Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) have attracted the attention of academia and industry because of their plastic-like properties and biodegradability. However, practical applications as a commodity material have not materialized because of their high production cost and unsatisfactory mechanical properties. PHAs are also believed to have high-value applications as an absorbable biomaterial for tissue engineering and drug-delivery devices because of their biocompatibility. However, research in these areas is still in its very early stages. The main problem faced by proponents of PHAs is the lack of a niche area where PHAs will be the most desired material in terms of its function during use rather than because of its eco-friendly virtues after use. Here, we report on the oil-absorbing property of PHA films and its potential applications. By comparing with some of the existing commercial products, the potential application of PHAs as cosmetic oil-blotting films is revealed for the first time. Besides having the ability to rapidly absorb and retain oil, PHA films also have a natural oil-indicator property, showing obvious changes in opacity following oil absorption. Surface analysis revealed that the surface structures such as porosity and smoothness exert great influence on the rapid oil-absorption properties of the PHA films. These newly discovered properties could be exploited to create a niche area for the practical applications of PHAs.
Chitosan (beta-1, 4-D-glucosamine) is a deacetylated form of chitin with excellent biological properties in wound management. The natural properties of chitosan have the physical and chemical limitations to be widely used in biomedical fields. The improvement of the physical and chemical properties of chitosan with some additional chemicals will alter its biocompatibility. Therefore, the biological attribute of the modified chitosan must be evaluated. In this study, the cytotoxicity of oligo-chitosan (OC) and N, O- carboxymethyl-chitosan (NO-CMC) derivatives (O-C 1%, O-C 5%, NO-CMC 1% and NO-CMC 5%) was evaluated using primary normal human epidermal keratinocyte (pNHEK) cultures as an in vitro toxicology model at standardized cell passages (fourth passages). 3-[4, 5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl]-2, 5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) was used as a cell viability assay. The O-C 1% is one of the most compatible chitosan derivatives because it steadily sustained >70% of viable cells until 72 hr post-treatment. This was followed by O-C 5%, NO-CMC 5% and NO-CMC 1%. Therefore, oligo-chitosan had the ideal properties of a biocompatible material compared to N, O- carboxymethyl-chitosan in this study.
Use of synthetic hydroxyapatite (HA) in biomedical applications is well warranted. It has shown to have an excellent biocompatibility in human tooth and bones. Additionally it has been documented to possess antibacterial potentials. The present study was conducted to assess the presence of any such potential in locally produced (HA) using Streptococcus mutans, a common pathogen in the oral cavity. The study was carried out using 50, 100, 150, 200, 300, 400 and 800 mg/ml concentration of HA. The antibacterial property of HA was assessed using Miles and Misra method. Our studies showed that bacterial growth inhibitions of S. mutans occurred from 50 mg/ml, and complete inhibition was perceived at concentrations at 200mg/ml of HA. The antibacterial property HA should be used to good advantage as a bioactive biomaterial in dental and maxillofacial applications.
The sintering behaviour of a commercial HA and synthesized HA was investigated over the temperature range of 700 degrees C to 1400 degrees C in terms of phase stability, bulk density, Young's modulus and Vickers hardness. In the present research, a wet chemical precipitation reaction was successfully employed to synthesize a submicron, highly crystalline, high purity and single phase stoichiometric HA powder that is highly sinteractive particularly at low temperature regimes below 1100 degrees C. It has been revealed that the sinterability of the synthesized HA was significantly greater than that of the commercial HA. The temperature for the onset of sintering and the temperature required to achieve densities above 98% of theoretical value were approximately 150 degrees C lower for the synthesized HA than the equivalent commercial HA. Nevertheless, decomposition of HA phase upon sintering was not observed in the present work for both powders.
This study was conducted based on the hypothesis that mineral and physicochemical properties of cockle shells similarly resemble the properties of corals (Porites sp.). Hence, the mineral and physicochemical evaluations of cockle shells were conducted to support the aforementioned hypothesis. The results indicated that cockle shells and coral exoskeleton shared similar mineral and physicochemical properties.
The incorporation of magnesium ions into the calcium phosphate structure is of great interest for the development of artificial bone implants. This paper investigates the preparation of magnesium-doped biphasic calcium phosphate (Mg-BCP) via sol gel method at various concentrations of added Mg. The effect of calcinations temperature (ranging from 500 degrees C to 900 degrees C) and concentrations of Mg incorporated into BCP has been studied by the aid of XRD, TGA and infrared spectroscopy (IR) in transmittance mode analysis. The study indicated that the powder was pure BCP and Mg-BCP with 100% purity and high crystallinity. The results also indicated that beta-tricalcium phosphate (beta-TCP) phase can be observed when the powder was calcined at 800 degrees C and above.
Tricalcium phosphate ceramic microcarrier has been developed and introduced to a new possibility for the culture of anchorage dependent animal cells of DF1. It was observed that the number of attached cells was increased with shorter time for both spinner vessel and stirred tank (ST) bioreactor. For those bioreactors, the total viable cell number that had been obtained is about 1.2 x 10(5) cell/ml.
Biofilms are adherent, multi-layered colonies of bacteria that are typically more resistant to the host immune response and routine antibiotic therapy. HA biomaterial comprises of a single-phased hydroxyapatite scaffold with interconnected pore structure. The device is designed as osteoconductive space filler to be gently packed into bony voids or gaps following tooth extraction or any surgical procedure. Gentamycin-coated biomaterial (locally made hydroxyapatite) was evaluated to reduce or eradicate the biofilm on the implant materials. The results indicated that the HA coated with gentamycin was biocompatible to human osteoblast cell line and the biofilm has been reduced after being treated with different concentrations of gentamycin-coated hydroxyapatite (HA).
Chondrocytes were isolated from articular cartilage biopsy and were cultivated in vitro. Approximately 30 million of cultured chondrocytes per ml were incorporated with autologous plasma-derived fibrin to form three-dimensional construct. Full-thickness punch hole defects were created in lateral and medial femoral condyles. The defects were implanted either with the autologous 'chondrocytes-fibrin' construct (ACFC), autologous chondrocytes (ACI) or fibrin blank (AF). Sheep were euthanized after 12 weeks. The gross morphology of all defects treated with ACFC implantation, ACI and AF exhibited median scores which correspond to a nearly normal appearance according to the International Cartilage Repair Society (ICRS) classification. ACFC significantly enhanced cartilage repair compared to ACI and AF in accordance with the modified O'Driscoll histological scoring scale. The relative sulphated glycosaminoglycans content (%) was significantly higher (p < 0.05) in ACFC when compared to control groups; ACI vs. fibrin only vs. untreated (blank). Results showed that ACFC implantation exhibited superior cartilage-like tissue regeneration compared to ACI. If the result is applicable to the human, it possibly will improve the existing treatment approaches for cartilage restoration in orthopaedic surgery.
Previously, we have proven that fibrin and poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) scaffolds facilitate cell proliferation, matrix production and early chondrogenesis of rabbit articular chondrocytes in in vitro and in vivo experiments. In this study, we evaluated the potential of fibrin/PLGA scaffold for intervertebral disc (IVD) tissue engineering using annulus fibrosus (AF) and nucleus pulposus (NP) cells in relation to potential clinical application. PLGA scaffolds were soaked in cells-fibrin suspension and polymerized by dropping thrombin-sodium chloride (CaCl(2)) solution. A PLGA-cell complex without fibrin was used as control. Higher cellular proliferation activity was observed in fibrin/PLGA-seeded AF and NP cells at each time point of 3, 7, 14 and 7 days using the MTT assay. After 3 weeks in vitro incubation, fibrin/PLGA exhibited a firmer gross morphology than PLGA groups. A significant cartilaginous tissue formation was observed in fibrin/PLGA, as proven by the development of cells cluster of various sizes and three-dimensional (3D) cartilaginous histoarchitecture and the presence of proteoglycan-rich matrix and glycosaminoglycan (GAG). The sGAG production measured by 1,9-dimethylmethylene blue (DMMB) assay revealed greater sGAG production in fibrin/PLGA than PLGA group. Immunohistochemical analyses showed expressions of collagen type II, aggrecan core protein and collagen type I genes throughout in vitro culture in both fibrin/PLGA and PLGA. In conclusion, fibrin promotes cell proliferation, stable in vitro tissue morphology, superior cartilaginous tissue formation and sGAG production of AF and NP cells cultured in PLGA scaffold. The 3D porous PLGA scaffold-cell complexes using fibrin can provide a vehicle for delivery of cells to regenerate tissue-engineered IVD tissue.
The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that the proliferation of a human osteoblast cell line (HOS cells) stimulated with hydroxyapatite (HA) may be regulated by nitric oxide (NO). The cells were cultured on the surface of HA. Medium or cells alone were used as controls. L-arginine, D-arginine, 7-NI (an nNOS inhibitor), L-NIL (an iNOS inhibitor), L-NIO (an eNOS inhibitor) or carboxy PTIO, a NO scavenger, was added in the HA-exposed cell cultures. The cells were also precoated with anti-human integrin alphaV antibody. The levels of nitrite were determined spectrophotometrically. Cell proliferation was assessed by colorimetric assay. The results showed increased nitrite production and cell proliferation by HA-stimulated HOS cells up to day 3 of cultures. Anti-integrin alphaV antibody, L-NIO, or carboxy PTIO suppressed, but L-arginine enhanced, nitrite production and cell proliferation of HA-stimulated HOS cells. The results of the present study suggest, therefore, that interaction between HA and HOS cell surface integrin alphaV molecule may activate eNOS to catalyze NO production which, in turn, may regulate the cell proliferation in an autocrine fashion.
Skin grafts are indicated when there is a major loss of skin. Full-thickness skin graft is an ideal choice to reconstruct defect of irregular surface that is difficult to immobilize. Full-thickness mesh grafts can be applied to patch large skin defect when there is less donor site in extensively traumatized and burned surgical patients. The concept of using natural biomaterials such as keratin, basic fibroblast growth factor is slowly gaining popularity in the field of medical research to achieve early healing. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of gelatin conjoined with keratin processed from the poultry feather and commercially available basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) as a sandwich layer in promoting the viability of full-thickness skin mesh grafts. The efficacy was assessed from the observation of clinical, bacteriological, and histopathological findings in three groups of experimental dogs. The clinical observations such as color, appearance and discharge, and hair growth were selected as criteria which indicated good and early acceptance of graft in keratin-gelatin (group II). On bacteriological examination, Staphylococcus aureus and Proteus was identified in few animals. Histopathological study of the patched graft revealed early presences of hair follicles; sebaceous gland, and normal thickness of the epidermis in keratin-gelatin in group II treated animals compared with other group (group I-control, group III-bFGF-gelatin).
One of the ultimate goals of wound healing research is to find effective healing techniques that utilize the regeneration of similar tissues. This involves the modification of various wound dressing biomaterials for proper wound management. The biopolymer chitosan (beta-1,4-D-glucosamine) has natural biocompatibility and biodegradability that render it suitable for wound management. By definition, a biocompatible biomaterial does not have toxic or injurious effects on biological systems. Chemical and physical modifications of chitosan influence its biocompatibility and biodegradability to an uncertain degree. Hence, the modified biomedical-grade of chitosan derivatives should be pre-examined in vitro in order to produce high-quality, biocompatible dressings. In vitro toxicity examinations are more favorable than those performed in vivo, as the results are more reproducible and predictive. In this paper, basic in vitro tools were used to evaluate cellular and molecular responses with regard to the biocompatibility of biomedical-grade chitosan. Three paramount experimental parameters of biocompatibility in vitro namely cytocompatibility, genotoxicity and skin pro-inflammatory cytokine expression, were generally reviewed for biomedical-grade chitosan as wound dressing.
A poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) hydrogel composite scaffold containing N,O-carboxymethylated chitosan (NOCC) was tested to assess its potential as a scaffold for cartilage tissue engineering in a weight-bearing environment. The mechanical properties under unconfined compression for different hydration periods were investigated. The effect of supplementing PVA with NOCC (20wt.% PVA:5vol.% NOCC) produced a porosity of 43.3% and this was compared against a non-porous PVA hydrogel (20g PVA: 100ml of water, control). Under non-hydrated conditions, the porous PVA-NOCC hydrogel behaved in a similar way to the control non-porous PVA hydrogel, with similar non-linear stress-strain response under unconfined compression (0-30% strain). After 7days' hydration, the porous hydrogel demonstrated a reduced stiffness (0.002kPa, at 25% strain), resulting in a more linear stiffness relationship over a range of 0-30% strain. Poisson's ratio for the hydrated non-porous and porous hydrogels ranged between 0.73 and 1.18, and 0.76 and 1.33, respectively, suggesting a greater fluid flow when loaded. The stress relaxation function for the porous hydrogel was affected by the hydration period (from 0 to 600s); however the percentage stress relaxation regained by about 95%, after 1200s for all hydration periods assessed. No significant differences were found between the different hydration periods between the porous hydrogels and control. The calculated aggregate modulus, H(A), for the porous hydrogel reduced drastically from 10.99kPa in its non-hydrated state to about 0.001kPa after 7days' hydration, with the calculated shear modulus reducing from 30.92 to 0.14kPa, respectively. The porous PVA-NOCC hydrogel conformed to a biphasic, viscoelastic model, which has the desired properties required for any scaffold in cartilage tissue engineering.
The kinetic and thermodynamic adsorption and adsorption isotherms of Pb(II) and Cu(II) ions onto H(2)SO(4) modified chitosan were studied in a batch adsorption system. The experimental results were fitted using Freundlich, Langmuir and Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherms; the Langmuir isotherm showed the best conformity to the equilibrium data. The pseudo-first order, pseudo-second order and intraparticle diffusion kinetic models were employed to analyze the kinetic data. The adsorption behavior of Pb(II) and Cu(II) was best described by the pseudo-second order model. Thermodynamic parameters such as free energy change (DeltaG degrees ), enthalpy change (DeltaH degrees ) and entropy change (DeltaS degrees ) were determined; the adsorption process was found to be both spontaneous and exothermic. No physical damage to the adsorbents was observed after three cycles of adsorption/desorption using EDTA and HCl as eluents. The mechanistic pathway of the Pb(II) and Cu(II) uptake was examined by means of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and Energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy. The equilibrium parameter (R(L)) indicated that chitosan-H(2)SO(4) was favorable for Pb(II) and Cu(II) adsorption.
Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) are naturally occurring biopolyesters that have great potential in the medical field. However, the leachables resulting from sterilization process of the biomaterials may exert toxic effect including genetic damage. Here, we demonstrate that although gamma-irradiation of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-50 mol % 4-hydroxybutyrate) [P(3HB-co-4HB)] did not cause any change in the morphology by scanning electron microscopy, there was a significant degradation of this copolymer where the molecular weight was reduced by 37% after sterilization indicating the generation of leachables. Therefore, further investigation on the ability of the extract of this poststerilized copolymer to induce mutagenic effect was performed using Ames test (S. typhimurium strains TA1535 and TA1537) and umu test (S. typhimurium strain TA1535/pSK1002). Additionally, the capability of the extract to induce clastogenic effect was determined using Chinese hamster lung V79 fibroblast cells. Our results showed that with and without the presence of S9 metabolic activation, no mutagenic effects were observed in both Ames and umu tests when treated with P(3HB-co-4HB) extract. Similarly, treatment of P(3HB-co-4HB) extract in V79 fibroblast cells showed no significant production of micronuclei when compared with the positive control (Mitomycin C). Together, these results indicate that leachables of poststerilized P(3HB-co-4HB) cause no mutagenic and clastogenic effects.
The consequence of postoperative infections associated with orthopaedic or biomaterial-associated implants is devastating to both the patients and the surgeons. Bacterial microcolonies adhere to the surface of implants, forming biofilms and then detaching part of itself into free-floating planktonic forms may be the cause of recurrent and persistent infections. These bacteria are very resistant towards antibiotics and require a higher drug concentration than usual in order to eradicate them. Quorem-sensing is regarded as one mechanism of communication or integration between these microorganisms in the biofilm and may even be in the transfer of resistant genes. Disruption of this pathway is regarded as one method of inhibiting its growth and formation. Implant design, technique and stability of fixation as well as the surface characteristics, the material and its biocompatibility may also influence bacterial adhesion. It has been suggested that multi-prong strategies such as prevention and disruption of biofilm formation, parenteral antibiotics, use of antibiotic-impregnated construction materials and altering the intrinsic properties of the implant surface may help to eradicate this menace.
A process to produce calcium phosphate biomaterial was done using an organic based diethylhexyl phosphoric acid (DEHPA) as its starting material. The gel obtained from this reaction was used to study calcium phosphate transformation using in-situ XRD with temperature ranges from room temperature to 1300 o C. The results obtained from this analysis show the following phase transformation sequence gel > β-Ca2P2O7 > β-TCP + HA > α-TCP + HA. β-Ca2P2O7 was formed at 400 o C and the sample when heated up to 1000 o C, peaks of β- TCP and HA appeared showing the transformation of the β-Ca2P2O7 phase. When the sample was heated up further to 1200 o C, β-TCP transformed into α-TCP.
Biopolymer chitosan (beta-1,4-d-glucosamine) comprises the copolymer mixture of N-acetylglucosamine and glucosamine. The natural biocompatibility and biodegradability of chitosan have recently highlighted its potential use for applications in wound management. Chemical and physical modifications of chitosan influence its biocompatibility and biodegradability, but it is unknown as to what degree. Hence, the biocompatibility of the chitosan porous skin regenerating templates (PSRT 82, 87 and 108) was determined using an in vitro toxicology model at the cellular and molecular level on primary normal human epidermal keratinocytes (pNHEK). Cytocompatibility was accessed by using a 3-[4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl]-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay from 24 to 72h. To assess the genotoxicity of the PSRTs, DNA damage to the pNHEK was evaluated by using the Comet assay following direct contact with the various PSRTs. Furthermore, the skin pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-alpha and IL-8 were examined to evaluate the tendency of the PSRTs to provoke inflammatory responses. All PSRTs were found to be cytocompatible, but only PSRT 108 was capable of stimulating cell proliferation. While all of the PSRTs showed some DNA damage, PSRT 108 showed the least DNA damage followed by PSRT 87 and 82. PSRT 87 and 82 induced a higher secretion of TNF-alpha and IL-8 in the pNHEK cultures than did PSRT 108. Hence, based on our experiments, PSRT 108 is the most biocompatible wound dressing of the three tested.
A major weakness of current orthopedic implant materials, for instance sintered hydroxyapatite (HA), is that they exist as a hardened form, requiring the surgeon to fit the surgical site around an implant to the desired shape. This can cause an increase in bone loss, trauma to the surrounding tissue, and longer surgical time. A convenient alternative to harden bone filling materials are injectable bone substitutes (IBS). In this article, recent progress in the development and application of calcium phosphate (CP)-based composites use as IBS is reviewed. CP materials have been used widely for bone replacement because of their similarity to the mineral component of bone. The main limitation of bulk CP materials is their brittle nature and poor mechanical properties. There is significant effort to reinforce or improve the mechanical properties and injectability of calcium phosphate cement (CPC) and this review resumes different alternatives presented in this specialized literature.