Displaying publications 61 - 80 of 768 in total

  1. Khoo SB
    Malays Fam Physician, 2011;6(2-3):51-7.
    PMID: 25606223 MyJurnal
    Delirium in the elderly is a challenging and under-recognized problem in the community. Early detection and management improves outcomes and quality of life for the elders with delirium at home.1 Family physicians (FP) play a key role in the assessments, early identification, and management of delirium and in the support and education of patients and their family caregivers.1 Clinical analysis of this case illustrates the bio-psychosocial spiritual model of approach to management of delirium in an elderly patient in the home setting.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ambulatory Care Facilities
  2. Ramli AS, Miskan M, Ng K, Ambigga D, Nafiza M, Mazapuspavina M, et al.
    Malays Fam Physician, 2010;5(1):36-40.
    PMID: 25606184
    Large population surveys in Malaysia have consistently shown minimal improvement of blood pressure control rates over the last 10 years. Poor adherence to antihypertensive medication has been recognized as a major reason for poor control of hypertension. This study aimed to describe the prescribing pattern of antihypertensive agents in 2 public primary care clinics and assess its appropriateness in relation to current evidence and guidelines.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ambulatory Care Facilities
  3. Rosdina AK, Leelavathi M, Zaitun A, Lee VKM, Noor Azimah M, Majmin SH, et al.
    Malays Fam Physician, 2010;5(2):91-4.
    PMID: 25606194 MyJurnal
    A cross-sectional study was conducted on patients attending a primary care facility to determine the prevalence of self reported hearing loss using a single question, "Do you have hearing loss?" Pure tone audiometry was performed to compare the accuracy of the self report. A total of 111 patients were recruited. The prevalence of self reported hearing loss using a single question and pure tone audiometry was 24.3% and 36.9% respectively. By using pure tone audiometry at a cut-off-level of 25 dBHL (decibels Hearing level), the single question yielded a sensitivity of 41.4% and specificity of 85.0%.The single question performed better at 40 dBHL pure tone audiometry with sensitivity of 55.0% and specificity of 82.0%. In conclusion, the prevalence of hearing loss in elderly was high and the single question self reported hearing loss performed satisfactorily with moderate hearing loss.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ambulatory Care Facilities
  4. Chew BH
    Malays Fam Physician, 2010;5(2):101-4.
    PMID: 25606197 MyJurnal
    This case reports a 57-year-old lady presented with cough of two months duration despite repeated treatments from multiple general practitioners. It took her another two months to know her diagnoses and a further couple of months to be relieved of her cough and became asymptomatic. Chronic cough management in primary care often needs an empiric integrative approach and requires good doctor-patient rapport with informed follow ups and continuity of care to be successful.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ambulatory Care Facilities
  5. Yaacob BM
    Malays J Med Sci, 1999 Jul;6(2):30-1.
    PMID: 22589687 MyJurnal
    Munchausen syndrome by proxy is a rare disorder in child psychiatric practice. A case of Munchausen syndrome by proxy that was managed in the Child Psychiatric clinic, Universiti Sains Malaysia Hospital is reported. Factors that suggest the diagnosis are discussed. Multidisciplinary approach to the management of such cases is warranted.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ambulatory Care Facilities
  6. Yadav H
    Singapore Med J, 1987 Dec;28(6):520-5.
    PMID: 3441793
    The traditional birth attendant (bidan kampong) or the TBA is still responsible for a substantial number of deliveries in Peninsular Malaysia. In the study area, the TBA s were responsible for about 47.2% of the deliveries in 1976. They were also responsible tor a substantial number of maternal deaths in the district. Therefore it was decided to identity and train the TBAs to identity ‘at risk’ cases at mothers and children and refer them to the nearest health facility. The TBA s were trained to use simple hygenic and aseptic procedures. At the end oi their training all at them were presented with a UNICEF midwifery kit. The short training proved useful because they now deliver fewer ‘at risk' cases and there is an in- creasing trend among them to refer the ‘at risk’ cases to the hospitals. The utilizations of TBA s in the maternal and child health program is a useful tool for the attainment at primary health care objective for developing countries by the year 2000.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ambulatory Care Facilities
  7. Chew BH, Mukhtar F, Mohd Sidik S, Paimin F, Hassan NH, Jamaludin NK
    Malays Fam Physician, 2015;10(2):22-35.
    PMID: 27099658 MyJurnal
    INTRODUCTION: Diabetes-related distress (DRD) refers to patient's concerns about diabetes mellitus, its management, need of support, emotional burden and access to healthcare. The aim of this study was to translate and examine the psychometric properties of the Malay version of the 17-item Diabetes Distress Scale (MDDS-17) in adult patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D).
    METHODS: A standard procedure was used to translate the English 17-items Diabetes Distress Scale into Malay language. We used exploratory factor analysis (EFA) with principal axis factoring and promax rotation to investigate the factor structure. We explored reliability by internal consistency and 1-month test-retest reliability. Construct validity was examined using the World Health Organization quality of life-brief questionnaire, Morisky Medication Adherence Scale, Patient Health Questionnaire and disease-related clinical variables.
    RESULTS: A total of 262 patients were included in the analysis with a response rate of 96.7%. A total of 66 patients completed the test-retest after 1 month. EFA supported a three-factor model resulting from the combination of the regimen distress (RD) and interpersonal distress (IPD) subscales; and with a swapping of an item between emotional burden (EB; item 7) and RD (item 3) subscales. Cronbach's α for MDDS-17 was 0.94, the combined RD and IPD subscale was 0.925, the EB subscale was 0.855 and the physician-related distress was 0.823. The test- retest reliability's correlation coefficient was r = 0.29 (n = 66; p = 0.009). There was a significant association between the mean MDDS-17 item score categories (<3 vs ≥3) and HbA1c categories (<7.0% vs ≥7.0%), and medication adherence (medium and high vs ≥low). The instrument discriminated between those having diabetes-related complication, low quality of life, poor medication adherence and depression.
    CONCLUSION: The MDDS-17 has satisfactory psychometric properties. It can be used to map diabetes-related emotional distress for diagnostic or clinical use.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ambulatory Care Facilities
  8. Cheong AT, Sazlina SG
    Malays Fam Physician, 2015;10(2):36-44.
    PMID: 27099659 MyJurnal
    INTRODUCTION: Hill-Bone compliance to high blood pressure therapy scale (HBTS) is one of the useful scales in primary care settings. It has been tested in America, Africa and Turkey with variable validity and reliability. The aim of this paper was to determine the validity and reliability of the Malay version of HBTS (HBTS-M) for the Malaysian population.
    MATERIALS AND METHODS: HBTS comprises three subscales assessing compliance to medication, appointment and salt intake. The content validity of HBTS to the local population was agreed through consensus of expert panel. The 14 items used in the HBTS were adapted to reflect the local situations. It was translated into Malay and then back-translated into English. The translated version was piloted in 30 participants. This was followed by structural and predictive validity, and internal consistency testing in 262 patients with hypertension, who were on antihypertensive agent(s) for at least 1 year in two primary healthcare clinics in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Exploratory factor analyses and the correlation between HBTS-M total score and blood pressure were performed. The Cronbach's alpha was calculated accordingly.
    RESULTS: Factor analysis revealed a three-component structure represented by two components on medication adherence and one on salt intake adherence. The Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin statistic was 0.764. The variance explained by each factors were 23.6%, 10.4% and 9.8%, respectively. However, the internal consistency for each component was suboptimal with Cronbach's alpha of 0.64, 0.55 and 0.29, respectively. Although there were two components representing medication adherence, the theoretical concepts underlying each concept cannot be differentiated. In addition, there was no correlation between the HBTS-M total score and blood pressure.
    CONCLUSION: HBTS-M did not conform to the structural and predictive validity of the original scale. Its reliability on assessing medication and salt intake adherence would most probably to be suboptimal in the Malaysian primary care setting.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ambulatory Care Facilities
  9. Shima R, Farizah MH, Majid HA
    Patient Prefer Adherence, 2014;8:1597-609.
    PMID: 25484577 DOI: 10.2147/PPA.S69680
    PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to explore patients' experiences with their illnesses and the reasons which influenced them in not following hypertensive care recommendations (antihypertensive medication intake, physical activity, and diet changes) in primary health clinic settings.
    PATIENTS AND METHODS: A qualitative methodology was applied. The data were gathered from in-depth interviews with 25 hypertensive patients attending follow-up in nine government primary health clinics in two districts (Hulu Langat and Klang) in the state of Selangor, Malaysia. The transcribed data were analyzed using thematic analysis.
    RESULTS: There was evidence of lack of patient self-empowerment and community support in Malaysian society. Most of the participants did not take their antihypertensive medication or change their physical activity and diet after diagnosis. There was an agreement between the patients and the health care professionals before starting the treatment recommendation, but there lacked further counseling and monitoring. Most of the reasons given for not taking antihypertensive medication, not doing physical activity and not following diet recommendations were due to side effects or fear of the side effects of antihypertensive medication, patients' attitudes, lack of information from health care professionals and insufficient social support from their surrounding environment. We also observed the differences on these reasons for nonadherence among the three ethnic groups.
    CONCLUSION: Health care professionals should move toward supporting adherence in the management of hypertensive patients by maintaining a dialogue. Patients need to be given time to enable them to overcome their inhibition of asking questions and to accept the recommendations. A self-management approach must be responsive to the needs of individuals, ethnicities, and communities.
    KEYWORDS: adherence; hypertension; in-depth interview; qualitative research
    Study site: Klinik kesihatan, Selangor, Malaysia
    Matched MeSH terms: Ambulatory Care Facilities
  10. Chow EP, Hassali A
    Value Health, 2014 Nov;17(7):A746.
    PMID: 27202698 DOI: 10.1016/j.jval.2014.08.171
    To evaluate the impact of home medication review programme (HMR) towards Type 2 Diabetes patients from public primary centre in Penang, Malaysia.

    A prospective randomised control study was conducted at Primary Clinic in Bukit Minyak, Penang. Eligible Type 2 diabetes patients with HbA1c > 6.5% and taking ≥ 3 medications who stayed at their own house were recruited and randomly allocated into control and intervention group by coin tossing. Control group patients received usual care from the clinic whereas intervention group patients received additional 2 visits at their home by pharmacist. During both visits, education on quality use of medications and life-style modifications were performed.Blood pressure monitoring, point of care for sugar and total cholesterol levels were conducted in each visit. Patients adherence and knowledge were assessed using validated questionnaire. Pill count was conducted and excessive medications were collected to calculate the costing component. Primary outcomes were medication adherence and level of knowledge. Secondary outcomes included HbA1c, FBS and total cholesterol changes as well as patients’ satisfactions towards HMR and direct cost saving from the programme.

    A total of 150 patients were recruited and randomly assigned in two groups (n=75 each group). Fifty patients in the intervention group completed the study. After 2 home visits there were significant improvements in the adherence score for the intervention group (mean score=6.90,SD=0.94) compared to the control group (mean score=4.05, SD=1.51). There was a significant improvement in knowledge score after HMR programme, intervention group (mean score=10.04, SD=1.75) and the control group (mean score=5.45, SD=1.89). A direct cost analysis of the medication wasted reveals that HMR can help to save RM 2805.50 (USD 855.34) throughout the eight months period.

    Pharmacist-led HMR have improved patients’ adherence and knowledge as well as helping the policy makers to save money on excessive medication wastage.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ambulatory Care Facilities
  11. Chew BH, Yasin MM, Cheong AT, Rashid MR, Hamzah Z, Ismail M, et al.
    Springerplus, 2015;4:213.
    PMID: 25992310 DOI: 10.1186/s40064-015-1004-9
    Perception of healthcare providers who worked with family medicine specialists (FMSs) could translate into the effectiveness of primary healthcare delivery in daily practices. This study examined perceptions of public healthcare providers/professionals (PHCPs) on FMSs at public health clinics throughout Malaysia. This was a cross-sectional study in 2012-2013 using postal method targeting PHCPs from three categories of health facilities, namely health clinics, health offices and hospitals. A structured questionnaire was developed to assess PHCP's perception of FMS's clinical competency, safety practice, ethical and professional values, and research involvement. It consists of 37 items with Likert scale of strongly disagree (a score of 1) to strongly agree (a score of 5). Interaction and independent effect of the independent variables were tested and adjusted means score were reported. The participants' response rate was 58.0% (780/1345) with almost equal proportion from each of the three public healthcare facilities. There were more positive perceptions than negative among the PHCPs. FMSs were perceived to provide effective and safe treatment to their patients equally disregards of patient's social background. However, there were some concerns of FMSs not doing home visits, not seeing walk-in patients, had long appointment time, not active in scientific research, writing and publication. There were significant differences in perception based on a respondent's health care facility (p care facilities and frequency of encounter with FMSs had different perception. Practicing FMSs could improve on the critical service areas that were perceived to be important but lacking. FMSs might need further support in conducting research and writing for publication.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ambulatory Care Facilities
  12. Rashid Ali MR, Parameswaran U, William T, Bird E, Wilkes CS, Lee WK, et al.
    J Trop Med, 2015;2015:261925.
    PMID: 25838829 DOI: 10.1155/2015/261925
    Introduction. The burden of tuberculosis is high in eastern Malaysia, and rates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis drug resistance are poorly defined. Our objectives were to determine M. tuberculosis susceptibility and document management after receipt of susceptibility results.
    Methods. Prospective study of adult outpatients with smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) in Sabah, Malaysia. Additionally, hospital clinicians accessed the reference laboratory for clinical purposes during the study.
    Results. 176 outpatients were enrolled; 173 provided sputum samples. Mycobacterial culture yielded M. tuberculosis in 159 (91.9%) and nontuberculous Mycobacterium (NTM) in three (1.7%). Among outpatients there were no instances of multidrug resistant M. tuberculosis (MDR-TB). Seven people (4.5%) had isoniazid resistance (INH-R); all were switched to an appropriate second-line regimen for varying durations (4.5-9 months). Median delay to commencement of the second-line regimen was 13 weeks. Among 15 inpatients with suspected TB, 2 had multidrug resistant TB (one extensively drug resistant), 2 had INH-R, and 4 had NTM.
    Conclusions. Current community rates of MDR-TB in Sabah are low. However, INH-resistance poses challenges, and NTM is an important differential diagnosis in this setting, where smear microscopy is the usual diagnostic modality. To address INH-R management issues in our setting, we propose an algorithm for the treatment of isoniazid-resistant PTB.
    Study site: Tuberculosis clinic, Klinik Kesihatan Luyang, Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia
    Matched MeSH terms: Ambulatory Care Facilities
  13. Saw PS, Nissen LM, Freeman C, Wong PS, Mak V
    Patient Prefer Adherence, 2015;9:467-77.
    PMID: 25834411 DOI: 10.2147/PPA.S73953
    BACKGROUND: Pharmacists are considered medication experts but are underutilized and exist mainly at the periphery of the Malaysian primary health care team. Private general practitioners (GPs) in Malaysia are granted rights under the Poison Act 1952 to prescribe and dispense medications at their primary care clinics. As most consumers obtain their medications from their GPs, community pharmacists' involvement in ensuring safe use of medicines is limited. The integration of a pharmacist into private GP clinics has the potential to contribute to quality use of medicines. This study aims to explore health care consumers' views on the integration of pharmacists within private GP clinics in Malaysia.
    METHODS: A purposive sample of health care consumers in Selangor and Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, were invited to participate in focus groups and semi-structured interviews. Sessions were audio recorded and transcribed verbatim and thematically analyzed using NVivo 10.
    RESULTS: A total of 24 health care consumers participated in two focus groups and six semi-structured interviews. Four major themes were identified: 1) pharmacists' role viewed mainly as supplying medications, 2) readiness to accept pharmacists in private GP clinics, 3) willingness to pay for pharmacy services, and 4) concerns about GPs' resistance to pharmacist integration. Consumers felt that a pharmacist integrated into a private GP clinic could offer potential benefits such as to provide trustworthy information on the use and potential side effects of medications and screening for medication misadventure. The potential increase in costs passed on to consumers and GPs' reluctance were perceived as barriers to integration.
    CONCLUSION: This study provides insights into consumers' perspectives on the roles of pharmacists within private GP clinics in Malaysia. Consumers generally supported pharmacist integration into private primary health care clinics. However, for pharmacists to expand their capacity in providing integrated and collaborative primary care services to consumers, barriers to pharmacist integration need to be addressed.
    KEYWORDS: Malaysia; general practitioners; health care consumer; pharmacist integration; private clinic
    Matched MeSH terms: Ambulatory Care Facilities
  14. Chong MC, Francis K, Cooper S, Abdullah KL
    Nurs Res Pract, 2014;2014:126748.
    PMID: 24523961 DOI: 10.1155/2014/126748
    Nurses need to participate in CPE to update their knowledge and increase their competencies. This research was carried out to explore their current practice and the future general needs for CPE. This cross-sectional descriptive study involved registered nurses from government hospitals and health clinics from Peninsular Malaysia. Multistage cluster sampling was used to recruit 1000 nurses from four states of Malaysia. Self-explanatory questionnaires were used to collect the data, which were analyzed using SPSS version 16. Seven hundred and ninety-two nurses participated in this survey. Only 80% (562) of the nurses had engaged in CPE activities during the past 12 months. All attendance for the various activities was below 50%. Workshops were the most popular CPE activity (345, 43.6%) and tertiary education was the most unpopular activity (10, 1.3%). The respondents did perceive the importance of future CPE activities for career development. Mandatory continuing professional education (MCPE) is a key measure to ensure that nurses upgrade their knowledge and skills; however, it is recommended that policy makers and nurse leaders in the continuing professional development unit of health service facilities plan CPE activities to meet registered nurses' (RNs) needs and not simply organizational requirements.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ambulatory Care Facilities
  15. Ang KT, Ho BK, Mimi O, Salmah N, Salmiah MS, Noridah MS
    Malays Fam Physician, 2014;9(3):2-11.
    PMID: 26425299 MyJurnal
    Primary care providers play an important gatekeeping role in ensuring appropriate referrals to secondary care facilities. This cross-sectional study aimed to determine the level, pattern and rate of referrals from health clinics to hospitals in the public sector, and whether the placement of resident family medicine specialist (FMS) had made a significant difference. The study was carried out between March and April in 2012, involving 28 public primary care clinics. It showed that the average referral rate was 1.56% for clinics with resident FMS and 1.94% for those without resident FMS, but it was not statistically significant. Majority of referred cases were considered appropriate (96.1%). Results of the multivariate analysis showed that no prior consultation with senior healthcare provider and illnesses that were not severe and complex were independently associated with inappropriate referrals. Severity, complexity or uncertain diagnosis of patients' illness or injury significantly contributed to unavoidable referrals. Adequate facilities or having more experienced doctors could have avoided 14.5% of the referrals. The low referral rate and very high level of appropriate referrals could indicate that primary care providers in the public sector played an effective role as gatekeepers in the Malaysian public healthcare system.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ambulatory Care Facilities
  16. Radzniwan MR, Tohid H, Ahmad S, Mohd AF, Md Anshar F
    Malays Fam Physician, 2014;9(3):38-41.
    PMID: 26425304 MyJurnal
    Managing chronic cough is diagnostically challenging especially in primary care. This case report highlights the difficulties experienced in approaching a case of chronic cough from a primary care perspective. The discussion also involves the clinical significance and treatment dilemma of M. fortuitum chelonae complex that was isolated from the sputum cultures of an elderly woman who presented with chronic cough for more than a year.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ambulatory Care Facilities
  17. Abdollahi F, Etemadinezhad S, Lye MS
    Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol, 2016 Feb;55(1):76-80.
    PMID: 26927254 DOI: 10.1016/j.tjog.2015.12.008
    OBJECTIVES: Cultural practices have been found to positively impact the mothering experience. This study sought to identify the relationship between sociocultural practices and postpartum depression (PPD) in a cohort of Iranian women for the first time.
    MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a longitudinal cohort design, 2279 pregnant women attending primary health centers of Mazandaran province in Iran were recruited using stratified random sampling method. Data were collected using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale and researchers developed validated cultural practices questionnaire at 3 months after delivery. Data were analyzed using Chi-square test and multiple logistic regression models.
    RESULTS: The prevalence of PPD was 19% among 1910 women who were followed postdelivery in this study. Cultural practices were not associated with lower odds of PPD in multiple logistic regression model after adjustment for all sociodemographic factors. The results of this study do not also provide any evidence to support that sex of baby is associated with the greater risk of PPD.
    CONCLUSIONS: Cultural practices could not be perceived as protective mechanisms that protect women from PPD in this traditional society. However, health professionals should be familiar with postpartum beliefs and practices that could support mothers in the postpartum period.
    KEYWORDS: culture; depression; postpartum; practices
    Matched MeSH terms: Ambulatory Care Facilities
  18. Cho SH, Lin HC, Ghoshal AG, Bin Abdul Muttalif AR, Thanaviratananich S, Bagga S, et al.
    Allergy Asthma Proc, 2016 Mar-Apr;37(2):131-40.
    PMID: 26802834 DOI: 10.2500/aap.2016.37.3925
    BACKGROUND: Respiratory diseases represent a significant impact on health care. A cross-sectional, multicountry (India, Korea, Malaysia, Singapore, Taiwan, and Thailand) observational study was conducted to investigate the proportion of adult patients who received care for a primary diagnosis of asthma, allergic rhinitis (AR), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), or rhinosinusitis.
    OBJECTIVE: To determine the proportion of patients who received care for asthma, AR, COPD, and rhinosinusitis, and the frequency and main symptoms reported.
    METHODS: Patients ages ≥18 years, who presented to a physician with symptoms that met the diagnostic criteria for a primary diagnosis of asthma, AR, COPD, or rhinosinusitis were enrolled. Patients and physicians completed a survey that contained questions related to demographics and respiratory symptoms.
    RESULTS: A total of 13,902 patients with a respiratory disorder were screened, of whom 7030 were eligible and 5250 enrolled. The highest percentage of patients who received care had a primary diagnosis of AR (14.0% [95% confidence interval {CI}, 13.4-14.6%]), followed by asthma (13.5% [95% CI, 12.9-14.1%]), rhinosinusitis (5.4% [95% CI, 4.6-5.3%]), and COPD (4.9% [95% CI, 5.0-5.7%]). Patients with a primary diagnosis of COPD (73%), followed by asthma (61%), rhinosinusitis (59%), and AR (47%) most frequently reported cough as a symptom. Cough was the main reason for seeking medical care among patients with a primary diagnosis of COPD (43%), asthma (33%), rhinosinusitis (13%), and AR (11%).
    CONCLUSION: Asthma, AR, COPD, and rhinosinusitis represent a significant proportion of respiratory disorders in patients who presented to health care professionals in the Asia-Pacific region, many with concomitant disease. Cough was a prominent symptom and the major reason for patients with respiratory diseases to seek medical care.
    Study site:; 22 sites in six countries (various types of clinics, including primary care)
    Matched MeSH terms: Ambulatory Care Facilities
  19. Omar R, Knight VF, Hussin DA
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2013 Jun;68(3):245-8.
    PMID: 23749015 MyJurnal
    This study determined the outcome of combining home based and clinic based amblyopia therapy among preschool children. A total of 479 preschool children were randomly selected for vision screening. Amblyopic therapy was prescribed to children whose visual acuity (VA) could not be improved to <0.1 LogMAR after a 6 week adaptation period with glasses. Intensive near work activities were conducted daily at home for 12 weeks, monitored by parents while weekly therapy was conducted at the optometry clinic by an optometrist. Six preschool children were diagnosed with refractive amblyopia, spherical equivalent (SE) was -11.25D to +0.75D. Significant improvement was found in the VA of right eye, t(6) = 3.07, left eye t(6) = 3.07 and both eyes t(6) = 3.42) p<0.05, at the end of the 12 week therapy. Combining home based and clinic based amblyopia therapy among preschool children showed a positive improvement in VA after 12 weeks of therapy.
    Study site: kindergarten, optometry clinic, Perak (site unclear)
    Matched MeSH terms: Ambulatory Care Facilities
  20. Man CN, Fathelrahman AI, Harn GL, Lajis R, Samin AS, Omar M, et al.
    Environ. Toxicol. Pharmacol., 2009 Jul;28(1):92-6.
    PMID: 21783987 DOI: 10.1016/j.etap.2009.03.003
    The objective of this study was to correlate, differentiate and validate the self-reported smoking status of educated young adults with urinary biomarkers (i.e. nicotine and cotinine). Freshmen students were recruited on voluntary basis. They filled-up self-administered questionnaire and their urine samples were collected for analysis. The urinary nicotine (UN) and cotinine (UC) were measured by gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry. Smokers, non-smokers and ex-smokers were found to be both significantly correlated and different in their UN and UC levels. UC level of 25ng/ml was the optimal cut-off to differentiate smokers from non-smokers. Using this cut-off value, the prevalence of smoking among the students was found to be higher (15.4%) than the self-reported data (14.3%). UC is useful in validating individual recent smoking history and the cut-off could serve as a marker for assessing the clinical impact of smoking and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure on human health.
    Study site: university health centre, Universiti SainsMalaysia (USM), Pulau Pinang, Malaysia
    Matched MeSH terms: Ambulatory Care Facilities
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