Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 204 in total

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  1. Ab Halim MH, Nor Anuar A, Abdul Jamal NS, Azmi SI, Ujang Z, Bob MM
    J Environ Manage, 2016 Dec 15;184(Pt 2):271-280.
    PMID: 27720606 DOI: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2016.09.079
    The effect of temperature on the efficiency of organics and nutrients removal during the cultivation of aerobic granular sludge (AGS) in biological treatment of synthetic wastewater was studied. With this aim, three 3 L sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) with influent loading rate of 1.6 COD g (L d)(-1) were operated at different high temperatures (30, 40 and 50 °C) for simultaneous COD, phosphate and ammonia removal at a complete cycle time of 3 h. The systems were successfully started up and progressed to steady state at different cultivation periods. The statistical comparison of COD, phosphate and ammonia for effluent from the three SBRs revealed that there was a significant difference between groups of all the working temperatures of the bioreactors. The AGS cultivated at different high temperatures also positively correlated with the accumulation of elements including carbon, oxygen, phosphorus, silicon, iron, aluminium, calcium and magnesium that played important roles in the granulation process.
    Matched MeSH terms: Waste Disposal, Fluid/methods*
  2. Abdul-Rahman R, Tsuno H, Zainol N
    Water Sci Technol, 2002;45(12):197-204.
    PMID: 12201103
    Elevated levels of nutrients in agroindustry wastewaters, and higher reliance on chlorination pose health threats due to formation of chlorinated organics as well as increased chlorination costs. Removals of ammonium and nitrate compounds were studied using activated carbon from palm shells, as adsorbent and support media. Experiments were carried out at several loadings, F:M from 0.31 to 0.58, and hydraulic residence times (HRT) of 24 h, 12 h and 8 h. Results show that the wastewater treatment process achieved removals of over 90% for COD and 62% for Total-N. Studies on removals from river water were carried out in sequencing batch reactor (SBR) and activated carbon biofilm (ACB) reactor. Removals achieved by the SBR adsorption-biodegradation combination were 67.0% for COD, 58.8% for NH3-N and 25.5% for NO3-N while for adsorption alone the removals were only 37.0% for COD, 35.2% for NH3-N and 13.8% for NO3-N. In the ACB reactor, at HRT of 1.5 to 6 h, removals ranged from 12.5 to 100% for COD, 16.7 to 100% for NO3-N and 13.5 to 100% for NH3-N. Significant decrease in removals was shown at lower HRT. The studies have shown that substantial removals of COD, NO3-N and NH3-N from both wastewater and river water may be achieved via adsorption-biodegradation by biofilm on activated carbon processes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Waste Disposal, Fluid/methods*
  3. Abdullah EA, Abdullah AH, Zainal Z, Hussein MZ, Ban TK
    J Environ Sci (China), 2012;24(10):1876-84.
    PMID: 23520859
    A modified hydrophilic penta-bismuth hepta-oxide nitrate (Bi5O7NO3) surface was synthesized via a precipitation method using TiO2 and Ag as modified agents. The synthesized product was characterized by different analytical techniques. The removal efficiency was evaluated using mono- and di-sulphonated azo dyes as model pollutants. Different kinetic, isotherm and diffusion models were chosen to describe the adsorption process. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) results revealed no noticeable differences in the chemical states of modified adsorbent when compared to pure Bi5O7NO3; however, the presence of hydrophilic centres such as TiO2 and Ag developed positively charged surface groups and improved its adsorption performance to a wide range of azo dyes. Dyes removal was found to be a function of adsorbent dosage, initial dye concentration, solution pH and temperature. The reduction of Langmuir 1,2-mixed order kinetics to the second or first-order kinetics could be successfully used to describe the adsorption of dyes onto the modified adsorbent. Mass transfer can be described by intra-particle diffusion at a certain stage, but it was not the rate limiting step that controlled the adsorption process. Homogenous behavior of adsorbent surface can be explored by applying Langmuir isotherm to fit the adsorption data.
    Matched MeSH terms: Waste Disposal, Fluid/methods
  4. Abdullah N, Yuzir A, Curtis TP, Yahya A, Ujang Z
    Bioresour Technol, 2013 Jan;127:181-7.
    PMID: 23131639 DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2012.09.047
    Understanding the relationship between microbial community and mechanism of aerobic granulation could enable wider applications of granules for high-strength wastewater treatment. The majority of granulation studies principally determine the engineering aspects of granules formation with little emphasis on the microbial diversity. In this study, three identical reactors namely R1, R2 and R3 were operated using POME at volumetric loadings of 1.5, 2.5 and 3.5 kg COD m(-3) d(-1), respectively. Aeration was provided at a volumetric flow rate of 2.5 cms(-1). Aerobic granules were successfully developed in R2 and R3 while bioflocs dominated R1 until the end of experiments. Fractal dimension (D(f)) averaged at 1.90 suggesting good compactness of granules. The PCR-DGGE results indicated microbial evolutionary shift throughout granulation despite different operating OLRs based on decreased Raup and Crick similarity indices upon mature granule formation. The characteristics of aerobic granules treating high strength agro-based wastewater are determined at different volumetric loadings.
    Matched MeSH terms: Waste Disposal, Fluid/methods*
  5. Abdullah N, Ujang Z, Yahya A
    Bioresour Technol, 2011 Jun;102(12):6778-81.
    PMID: 21524907 DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2011.04.009
    The present study investigates the formation of aerobic granular sludge in sequencing batch reactor (SBR) fed with palm oil mill effluent (POME). Stable granules were observed in the reactor with diameters between 2.0 and 4.0mm at a chemical oxygen demand (COD) loading rate of 2.5 kg COD m(-3) d(-1). The biomass concentration was 7600 mg L(-1) while the sludge volume index (SVI) was 31.3 mL g SS(-1) indicating good biomass accumulation in the reactor and good settling properties of granular sludge, respectively. COD and ammonia removals were achieved at a maximum of 91.1% and 97.6%, respectively while color removal averaged at only 38%. This study provides insights on the development and the capabilities of aerobic granular sludge in POME treatment.
    Matched MeSH terms: Waste Disposal, Fluid/methods*
  6. Abdullah N, Yusof N, Abu Shah MH, Wan Ikhsan SN, Ng ZC, Maji S, et al.
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2019 Jul;26(20):20386-20399.
    PMID: 31102226 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-019-05208-9
    In this present study, adsorptive membranes for Cr(VI) ion removal were prepared by blending polyethersulfone (PES) with hydrous ferric oxide (HFO) nanoparticles (NPs). The effects of HFO NPs to PES weight ratio (0-1.5) on the physicochemical properties of the resultant HFO/PES adsorptive membranes were investigated with respect to the surface chemistry and roughness as well as structural morphologies using different analytical instruments. The adsorptive performance of the HFO NPs/PES membranes was studied via batch adsorption experiments under various conditions by varying solution pH, initial concentration of Cr(VI), and contact time. The results showed that the membrane made of HFO/PES at a weight ratio of 1.0 exhibited the highest adsorption capacity which is 13.5 mg/g. Isotherm and kinetic studies revealed that the mechanism is best fitted to the Langmuir model and pseudo-second-order model. For filtration of Cr(VI), the best promising membranes showed improved water flux (629.3 L/m2 h) with Cr(VI) ion removal of 75%. More importantly, the newly developed membrane maintained the Cr(VI) concentration below the maximum contamination level (MCL) for up to 9 h.
    Matched MeSH terms: Waste Disposal, Fluid/methods*
  7. Abdulsalam M, Che Man H, Isma Idris A, Zainal Abidin Z, Faezah Yunos K
    PMID: 30304814 DOI: 10.3390/ijerph15102200
    Palm oil mill effluent contains carcinogenic coloured compounds that are difficult to separate due to their aromatic structure. Though colour treatment using adsorption processes at lower pH (<4) have been reported effectual, due to its acidity the remediated effluent poses an environmental hazard as a result. Thus, the current study focused on achieving decolourization at neutral pH by enhancing the morphology of the coconut shell activated carbon (CSAC) using N₂ as activating-agent with microwave irradiation heating. The microwave pretreated and non-pretreated CSAC were characterized using scanned electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) analysis. A significant modification in the porous structure with a 66.62% increase in the specific surface area was achieved after the pretreatment. The adsorption experimental matrix was developed using the central composite design to investigate the colour adsorption performance under varied pH (6⁻7), dosage (2⁻6 g) and contact time (10⁻100 min). At optimum conditions of neutral pH (7), 3.208 g dosage and contact time of 35 min, the percentage of colour removal was 96.29% with negligible differences compared with the predicted value, 95.855%. The adsorption equilibrium capacity of 1430.1 ADMI × mL/g was attained at the initial colour concentration of 2025 ADMI at 27 °C. The experimental data fitted better with the Freundlich isotherm model with R² 0.9851.
    Matched MeSH terms: Waste Disposal, Fluid/methods*
  8. Ahmad A, Razali MH, Mamat M, Mehamod FS, Anuar Mat Amin K
    Chemosphere, 2017 Feb;168:474-482.
    PMID: 27855344 DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2016.11.028
    This study aims to develop a highly efficient adsorbent material. CNTs are prepared using a chemical vapor deposition method with acetylene and synthesized mesoporous Ni-MCM41 as the carbon source and catalyst, respectively, and are then functionalized using 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) through the co-condensation method and loaded with commercial TiO2. Results of X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Raman spectra, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) confirm that the synthesized CNTs grown are multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs). Transmission electron microscopy shows good dispersion of TiO2 nanoparticles onto functionalized-CNTs loaded TiO2, with the diameter of a hair-like structure measuring between 3 and 8 nm. The functionalized-CNTs loaded TiO2 are tested as an adsorbent for removal of methyl orange (MO) in aqueous solution, and results show that 94% of MO is removed after 10 min of reaction, and 100% after 30 min. The adsorption kinetic model of functionalized-CNTs loaded TiO2 follows a pseudo-second order with a maximum adsorption capacity of 42.85 mg/g. This study shows that functionalized-CNTs loaded TiO2 has considerable potential as an adsorbent material due to the short adsorption time required to achieve equilibrium.
    Matched MeSH terms: Waste Disposal, Fluid/methods*
  9. Ahmad A, Patel I, Khan MU, Babar ZU
    Lancet Infect Dis, 2017 06;17(6):578-579.
    PMID: 28555576 DOI: 10.1016/S1473-3099(17)30268-2
    Matched MeSH terms: Waste Disposal, Fluid/methods
  10. Ahmad AA, Hameed BH
    J Hazard Mater, 2010 Jan 15;173(1-3):487-93.
    PMID: 19765899 DOI: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2009.08.111
    This study deals with the use of activated carbon prepared from bamboo waste (BMAC), as an adsorbent for the removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and color of cotton textile mill wastewater. Bamboo waste was used to prepare activated carbon by chemical activation using phosphoric acid (H(3)PO(4)) as chemical agent. The effects of three preparation variables activation temperature, activation time and H(3)PO(4):precursor (wt%) impregnation ratio on the color and COD removal were investigated. Based on the central composite design (CCD) and quadratic models were developed to correlate the preparation variables to the color and COD. From the analysis of variance (ANOVA), the most influential factor on each experimental design response was identified. The optimum condition was obtained by using temperature of 556 degrees C, activation time of 2.33 h and chemical impregnation ratio of 5.24, which resulted in 93.08% of color and 73.98% of COD.
    Matched MeSH terms: Waste Disposal, Fluid/methods*
  11. Ahmad AA, Hameed BH, Aziz N
    J Hazard Mater, 2007 Mar 6;141(1):70-6.
    PMID: 16887263
    Palm ash, an agriculture waste residue from palm-oil industry in Malaysia, was investigated as a replacement for the current expensive methods of removing direct blue 71 dye from an aqueous solution. The experimental data were analyzed by the Langmuir and Freundlich models of adsorption. Equilibrium data fitted well with Freundlich model in the range of 50-600mg/L. The equilibrium adsorption capacity of the palm ash was determined with the Langmuir equation and found to be 400.01mg dye per gram adsorbent at 30 degrees C. The rates of adsorption were found to conform to the pseudo-second-order kinetics with good correlation. The results indicate that the palm ash could be employed as a low-cost alternative to commercial activated carbon.
    Matched MeSH terms: Waste Disposal, Fluid/methods
  12. Ahmad AL, Ismail S, Bhatia S
    Environ Sci Technol, 2005 Apr 15;39(8):2828-34.
    PMID: 15884382
    The coagulation-flocculation process incorporated with membrane separation technology will become a new approach for palm oil mill effluent (POME) treatment as well as water reclamation and reuse. In our current research, a membrane pilot plant has been used for POME treatment where the coagulation-flocculation process plays an important role as a pretreatment process for the mitigation of membrane fouling problems. The pretreated POME with low turbidity values and high water recovery are the main objectives to be achieved through the coagulation-flocculation process. Therefore, treatment optimization to serve these purposes was performed using jar tests and applying a response surface methodology (RSM) to the results. A 2(3) full-factorial central composite design (CCD) was chosen to explain the effect and interaction of three factors: coagulant dosage, flocculent dosage, and pH. The CCD is successfully demonstrated to efficiently determine the optimized parameters, where 78% of water recovery with a 20 NTU turbidity value can be obtained at the optimum value of coagulant dosage, flocculent dosage, and pH at 15 000 mg/L, 300 mg/L, and 6, respectively.
    Matched MeSH terms: Waste Disposal, Fluid/methods*
  13. Ahmad AL, Sumathi S, Hameed BH
    Water Res, 2005 Jul;39(12):2483-94.
    PMID: 15985277
    The adsorption of residue oil from palm oil mill effluent (POME) using chitosan powder and flake has been investigated. POME contains about 2g/l of residue oil, which has to be treated efficiently before it can be discharged. Experiments were carried out as a function of different initial concentrations of residue oil, weight dosage, contact time and pH of chitosan in powder and flake form to obtain the optimum conditions for the adsorption of residue oil from POME. The powder form of chitosan exhibited a greater rate compared to the flake type. The results obtained showed that chitosan powder, at a dosage of 0.5g/l, 15min of contact time and a pH value of 5.0, presented the most suitable conditions for the adsorption of residue oil from POME. The adsorption process performed almost 99% of residue oil removal from POME. Equilibrium studies have been carried out to determine the capacity of chitosan for the adsorption of residue oil from POME using the optimum conditions from the flocculation at different initial concentrations of residue oil. Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption models were applied to describe the experimental isotherms and isotherm constants. Equilibrium data fitted very well with the Freundlich model. The pseudo first- and second-order kinetic models and intraparticle diffusion model were used to describe the kinetic data and the rate constants were evaluated. The experimental data fitted well with the second-order kinetic model, which indicates that the chemical sorption is the rate-limiting step, i.e. chemisorption between residue oil and chitosan. The significant uptake of residue oil on chitosan was further proved by BET surface area analysis and SEM micrographs.
    Matched MeSH terms: Waste Disposal, Fluid/methods*
  14. Ahmad T, Rafatullah M, Ghazali A, Sulaiman O, Hashim R
    PMID: 21929380 DOI: 10.1080/10590501.2011.601847
    This article presents a review on the role of oil palm biomass (trunks, fronds, leaves, empty fruit bunches, shells, etc.) as adsorbents in the removal of water pollutants such as acid and basic dyes, heavy metals, phenolic compounds, various gaseous pollutants, and so on. Numerous studies on adsorption properties of various low-cost adsorbents, such as agricultural wastes and its based activated carbons, have been reported in recent years. Studies have shown that oil palm-based adsorbent, among the low-cost adsorbents mentioned, is the most promising adsorbent for removing water pollutants. Further, these bioadsorbents can be chemically modified for better efficiency and can undergo multiple reuses to enhance their applicability at an industrial scale. It is evident from a literature survey of more than 100 recent papers that low-cost adsorbents have demonstrated outstanding removal capabilities for various pollutants. The conclusion is been drawn from the reviewed literature, and suggestions for future research are proposed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Waste Disposal, Fluid/methods*
  15. Ahmad T, Rafatullah M, Ghazali A, Sulaiman O, Hashim R, Ahmad A
    PMID: 21069614 DOI: 10.1080/10590501.2010.525782
    In this review article, the use of various low-cost adsorbents for the removal of pesticides from water and wastewater has been reviewed. Pesticides may appear as pollutants in water sources, having undesirable impacts to human health because of their toxicity, carcinogenicity, and mutagenicity or causing aesthetic problems such as taste and odors. These pesticides pollute the water stream and it can be removed very effectively using different low-cost adsorbents. It is evident from a literature survey of about 191 recently published papers that low-cost adsorbents have demonstrated outstanding removal capabilities for pesticides.
    Matched MeSH terms: Waste Disposal, Fluid/methods*
  16. Ahmad T, Danish M, Rafatullah M, Ghazali A, Sulaiman O, Hashim R, et al.
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2012 Jun;19(5):1464-84.
    PMID: 22207239 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-011-0709-8
    BACKGROUND: In tropical countries, the palm tree is one of the most abundant and important trees. Date palm is a principal fruit grown in many regions of the world. It is abundant, locally available and effective material that could be used as an adsorbent for the removal of different pollutants from aqueous solution.

    REVIEW: This article presents a review on the role of date palm as adsorbents in the removal of unwanted materials such as acid and basic dyes, heavy metals, and phenolic compounds. Many studies on adsorption properties of various low cost adsorbent, such as agricultural waste and activated carbons based on agricultural waste have been reported in recent years.

    CONCLUSION: Studies have shown that date palm-based adsorbents are the most promising adsorbents for removing unwanted materials. No previous review is available where researchers can get an overview of the adsorption capacities of date palm-based adsorbent used for the adsorption of different pollutants. This review provides the recent literature demonstrating the usefulness of date palm biomass-based adsorbents in the adsorption of various pollutants.

    Matched MeSH terms: Waste Disposal, Fluid/methods*
  17. Ahmad WA, Zakaria ZA, Khasim AR, Alias MA, Ismail SM
    Bioresour Technol, 2010 Jun;101(12):4371-8.
    PMID: 20185301 DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2010.01.106
    The enzymatic reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) by Cr(VI) resistant bacteria followed by chemical precipitation constitutes the ChromeBac system. Acinetobacter haemolyticus was immobilized onto carrier material inside a 0.2m(3) bioreactor. Neutralized electroplating wastewater with Cr(VI) concentration of 17-81 mg L(-1) was fed into the bioreactor (0.11-0.33 m(3)h(-1)). Complete Cr(VI) reduction to Cr(III) was obtained immediately after the start of bioreactor operation. Together with the flocculation, coagulation and filtration, outflow concentration of less than 0.02 mg Cr(VI)L(-1) and 1mg total CrL(-1) were always obtained. Performance of the bioreactor was not affected by fluctuations in pH (6.2-8.4), Cr(VI) (17-81 mg L(-1)), nutrient (liquid pineapple waste, 1-20%v/v) and temperature (30-38 degrees C). Standby periods of up to 10 days can be tolerated without loss in activity. A robust yet effective biotechnology to remove chromium from wastewater is thus demonstrated.
    Matched MeSH terms: Waste Disposal, Fluid/methods*
  18. Akinbile CO, Yusoff MS, Ahmad Zuki AZ
    Waste Manag, 2012 Jul;32(7):1387-93.
    PMID: 22456086 DOI: 10.1016/j.wasman.2012.03.002
    Performance evaluation of pilot scale sub-surface constructed wetlands was carried out in treating leachate from Pulau Burung Sanitary Landfill (PBSL). The constructed wetland was planted with Cyperus haspan with sand and gravel used as substrate media. The experiment was operated for three weeks retention time and during the experimentation, the influent and effluent samples were tested for its pH, turbidity, color, total suspended solid (TSS), chemical oxygen demand (COD), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD(5)), ammonia nitrogen (NH(3)-N), Total phosphorus (TP), total nitrogen (TN) and also for heavy metals such as iron (Fe), magnesium (Mg), manganese (Mn) and zinc (Zn) concentrations. The results showed that the constructed wetlands with C. haspan were capable of removing 7.2-12.4% of pH, 39.3-86.6% of turbidity, 63.5-86.6% of color, 59.7-98.8% of TSS, 39.2-91.8% of COD, 60.8-78.7% of BOD(5), 29.8-53.8% of NH(3)-N, 59.8-99.7% of TP, 33.8-67.0% of TN, 34.9-59.0% of Fe, 29.0-75.0% of Mg, 51.2-70.5% of Mn, and 75.9-89.4% of Zn. The significance of removal was manifested in the quality of the effluent obtained at the end of the study. High removal efficiencies in the study proved that leachate could be treated effectively using subsurface constructed wetlands with C. haspan plant.
    Matched MeSH terms: Waste Disposal, Fluid/methods
  19. Al-Amrani WA, Lim PE, Seng CE, Ngah WS
    Water Res, 2012 Dec 1;46(19):6419-29.
    PMID: 23062787 DOI: 10.1016/j.watres.2012.09.014
    In this study, the operational factors affecting the bioregeneration of AO7-loaded MAMS particles in batch system, namely redox condition, initial acclimated biomass concentration, shaking speed and type of acclimated biomass were investigated. The results revealed that with the use of mixed culture acclimated to AO7 under anoxic/aerobic conditions, enhancement of the bioregeneration efficiency of AO7-loaded MAMS and the total removal efficiency of COD could be achieved when the bio-decolorization and bio-mineralization stages were fully aerated with dissolved oxygen above 7 mg/L. Shorter duration of bioregeneration was achieved by using relatively higher initial biomass concentration and lower shaking speed, respectively, whereas variations of biomass concentration and shaking speed did not have a pronounced effect on the bioregeneration efficiency. The duration and efficiency of bioregeneration process were greatly affected by the chemical structures of mono-azo dyes to which the biomasses were acclimated.
    Matched MeSH terms: Waste Disposal, Fluid/methods*
  20. Al-Amri A, Salim MR, Aris A
    Water Sci Technol, 2011;64(7):1398-405.
    PMID: 22179635 DOI: 10.2166/wst.2011.421
    A study has been carried out to define the effect of drastic temperature changes on the performance of lab-scale hollow-fibre MBR in treating municipal wastewater at a flux of 10 L m(-2) h(-1) (LMH). The objectives of the study were to estimate the activated sludge properties, the removal efficiencies of COD and NH(3)-N and the membrane fouling tendency under critical conditions of drastic temperature changes (23, 33, 42 & 33 °C) and MLSS concentration ranged between 6,382 and 8,680 mg/L. The study exhibited that the biomass reduction, the low sludge settleability and the supernatant turbidity were results of temperature increase. The temperature increase led to increase in SMP carbohydrate and protein, and to decrease in EPS carbohydrate and protein. The BRE of COD dropped from 80% at 23 °C to 47% at 42 °C, while the FRE was relatively constant at about 90%. Both removal efficiencies of NH(3)-N trended from about 100% at 33 °C to less than 50% at 42 °C. TMP and BWP ascended critically with temperature increase up to 336 and 304 mbar respectively by the end of the experiment. The values of suspended solids (SS) and the turbidity in the final effluent were negligible. The DO in the mixed liquor was varying with temperature change, while the pH was within the range of 6.7-8.3.
    Matched MeSH terms: Waste Disposal, Fluid/methods
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