothermal technique and its hemocompatibility was determined. Non-ionic surfactants were used as soft templates to create porosity in the hydroxyapatite. The presence of pure hydroxyapatite phase in the synthesized samples is validated by X-ray diffraction analysis and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The TEM images show that the hydroxyapatite formed rod-like particles with the length of 21-90 nm and diameter of 11-70 nm. The hydroxyapatite samples exhibit BET surface area of 33-45 m2 g-1 and pore volume of 0.35-0.44 cm3 g-1. The hemocompatibility of the hydroxyapatite was determined via hemolysis test, platelet adhesion, platelet activation and blood clotting time measurement. The nanoporous hydroxyapatite shows less than 5% hemolysis, suggesting that the sample is highly hemocompatible. There is no activation and morphological change observed on the platelets adhered onto the hydroxyapatite. The blood clotting time demonstrates that the blood incubated with the hydroxyapatite did not coagulate. This study summarizes that the synthesized nanoporous hydroxyapatite is a highly hemocompatible biomaterial and could potentially be utilized in biomedical applications.
    Matched MeSH terms: Stress, Mechanical
  9. Kardia E, Yusoff NM, Zakaria Z, Yahaya B
    J Aerosol Med Pulm Drug Deliv, 2014 Feb;27(1):30-4.
    PMID: 23409833 DOI: 10.1089/jamp.2012.1020
    Cell-based therapy has great potential to treat patients with lung diseases. The administration of cells into an injured lung is one method of repairing and replacing lost lung tissue. However, different types of delivery have been studied and compared, and none of the techniques resulted in engraftment of a high number of cells into the targeted organ. In this in vitro study, a novel method of cell delivery was introduced to investigate the possibility of delivering aerosolized skin-derived fibroblasts.
    Matched MeSH terms: Stress, Mechanical
  10. Yong KW, Li Y, Huang G, Lu TJ, Safwani WK, Pingguan-Murphy B, et al.
    Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol, 2015 Aug 15;309(4):H532-42.
    PMID: 26092987 DOI: 10.1152/ajpheart.00299.2015
    Cardiac myofibroblast differentiation, as one of the most important cellular responses to heart injury, plays a critical role in cardiac remodeling and failure. While biochemical cues for this have been extensively investigated, the role of mechanical cues, e.g., extracellular matrix stiffness and mechanical strain, has also been found to mediate cardiac myofibroblast differentiation. Cardiac fibroblasts in vivo are typically subjected to a specific spatiotemporally changed mechanical microenvironment. When exposed to abnormal mechanical conditions (e.g., increased extracellular matrix stiffness or strain), cardiac fibroblasts can undergo myofibroblast differentiation. To date, the impact of mechanical cues on cardiac myofibroblast differentiation has been studied both in vitro and in vivo. Most of the related in vitro research into this has been mainly undertaken in two-dimensional cell culture systems, although a few three-dimensional studies that exist revealed an important role of dimensionality. However, despite remarkable advances, the comprehensive mechanisms for mechanoregulation of cardiac myofibroblast differentiation remain elusive. In this review, we introduce important parameters for evaluating cardiac myofibroblast differentiation and then discuss the development of both in vitro (two and three dimensional) and in vivo studies on mechanoregulation of cardiac myofibroblast differentiation. An understanding of the development of cardiac myofibroblast differentiation in response to changing mechanical microenvironment will underlie potential targets for future therapy of cardiac fibrosis and failure.
    Matched MeSH terms: Stress, Mechanical*
  11. Jamal J, Roebuck MM, Lee SY, Frostick SP, Abbas AA, Merican AM, et al.
    Int J Biochem Cell Biol, 2020 09;126:105800.
    PMID: 32673644 DOI: 10.1016/j.biocel.2020.105800
    OBJECTIVES: To compare mechanobiological response of synovial fibroblasts (SFb) from OA patient cohorts under mechanical load and inflammatory stressors for better understanding of SFb homeostatic functions.

    METHODS: Primary SFb isolated from knee synovium of OA obese (OA-ob:SFb), OA-pre-obese (OA-Pob:SFb), non-OA arthroscopic (scope:SFb), and non-OA arthroscopic with cartilage damage (scope-CD:SFb) were exposed to OA-conditioned media (OACM), derived from OA obese (OA-ob:CM), OA-pre-obese (OA-Pob:CM), and mechanical stretch at either 0 %, 6 % or 10 % for 24 h. Differences in the mRNA levels of genes involved in extracellular matrix production, inflammation and secretory activity were measured.

    RESULTS: Despite the significant BMI differences between the OA-ob and OA-Pob groups, OA-Pob has more patients with underlying dyslipidaemia, and low-grade synovitis with higher levels of secreted proteins, CXCL8, COL4A1, CCL4, SPARC and FGF2 in OA-Pob:CM. All primary SFb exhibited anti-proliferative activity with both OA-CM. Mechanical stretch stimulated lubricin production in scope:SFb, higher TGFβ1 and COL1A1 expressions in scope-CD:SFb. OA-Pob:CM stimulated greater detrimental effects than the OA-ob:CM, with higher pro-inflammatory cytokines, IL1β, IL6, COX2 and proteases such as aggrecanases, ADAMTS4 and ADAMTS5, and lower ECM matrix, COL1A1 expressions in all SFb. OA-ob:SFb were unresponsive but expressed higher pro-inflammatory cytokines under OA-Pob:CM treatment.

    CONCLUSION: Both mechanical and inflammatory stressors regulate SFb molecular functions with heterogeneity in responses that are dependent on their pathological tissue of origins. While mechanical stretch promotes a favorable effect with enhanced lubricin production in scope:SFb and TGFβ1 and COL1A1 in scope-CD:SFb, the presence of excessively high OA-associated inflammatory mediators in OA-Pob:CM, predominantly SPARC, CXCL8 and FGF2 drive all SFb regardless of pathology, towards greater pro-inflammatory activities.

    Matched MeSH terms: Stress, Mechanical*
  12. Teasdale JE, Hazell GG, Peachey AM, Sala-Newby GB, Hindmarch CC, McKay TR, et al.
    Sci Rep, 2017 01 06;7:39945.
    PMID: 28059114 DOI: 10.1038/srep39945
    Endothelial dysfunction caused by the combined action of disturbed flow, inflammatory mediators and oxidants derived from cigarette smoke is known to promote coronary atherosclerosis and increase the likelihood of myocardial infarctions and strokes. Conversely, laminar flow protects against endothelial dysfunction, at least in the initial phases of atherogenesis. We studied the effects of TNFα and cigarette smoke extract on human coronary artery endothelial cells under oscillatory, normal laminar and elevated laminar shear stress for a period of 72 hours. We found, firstly, that laminar flow fails to overcome the inflammatory effects of TNFα under these conditions but that cigarette smoke induces an anti-oxidant response that appears to reduce endothelial inflammation. Elevated laminar flow, TNFα and cigarette smoke extract synergise to induce expression of the transcriptional regulator activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3), which we show by adenovirus driven overexpression, decreases inflammatory gene expression independently of activation of nuclear factor-κB. Our results illustrate the importance of studying endothelial dysfunction in vitro over prolonged periods. They also identify ATF3 as an important protective factor against endothelial dysfunction. Modulation of ATF3 expression may represent a novel approach to modulate proinflammatory gene expression and open new therapeutic avenues to treat proinflammatory diseases.
    Matched MeSH terms: Stress, Mechanical
  13. Abu Osman NA, Gholizadeh H, Eshraghi A, Wan Abas WAB
    Prosthet Orthot Int, 2017 Oct;41(5):476-483.
    PMID: 28946824 DOI: 10.1177/0309364616670396
    OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to evaluate and compare a newly designed suspension system with a common suspension in the market.

    STUDY DESIGN: Prospective study.

    METHODS: Looped liners with hook fastener and Iceross Dermo Liner with pin/lock system were mechanically tested using a tensile testing machine in terms of system safety. A total of 10 transtibial amputees participated in this study and were asked to use these two different suspension systems. The pistoning was measured between the liner and socket through a photographic method. Three static axial loading conditions were implemented, namely, 30, 60, and 90 N. Furthermore, subjective feedback was obtained.

    RESULTS: Tensile test results showed that both systems could safely tolerate the load applied to the prosthesis during ambulation. Clinical evaluation confirmed extremely low pistoning in both systems (i.e. less than 0.4 cm after adding 90 N traction load to the prosthesis). Subjective feedback also showed satisfaction with both systems. However, less traction at the end of the residual limb was reported while looped liner was used.

    CONCLUSION: The looped liner with hook fastener is safe and a good alternative for individuals with transtibial amputation as this system could solve some problems with the current systems. Clinical relevance The looped liner and hook fastener were shown to be good alternative suspension for people with lower limb amputation especially those who have difficulty to use and align the pin/lock systems. This system could safely tolerate centrifugal forces applied to the prosthesis during normal and fast walking.

    Matched MeSH terms: Stress, Mechanical
  14. Eshraghi A, Abu Osman NA, Karimi MT, Gholizadeh H, Ali S, Wan Abas WA
    Am J Phys Med Rehabil, 2012 Dec;91(12):1028-38.
    PMID: 23168378 DOI: 10.1097/PHM.0b013e318269d82a
    The objectives of this study were to compare the effects of a newly designed magnetic suspension system with that of two existing suspension methods on pistoning inside the prosthetic socket and to compare satisfaction and perceived problems among transtibial amputees.
    Matched MeSH terms: Stress, Mechanical
  15. Wan Abas WA
    Biomed Mater Eng, 1995;5(2):59-63.
    PMID: 7655319
    The response of human skin to "stress relaxation" tests at low loads in vitro was investigated. A number of behaviours, other than those already well established and documented, were observed. The significant behaviours are pure recovery and relaxation-recovery. Other behaviours observed are temporary stress recovery during the relaxation process, and momentary sudden non-linear drop in stress value followed by a second relaxation. The pure recovery and relaxation-recovery responses are repeatable. The latter represents the transitional response between the well-known behaviour of stress relaxation and the behaviour of stress recovery.
    Matched MeSH terms: Stress, Mechanical
  16. Wan Abas WA
    Biomed Mater Eng, 1994;4(7):473-86.
    PMID: 7881331
    The response of human skin to biaxial stretch tests in vivo was investigated and compared to the response to uniaxial tension. The results obtained illustrate the nonlinear, anisotropic, and viscoelastic (time-dependent) properties of skin under biaxial stretch. Preconditioning in the load-extension response was found not to be prominent. The results also suggest that the response of skin to a biaxial stretch in vivo is qualitatively similar to that in vitro. Values of the terminal stiffness and limit strain of skin under a biaxial stretch are found.
    Matched MeSH terms: Stress, Mechanical
  17. Al-Fasih MY, Kueh ABH, W Ibrahim MH
    PLoS One, 2020;15(2):e0227895.
    PMID: 32012168 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0227895
    Skin crack defects can develop in sandwich honeycomb composite structures during service life due to static and impact loads. In this study, the fracture behavior of sandwich honeycomb composite (SHC) beams containing crack at the skin was investigated experimentally and numerically under four-point loading. Three different arrangements of unidirectional (UD) carbon fiber composite and the triaxially woven (TW) fabric were considered for the skins. The presence of a 10 mm crack at mid-span of the top skin, mid-span of the bottom skin, and mid-way between load and support of the top skin, respectively, were considered. Failure load equations of the load initiating the skin crack extension were analytically derived and then numerically developed using the J-integral approach. The crack extension failure mode dominated all cracked specimens except those with low-stiffness skin which were controlled by the compressive skin debonding and core shear failures.
    Matched MeSH terms: Stress, Mechanical*
  18. Feng Z, Wagatsuma Y, Kikuchi M, Kosawada T, Nakamura T, Sato D, et al.
    Biomaterials, 2014 Sep;35(28):8078-91.
    PMID: 24976242 DOI: 10.1016/j.biomaterials.2014.05.072
    Fibroblast-mediated compaction of collagen gels attracts extensive attention in studies of wound healing, cellular fate processes, and regenerative medicine. However, the underlying mechanism and the cellular mechanical niche still remain obscure. This study examines the mechanical behaviour of collagen fibrils during the process of compaction from an alternative perspective on the primary mechanical interaction, providing a new viewpoint on the behaviour of populated fibroblasts. We classify the collagen fibrils into three types - bent, stretched, and adherent - and deduce the respective equations governing the mechanical behaviour of each type; in particular, from a putative principle based on the stationary state of the instantaneous Hamiltonian of the mechanotransduction system, we originally quantify the stretching force exerted on each stretched fibrils. Via careful verification of a structural elementary model based on this classification, we demonstrate a clear physical picture of the compaction process, quantitatively elucidate the panorama of the micro mechanical niche and reveal an intrinsic biphasic relationship between cellular traction force and matrix elasticity. Our results also infer the underlying mechanism of tensional homoeostasis and stress shielding of fibroblasts. With this study, and sequel investigations on the putative principle proposed herein, we anticipate a refocus of the research on cellular mechanobiology, in vitro and in vivo.
    Matched MeSH terms: Stress, Mechanical
  19. Feng Z, Ishiguro Y, Fujita K, Kosawada T, Nakamura T, Sato D, et al.
    Biomaterials, 2015 Oct;67:365-81.
    PMID: 26247391 DOI: 10.1016/j.biomaterials.2015.07.038
    In this paper, we present a general, fibril-based structural constitutive theory which accounts for three material aspects of crosslinked filamentous materials: the single fibrillar force response, the fibrillar network model, and the effects of alterations to the fibrillar network. In the case of the single fibrillar response, we develop a formula that covers the entropic and enthalpic deformation regions, and introduce the relaxation phase to explain the observed force decay after crosslink breakage. For the filamentous network model, we characterize the constituent element of the fibrillar network in terms its end-to-end distance vector and its contour length, then decompose the vector orientation into an isotropic random term and a specific alignment, paving the way for an expanded formalism from principal deformation to general 3D deformation; and, more important, we define a critical core quantity over which macroscale mechanical characteristics can be integrated: the ratio of the initial end-to-end distance to the contour length (and its probability function). For network alterations, we quantitatively treat changes in constituent elements and relate these changes to the alteration of network characteristics. Singular in its physical rigor and clarity, this constitutive theory can reproduce and predict a wide range of nonlinear mechanical behavior in materials composed of a crosslinked filamentous network, including: stress relaxation (with dual relaxation coefficients as typically observed in soft tissues); hysteresis with decreasing maximum stress under serial cyclic loading; strain-stiffening under uniaxial tension; the rupture point of the structure as a whole; various effects of biaxial tensile loading; strain-stiffening under simple shearing; the so-called "negative normal stress" phenomenon; and enthalpic elastic behaviors of the constituent element. Applied to compacted collagen gels, the theory demonstrates that collagen fibrils behave as enthalpic elasticas with linear elasticity within the gels, and that the macroscale nonlinearity of the gels originates from the curved fibrillar network. Meanwhile, the underlying factors that determine the mechanical properties of the gels are clarified. Finally, the implications of this study on the enhancement of the mechanical properties of compacted collagen gels and on the cellular mechanics with this model tissue are discussed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Stress, Mechanical
  20. Ooi FK, Singh R, Singh HJ, Umemura Y
    Osteoporos Int, 2009 Jun;20(6):963-72.
    PMID: 18839049 DOI: 10.1007/s00198-008-0760-6
    SUMMARY: This study determines the minimum level of exercise required to maintain 8 weeks of jumping exercise-induced bone gains in rats. It was found that the minimum level of exercise required for maintaining the different exercise-induced bone gains varied between 11% and 18% of the initial exercise intensity.

    INTRODUCTION: This study ascertains the minimum level of follow-up exercise required to maintain bone gains induced by an 8-week jumping exercise in rats.

    METHODS: Twelve groups of 12-week old rats (n = 10 rats per group) were given either no exercise for 8 (8S) or 32 weeks (32S), or received 8 weeks of standard training program (8STP) that consisted of 200 jumps per week, given at 40 jumps per day for 5 days per week, followed by 24 weeks of exercise at loads of either 40 or 20 or 10 jumps per day, for either 5, or 3, or 1 day/week. Bone mass, strength, and morphometric properties were measured in the right tibia. Data were analyzed using one-way analyses of variance.

    RESULTS: Bone mass, strength, mid-shaft periosteal perimeter and cortical area were significantly (p < 0.05) higher in the rats given 8STP than that in the 8S group. The minimal level of exercise required to maintain the bone gains was 31, 36, 25, and 21 jumps per week for mass, strength, periosteal perimeter and cortical area, respectively.

    CONCLUSIONS: Eight weeks of jumping exercise-induced bone gains could be maintained for a period of 24 weeks with follow-up exercise consisting of 11% to 18% of the initial exercise load.

    Matched MeSH terms: Stress, Mechanical
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