Displaying publications 41 - 60 of 135 in total

  1. Khalilpour A, Sadjjadi SM, Moghadam ZK, Yunus MH, Zakaria ND, Osman S, et al.
    Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 2014 Nov;91(5):994-9.
    PMID: 25200268 DOI: 10.4269/ajtmh.14-0170
    Cystic echinococcosis (CE) caused by infection with Echinococcus granulosus is of major concern for humans in many parts of the world. Antigen B was prepared from E. granulosus hydatid fluid, and Western blots confirmed eight batches showing a band corresponding to the 8-/12-kDa subunit with positive serum and no low-molecular mass band (< 15 kDa) with negative serum. The batches were pooled and used to prepare lateral flow immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4) and IgG dipsticks. Diagnostic sensitivity was determined using serum samples from 21 hydatidosis patients, and diagnostic specificity was established using sera from 17 individuals infected with other parasites and 15 healthy people. IgG4 dipstick had a diagnostic sensitivity of 95% (20 of 21) and a specificity of 100% (32 of 32). The IgG dipstick had a sensitivity of 100% (21 of 21) and a specificity of 87.5% (28 of 32). Thus, both IgG and IgG4 dipsticks had high sensitivities, but IgG4 had greater specificity for the diagnosis of human CE.
    Matched MeSH terms: Immunoglobulin G/blood
  2. Syed-Hussain SS, Howe L, Pomroy WE, West DM, Smith SL, Williamson NB
    Vet. Parasitol., 2014 Jun 16;203(1-2):21-8.
    PMID: 24582279 DOI: 10.1016/j.vetpar.2014.01.003
    Recent reports indicate Neospora caninum has a possible role in causing abortions in sheep in New Zealand. Knowledge about the epidemiology of neosporosis in sheep is limited. This study aimed to adapt and validate a commercially available ELISA assay as an IgG avidity assay to discriminate between acute (primary and re-inoculated) and chronic N. caninum infections in sheep. In addition, it was used to compare the antibody avidity values between lambs from ewes inoculated with N. caninum either during the pregnancy or in the previous year. The avidity assay was undertaken by using 6M urea for the first wash after incubation with the primary antibody in the commercial ELISA (Chekit* Neospora antibody test kit, IDEXX Laboratories, Australia). Sequential serum samples were obtained from naïve ewes (n=16) experimentally inoculated with live N. caninum tachyzoites. All ewes were seropositive by two weeks post-inoculation and remained seropositive for 20 weeks post-inoculation. There was a linear relationship between time after inoculation and avidity values (p<0.05) over the first 24 weeks. In Week 4, all animals had avidity values <35% and by Week 8, 8/16 animals had avidity values of >35%. These results suggest that an avidity value of <35% indicates a recent primary infection while a value of >35% is indicative of a chronic infection. The assay was then validated using samples from other groups of experimentally inoculated sheep as well as samples from naturally infected ewes. When comparing sample to positive ratio (S/P) and avidity values from lambs born from recently inoculated ewes with those from ewes inoculated the previous year and re-inoculated in the current year, it was possible to differentiate the lambs at 2 weeks of age. Lambs from recently inoculated ewes had low S/P and avidity values at 2 weeks of age which increased by 12 weeks of age. In comparison, lambs from re-inoculated ewes had high S/P and avidity values at 2 weeks of age, due to maternal antibody influence but values were similar to those from lambs that were born from recently inoculated ewes at 12 weeks of age. Avidity values for four naturally infected ewes were all >60% indicating chronic infection. These results suggest that the assay is able to discriminate between recent and chronic infection in sheep as well as able to differentiate lambs with maternal immunity compared to their own de novo immunity. As such it can be utilized to understand the kinetics of N. caninum infection in sheep.
    Matched MeSH terms: Immunoglobulin G/blood
  3. Jahanshahi P, Zalnezhad E, Sekaran SD, Adikan FR
    Sci Rep, 2014 Jan 24;4:3851.
    PMID: 24458089 DOI: 10.1038/srep03851
    Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) is a medical diagnosis technique with high sensitivity and specificity. In this research, a new method based on SPR is proposed for rapid, 10-minute detection of the anti-dengue virus in human serum samples. This novel technique, known as rapid immunoglobulin M (IgM)-based dengue diagnostic test, can be utilized quickly and easily at the point of care. Four dengue virus serotypes were used as ligands on a biochip. According to the results, a serum volume of only 1 μl from a dengue patient (as a minimized volume) is required to indicate SPR angle variation to determine the ratio of each dengue serotype in samples with 83-93% sensitivity and 100% specificity.
    Matched MeSH terms: Immunoglobulin G/blood
  4. Tan CH, Sim SM, Gnanathasan CA, Fung SY, Tan NH
    Toxicon, 2014 Mar;79:37-44.
    PMID: 24412778 DOI: 10.1016/j.toxicon.2013.12.011
    The knowledge of venom pharmacokinetics is essential to improve the understanding of envenomation pathophysiology. Using a double-sandwich ELISA, this study investigated the pharmacokinetics of the venom of hump-nosed pit viper (Hypnale hypnale) following intravenous and intramuscular injections into rabbits. The pharmacokinetics of the venom injected intravenously fitted a three-compartment model. There is a rapid (t1/2π = 0.4 h) and a slow (t1/2α = 0.8 h) distribution phase, followed by a long elimination phase (t1/2β = 19.3 h) with a systemic clearance of 6.8 mL h(-1) kg(-1), consistent with the prolonged abnormal hemostasis reported in H. hypnale envenomation. On intramuscular route, multiple peak concentrations observed in the beginning implied a more complex venom absorption and/or distribution pattern. The terminal half-life, volume of distribution by area and systemic clearance of the venom injected intramuscularly were nevertheless not significantly different (p > 0.05) from that of the venom injected intravenously. The intramuscular bioavailability was exceptionally low (Fi.m. = 4%), accountable for the highly varied median lethal doses between intravenous and intramuscular envenomations in animals. The findings indicate that the intramuscular route of administration does not significantly alter the pharmacokinetics of H. hypnale venom although it significantly reduces the systemic bioavailability of the venom.
    Matched MeSH terms: Immunoglobulin G/blood
  5. Tan ZN, Wong WK, Noordin R, Zeehaida M, Olivos GA, Lim BH
    Trop Biomed, 2013 Jun;30(2):250-6.
    PMID: 23959490 MyJurnal
    Entamoeba histolytica causes amoebic diarrhoea, colitis and liver abscess (ALA). Diagnosis of ALA is difficult, as most patients do not have simultaneous intestinal amoebic infection. At Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (HUSM), diagnosis of ALA relies on a combination of clinical findings, ultrasound examination of the liver and serodiagnosis using a commercial kit. In this study, two in-house indirect ELISAs were developed and evaluated. One of the in-house assays utilises E. histolytica crude soluble antigen (CSA) to detect serum IgG specific to the parasite whereas the other uses E. histolytica ether extract antigen (EEA). Preparation of CSA requires a sonicator to lyse the amoeba whereas EEA was prepared by chemically solubilizing the trophozoites. Based on the cut-off value of mean optical density + 3SD, CSA-ELISA showed 100% (24/24) sensitivity and 93.33% (210/225) specificity; while EEA-ELISA showed 91.67% (22/24) sensitivity and 95.11% (214/225) specificity. In conclusion, both the in-house indirect ELISAs were found to be efficacious for diagnosis of ALA; and the EEA is easier to prepare than the commonly used CSA.
    Matched MeSH terms: Immunoglobulin G/blood
  6. Norsyahida A, Riazi M, Sadjjadi SM, Muhammad Hafiznur Y, Low HC, Zeehaida M, et al.
    Parasite Immunol., 2013 May-Jun;35(5-6):174-9.
    PMID: 23448095 DOI: 10.1111/pim.12029
    Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) were developed for the detection of IgG, IgG4 and IgE antibodies against Strongyloides stercoralis. A commercial ELISA (IVD Research, USA) was also used, and the sensitivities and specificities of the four assays were determined. Serum samples from 26 patients with S. stercoralis infection and 55 patients with other infections or no infection were analysed. Sensitivities of the IgG4 , IgG, IgE and IgG (IVD) assays were 76.9%, 84.6%, 7.7% and 84.6%, respectively, while the specificities were 92.7%, 81.8%, 100% and 83.6%, respectively. If filariasis samples were excluded, the specificities of the IgG4 -ELISA and both IgG-ELISAs increased to 100% and 98%, respectively. A significant positive correlation was observed between IgG- and IgG4 -ELISAs (r = 0.4828; P = 0.0125). IgG- and IgG- (IVD) ELISAs (r = 0.309) were positively correlated, but was not significant (P = 0.124). Meanwhile there was no correlation between IgG4 - and IgG- (IVD) ELISAs (r = 0.0042; P = 0.8294). Sera from brugian filariasis patients showed weak, positive correlation between the titres of antifilarial IgG4 and the optical densities of anti-Strongyloides IgG4 -ELISA (r = 0.4544, P = 0.0294). In conclusion, the detection of both anti-Strongyloides IgG4 and IgG antibodies could improve the serodiagnosis of human strongyloidiasis. Furthermore, patients from lymphatic filariasis endemic areas who are serologically diagnosed with strongyloidiasis should also be tested for filariasis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Immunoglobulin G/blood
  7. Kerishnan JP, Gopinath SC, Kai SB, Tang TH, Ng HL, Rahman ZA, et al.
    Int J Med Sci, 2016;13(6):424-31.
    PMID: 27279791 DOI: 10.7150/ijms.14475
    The association between human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) and oral cancer has been widely reported. However, detecting anti-HPV antibodies in patient sera to determine risk for oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) has not been well studied. In the present investigation, a total of 206 OSCC serum samples from the Malaysian Oral Cancer Database & Tissue Bank System, with 134 control serum samples, were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA) to detect HPV16-specific IgG and IgM antibodies. In addition, nested PCR analysis using comprehensive consensus primers (PGMY09/11 and GP5(+)/6(+)) was used to confirm the presence of HPV. Furthermore, we have evaluated the association of various additional causal factors (e.g., smoking, alcohol consumption, and betel quid chewing) in HPV-infected OSCC patients. Statistical analysis of the Malaysian population indicated that OSCC was more prevalent in female Indian patients that practices betel quid chewing. ELISA revealed that HPV16 IgG, which demonstrates past exposure, could be detected in 197 (95.6%) OSCC patients and HPV16-specific IgM was found in a total of 42 (20.4%) OSCC patients, indicating current exposure. Taken together, our study suggest that HPV infection may play a significant role in OSCC (OR: 13.6; 95% CI: 3.89-47.51) and HPV16-specific IgG and IgM antibodies could represent a significant indicator of risk factors in OSCC patients.
    Matched MeSH terms: Immunoglobulin G/blood*
  8. Tay ST, Rohani MY, Ho TM, Devi S
    PMID: 12693591
    The seroprevalence of various Orientia tsutsugamushi (OT) strains among Malaysian patients with suspected scrub typhus infections was determined using an indirect immunoperoxidase (IIP) assay. IgG against a single OT strain were detected in six sera (3 Karp, 1 Gilliam and 2 TC586), whereas IgM antibodies against a single OT strain (Gilliam) were noted in 3 sera (Gilliam). IgG reactive to all OT strains were present in 33 (47.1%) of the 70 sera and IgM reactive to all OT strains were present in 22 (78.6%) of the 28 sera. The fact that most sera were reactive to multiple OT strains suggests that group-specific antigens are involved in scrub typhus infections, whereas very few were due to strain-specific epitopes present on these strains. Peak IgG and IgM titers were noted more frequently against Gilliam, Karp, and TA763 strains: this suggests that these strains may be the commonest infecting strains among Malaysian patients. Two predominant OT polypeptides consistently reacted with patients' sera were the 70 kDa and 56 kDa proteins.
    Matched MeSH terms: Immunoglobulin G/blood
  9. Koh WP, Taylor MB, Chew SK, Phoon MC, Kang KL, Chow VT
    J Microbiol Immunol Infect, 2003 Sep;36(3):169-74.
    PMID: 14582560
    There is still substantial uncertainty concerning the association between Chlamydia pneumoniae and ischemic heart disease. This may partly be explained by the adjustment for potential confounders in different population studies. This is the first study in Singapore to look at the association of C. pneumoniae seropositivity with ischemic heart disease in a multivariate analysis. A random sample of 714 persons aged between 35 and 69 years was selected from the participants of the Singapore National Health Survey conducted in 1998. Data on clinical measurements and conditions were collected using biochemical tests and interviewer-based questionnaires. Ischemic heart disease was defined by the Rose questionnaire and included history suggestive of angina and/or myocardial infarction. Immunoglobulin G antibodies for C. pneumoniae were detected using an indirect microimmunofluorescence test, and seropositivity was defined as IgG titers > or = 1:16. There were no statistically significant differences in the prevalence rates of seropositivity to C. pneumoniae among the three ethnic groups, that is, Chinese (80.4%), Malays (74.0%), and Asian Indians (73.2%). There was no association between seropositivity and ischemic heart disease after adjustment for age alone (OR 1.00, 95% CI 0.54-1.83) or for age, sex, and other risk factors of atherosclerosis (OR 0.99, 95% CI 0.53-1.84). C. pneumoniae Immunoglobulin G seropositivity was not associated with an increased risk of ischemic heart disease as defined by the Rose angina questionnaire in Singapore.
    Matched MeSH terms: Immunoglobulin G/blood*
  10. Chow VT, Tambyah PA, Yeo WM, Phoon MC, Howe J
    J. Clin. Virol., 2000 Dec;19(3):143-7.
    PMID: 11090749
    BACKGROUND: between 1998 and 1999, an outbreak of potentially fatal viral encephalitis erupted among pig farm workers in West Malaysia, and later spread to Singapore where abattoir workers were afflicted. Although Japanese encephalitis virus was initially suspected, the predominant aetiologic agent was subsequently confirmed to be Nipah virus, a novel paramyxovirus related to but distinct from Hendra virus.

    OBJECTIVE: to describe a case of Nipah virus encephalitis in a pig farm worker from Malaysia.

    STUDY DESIGN: the clinical, laboratory and radiological findings of this patient were scrutinized. Special emphasis was placed on the electron microscopic analysis of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) specimen from this patient.

    RESULTS: the neurological deficits indicative of cerebellar involvement were supported by the magnetic resonance imaging that showed prominent cerebellar and brainstem lesions. CSF examination provided further evidence of viral encephalitis. Complement fixation and/or RT-PCR assays were negative for Japanese encephalitis, herpes simplex, measles and mumps viruses. ELISA for detecting IgM and IgG antibodies against Hendra viral antigens were equivocal for the CSF specimen, and tested initially negative for the first serum sample but subsequently positive for the repeat serum sample. Transmission electron microscopy of negatively-stained preparations of CSF revealed enveloped virus-like structures fringed with surface projections as well as nucleocapsids with distinctive helical and herringbone patterns, features consistent with those of other paramyxoviruses, including Hendra virus.

    CONCLUSION: this case report reiterates the relevant and feasible role of diagnostic electron microscopy for identifying and/or classifying novel or emerging viral pathogens for which sufficiently specific and sensitive tests are lacking.

    Matched MeSH terms: Immunoglobulin G/blood
  11. Kit Lam S, Lan Ew C, Mitchell JL, Cuzzubbo AJ, Devine PL
    Clin. Diagn. Lab. Immunol., 2000 Sep;7(5):850-2.
    PMID: 10973469
    A commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) (PanBio Dengue Screening ELISA) that utilized both immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgG capture in the same microtiter well for the diagnosis of dengue infection was evaluated. Sensitivity in primary and secondary dengue was 95%, while specificity was 94%.
    Matched MeSH terms: Immunoglobulin G/blood*
  12. Rahmah N, Lim BH, Khairul Anuar A, Shenoy RK, Kumaraswami V, Lokman Hakim S, et al.
    Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg., 2001 8 9;95(3):280-4.
    PMID: 11490997
    An IgG4 ELISA based on a novel recombinant antigen was evaluated for detection of Brugia malayi infection, using 2487 sera from various institutions: 2031 samples from Universiti Sains Malaysia, 276 blinded sera from 2 other institutions in Malaysia, 140 blinded sera from India and 40 blinded sera from Thailand. These sera were from various groups of individuals, i.e., microfilaraemics, chronic patients, endemic normals, non-endemic normals and individuals with other parasitic and bacterial infections. Based on a cut-off optical density reading of 0.300, the IgG4 ELISA demonstrated specificity rates of 95.6-100%, sensitivity rates of 96-100%, positive predictive values of 75-100% and negative predictive values of 98.9-100%. These evaluation studies demonstrated the high specificity and sensitivity of this test for the detection of active B. malayi infection. Thus, the IgG4 ELISA would be very useful as a tool in diagnosis and in elimination programmes for brugian filariasis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Immunoglobulin G/blood*
  13. Chenthamarakshan V, Vadivelu J, Puthucheary SD
    Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis., 2001 Jan;39(1):1-7.
    PMID: 11173184
    IgM and IgG based ELISA systems were developed using the culture filtrate antigen (CFA) of Burkholderia pseudomallei. The assays were evaluated using 95 sera from 66 septicemic cases and 47 sera from 20 cases with localized melioidosis. In addition 65 sera from culture negative cases that were also serologically negative for other endemic infections clinically suspected of melioidosis were included. These were compared with sera from 260 non-melioidosis cases, 169 sera from individuals with high risk of acquiring the infection and 48 sera from healthy controls. The IgG-ELISA was 96% sensitive and 94% specific. All sera from cases with septicemic and localized infections and 61 of 63 sera from clinically suspected melioidosis cases were positive for IgG antibody. The geometric mean titre index (GMTI) values of IgG antibody in melioidosis cases were significantly higher (p < 0.0005) compared to that of healthy subjects, high risk group and subjects with non-melioidosis infections. The sensitivity and specificity of IgM ELISA was 74 and 99% respectively. The GMTI value of IgM antibody in the sera of melioidosis cases was significantly higher as compared to that of non-melioidosis disease controls (p < or = 0.001). These results demonstrate that the detection of IgG is a better indicator of the disease in the diagnosis of melioidosis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Immunoglobulin G/blood*
  14. Choo KE, Davis TM, Ismail A, Tuan Ibrahim TA, Ghazali WN
    Acta Trop., 1999 Mar 15;72(2):175-83.
    PMID: 10206117
    The Typhidot test, which detects IgM and IgG antibodies to a Salmonella typhi-specific outer membrane protein, is as sensitive as, and more specific than, the Widal test in the diagnosis of enteric fever in Malaysian children. It is easier and quicker to perform. In order to increase diagnostic accuracy in an area of high endemicity, the Typhidot-M test has been developed in which IgG is first removed. This theoretically allows improved detection of IgM, and thus would differentiate new from recent infections. We evaluated both tests in 134 unselected febrile children admitted to the General Hospital Kota Bharu, Malaysia. The children were divided into two groups: (i) those who were blood and/or stool culture positive for S. typhi and/or who had clinical features strongly suggestive of enteric fever (n = 62); and (ii) those who were both culture-negative and had clinical evidence of another diagnosis (n = 72). The sensitivity and specificity of the Typhidot and Typhidot-M tests were identical at 90.3 and 93.1%, respectively. Both tests had comparable sensitivity but greater specificity than those of the Widal test (91.9 and 80.6%, respectively). When used together, a positive result for Typhidot and/or Typhidot-M was more specific than either test alone (95.2%) but specificity was lower (87.5%). We conclude that the Typhidot and Typhidot-M tests have comparatively high diagnostic accuracy, suggesting that IgM can be detected in children who may have a predominant IgG response to S. typhi. Using these tests in combination increases the negative predictive value but at the cost of a lower positive predictive value.
    Matched MeSH terms: Immunoglobulin G/blood
  15. Yusof Z, Porter SR, Greenman J, Scully C
    J Nihon Univ Sch Dent, 1995 Dec;37(4):197-200.
    PMID: 8820338
    Levels of serum IgG against Porphyromonas gingivalis cell sonicate were determined in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) (n = 25), rapidly progressive periodontitis (RPP)(n = 25) and adult periodontitis (AP)(n = 15) and controls (HP)(n = 10) utilizing the ELISA technique. Comparison between groups showed no significant differences between the HP and RA groups and also between the RPP and AP groups. The increased levels of IgG in the RPP and AP groups were comparable. Significant differences in IgG levels were noted between HP and RPP (p<0.05) and between HP and AP (p<0.01). The differences between RA and RPP and between RA and AP were highly significant (p<0.0001). Thus it was revealed that the serum levels of IgG against P. gingivalis in RPP and AP patients were elevated, whereas the levels in RA patients were comparable to those in controls.
    Matched MeSH terms: Immunoglobulin G/blood*
  16. van Enter BJD, Lau YL, Ling CL, Watthanaworawit W, Sukthana Y, Lee WC, et al.
    Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 2017 Jul;97(1):232-235.
    PMID: 28719309 DOI: 10.4269/ajtmh.16-0999
    Toxoplasma gondii primary infection in pregnancy is associated with poor obstetric outcomes. This study aimed to determine the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma infection in pregnant migrant and refugee women from Myanmar attending antenatal care in Thailand. A random selection of 199 residual blood samples from first antenatal screen in 2014-2015 was tested for Toxoplasma IgG and IgM antibodies. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma infection was 31.7% (95% confidence interval = 25.6-38.4). Avidity testing in the three positive IgM cases indicated all were past infections. Multiparity (≥ 3 children) was significantly associated with higher Toxoplasma seropositivity rates. Seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in this pregnant population is similar to the only other report from Myanmar, where multiparity was also identified as a significant association. Toxoplasma infection is important in pregnant women. Nevertheless, in this marginalized population, this infection may be given less priority, due to resource constraints in providing the most basic components of safe motherhood programs.
    Matched MeSH terms: Immunoglobulin G/blood
  17. Noordin R, Yunus MH, Robinson K, Won KY, Babu S, Fischer PU, et al.
    Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 2018 12;99(6):1587-1590.
    PMID: 30350768 DOI: 10.4269/ajtmh.18-0566
    At the end phase of the Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis, antibody testing may have a role in decision-making for bancroftian filariasis-endemic areas. This study evaluated the diagnostic performance of BLF Rapid™, a prototype immunochromatographic IgG4-based test using BmSXP recombinant protein, for detection of bancroftian filariasis. The test was evaluated using 258 serum samples, comprising 96 samples tested at Universiti Sains Malaysia (in-house) and 162 samples tested independently at three international laboratories in the USA and India, and two laboratories in Malaysia. The independent testing involved 99 samples from Wuchereria bancrofti microfilaria or antigen positive individuals and 63 samples from people who were healthy or had other infections. The in-house evaluation showed 100% diagnostic sensitivity and specificity. The independent evaluations showed a diagnostic sensitivity of 84-100% and 100% specificity (excluding non-lymphatic filarial infections). BLF Rapid has potential as a surveillance diagnostic tool to make "Transmission Assessment Survey"-stopping decisions and conduct post-elimination surveillance.
    Matched MeSH terms: Immunoglobulin G/blood*
  18. Fedirko V, Tran HQ, Gewirtz AT, Stepien M, Trichopoulou A, Aleksandrova K, et al.
    BMC Med, 2017 04 04;15(1):72.
    PMID: 28372583 DOI: 10.1186/s12916-017-0830-8
    BACKGROUND: Leakage of bacterial products across the gut barrier may play a role in liver diseases which often precede the development of liver cancer. However, human studies, particularly from prospective settings, are lacking.

    METHODS: We used a case-control study design nested within a large prospective cohort to assess the association between circulating levels of anti-lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and anti-flagellin immunoglobulin A (IgA) and G (IgG) (reflecting long-term exposures to LPS and flagellin, respectively) and risk of hepatocellular carcinoma. A total of 139 men and women diagnosed with hepatocellular carcinoma between 1992 and 2010 were matched to 139 control subjects. Multivariable rate ratios (RRs), including adjustment for potential confounders, hepatitis B/C positivity, and degree of liver dysfunction, were calculated with conditional logistic regression.

    RESULTS: Antibody response to LPS and flagellin was associated with a statistically significant increase in the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (highest vs. lowest quartile: RR = 11.76, 95% confidence interval = 1.70-81.40; P trend = 0.021). This finding did not vary substantially by time from enrollment to diagnosis, and did not change after adjustment for chronic infection with hepatitis B and C viruses.

    CONCLUSIONS: These novel findings, based on exposures up to several years prior to diagnosis, support a role for gut-derived bacterial products in hepatocellular carcinoma development. Further study into the role of gut barrier failure and exposure to bacterial products in liver diseases is warranted.

    Matched MeSH terms: Immunoglobulin G/blood*
  19. Osman AY, Kadir AA, Jesse FF, Saharee AA
    Microb. Pathog., 2019 Nov;136:103669.
    PMID: 31445124 DOI: 10.1016/j.micpath.2019.103669
    Brucella melitensis is one of the leading zoonotic pathogens with significant economic implications in animal industry worldwide. Lipopolysaccharide, however, remains by far the major virulence with substantial role in diseases pathogenesis. Nonetheless, the effect of B. melitensis and its lipopolysaccharide on immunopathophysiological aspects largely remains an enigma. This study examines the effect of B.melitensis and its lipopolysaccharide on immunopathophysiological parameters following experimental infection using mouse model. Eighty four (n = 84) mice, BALB/c, both sexes with equal gender distribution and 6-8 weeks-old were randomly assigned into three groups. Group 1-2 (n = 72) were orally inoculated with 0.4 mL containing 109 CFU/mL of B. melitensis and its LPS, respectively. Group 3 (n = 12) was challenged orally with phosphate buffered saline and served as a control group. Animals were observed for clinical signs, haematological and histopathological analysis for a period of 24 days post-infection. We hereby report that B.melitensis infected group demonstrated significant clinical signs and histopathological changes than LPS infected group. However, both infected groups showed elevated levels of interleukins (IL-1β and IL-6) and antibody levels (IgM and IgG) with varying degrees of predominance in LPS infected group than B. melitensis infected group. For hormone analysis, low levels of progesterone, estradiol and testosterone were observed in both B. melitensis and LPS groups throughout the study period. Moreover, in B. melitensis infected group, the organism was re-isolated from the organs and tissues of gastrointestinal, respiratory and reproductive systems thereby confirming the infection and transmission dynamics. This report is the first detailed investigation comparing the infection progression and host responses in relation to the immunopathophysiological aspects in a mouse model after oral inoculation with B. melitensis and its lipopolysaccharide.
    Matched MeSH terms: Immunoglobulin G/blood
  20. Zainol Rashid Z, Othman SN, Abdul Samat MN, Ali UK, Wong KK
    Malays J Pathol, 2020 Apr;42(1):13-21.
    PMID: 32342927
    INTRODUCTION: The World Health Organization (WHO) declared COVID-19 outbreak as a world pandemic on 12th March 2020. Diagnosis of suspected cases is confirmed by nucleic acid assays with real-time PCR, using respiratory samples. Serology tests are comparatively easier to perform, but their utility may be limited by the performance and the fact that antibodies appear later during the disease course. We aimed to describe the performance data on serological assays for COVID-19.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: A review of multiple reports and kit inserts on the diagnostic performance of rapid tests from various manufacturers that are commercially available were performed. Only preliminary data are available currently.

    RESULTS: From a total of nine rapid detection test (RDT) kits, three kits offer total antibody detection, while six kits offer combination SARS-CoV-2 IgM and IgG detection in two separate test lines. All kits are based on colloidal gold-labeled immunochromatography principle and one-step method with results obtained within 15 minutes, using whole blood, serum or plasma samples. The sensitivity for both IgM and IgG tests ranges between 72.7% and 100%, while specificity ranges between 98.7% to 100%. Two immunochromatography using nasopharyngeal or throat swab for detection of COVID-19 specific antigen are also reviewed.

    CONCLUSIONS: There is much to determine regarding the value of serological testing in COVID-19 diagnosis and monitoring. More comprehensive evaluations of their performance are rapidly underway. The use of serology methods requires appropriate interpretations of the results and understanding the strengths and limitations of such tests.
    Matched MeSH terms: Immunoglobulin G/blood
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