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  1. Sharifa Ezat, W.P., Natrah, M.S., Khalib, A.L., Hasni, H.
    MyJurnal
    Introduction : Selangor’s private clinic registry system had been introduced in 2006 following gazettment of The Private Healthcare Facilities and Services Act. Through the act, data’s from the private clinics can be obtained and its characteristics can be compared between the urban and rural private clinic. An overview of the services can be known and an appropriate action can be planned.
    Methodology : A cross-sectional study was done on private clinics registered in state of Selangor. Using databased known as MedPCs (Medical Practice Control System), a purposive sampling was used to select four districts – two urban and two rural. All private clinics in the selected districts were studied and all details shall be collected online.
    Result : District of Gombak and Klang were selected as urban and Sabak Bernam and Kuala Selangor represented rural area. Of a total 625 clinics selected, 90.0% (562) from urban and 10.0% (63) rural. Distributions of clinic were in line with the act. The most prominent services were general treatment (89.4%) and ability to serve more than eight hours daily (89.4%). Medical clinic still dominated at 84.0% compared to dentistry at 16.0%. About 70.6% were operated by male doctors. Though clinic services in rural were relatively as good as urban, the different were significantly observed to the ethnicity of the doctor. Indian doctors more in rural (46.03%), whilst in urban, Malay doctors were more dominant (39.50%). Followed closely by seniority, where rural doctors were much senior (51.02 years old), however, most of the doctors in rural private clinics experienced less exposure in government sectors, compared to those in urban areas.
    Conclusion : There were obvious difference in terms of distribution, where more clinics were located in urban compared to rural, but all were still in line to the act and their services were comparable. Most noticeable differences were ethnicity, seniority and past experience working in the public sector. Indian doctors were dominant in rural and Malay in urban. Although rural doctors were more senior, relatively they were less experienced working in the government sector.
    Matched MeSH terms: Private Facilities
  2. Mohd Nizam Haron, Syahirah Zeti Azham, Lyanna Annura Sallehudin, Nur Firzanie Kamaruddin, Ezreen Elia Izzaty Afindi
    MyJurnal
    The purpose of this study is to retrospectively report the results of scoliosis patients who underwent chiropractic therapy and to evaluate their outcome by looking at the potential to alter the natural progression of scoliosis after therapy.
    Methods: Retrospective data collection was conducted at a private chiropractic centre in Kuala Lumpur. The data was collected from patients between the ages of 16 to 19 years old. A total of eight patients with 14 scoliotic curvatures (six thoracic, six lumbar and two thoracolumbar), who met the inclusion criteria, were selected as subjects for this study. All subjects received the same chiropractic therapy program. The outcome of the therapy was assessed by measuring the Cobb’s angle on the erect spine as captured on an x-ray. The Cobb’s angle was measured at the first presentation (to establish a baseline) after 6 and 24 months of therapy.
    Results: The mean baseline Cobb’s angle for thoracic, lumbar and thoracolumbar scoliosis were 30.70 ± 19.40, 31.70 ± 12.30 and 25.00 ± 18.40 respectively. After 24 months of chiropractic therapy, there was no discernible effect on the magnitude of the Cobb’s angles on the subjects overall.
    Conclusion: Our study showed no significant reduction in spine curvature in patients with scoliosis using chiropractic therapy after 24 months.
    Matched MeSH terms: Private Facilities
  3. Wong TH, Das Gupta E, Radhakrishnan AK, Gun SC, Chembalingam G, Yeap SS
    MyJurnal
    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory condition that can be associated with abnormal bone turnover and hence osteoporosis. Osteocalcin (OC) levels are increased in conditions with high bone turnover, including high RA disease activity. Thus, OC levels could possibly be used as a marker to assess bone health and disease activity in RA patients. As there have been no previous studies looking at serum OC levels in Malaysian RA patients, this study was performed to examine possible correlations between OC, bone mineral density (BMD) and disease activity in this population. A cross-sectional study of 75 female RA patients and 29 healthy controls was performed. Serum OC was measured using a Quantikine® ELISA kit. Dualenergy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) was used to assess BMD. Serum OC levels were not significantly different between RA patients (median 14.44 ng/mL, interquartile range [IQR 12.99]) compared to healthy controls (median 11.04 ng/mL IQR 12.29) (p=0.198). Serum OC increased with age (Spearman’s rho r=0.230, p=0.047). There was no significant correlation between serum OC and body mass index (BMI), menopause status, BMD, DAS28, swollen or tender joint counts. Overall, there were 11 (14.7%) patients with osteoporosis and 27 (36.0%) with osteopenia. Menopause status was significantly associated with BMD at all sites (lumbar spine p=0.002, femoral neck p=0.004, total hip p=0.002). Serum OC were similar in RA patients compared to healthy controls. In RA patients, serum OC did not correlate with RA disease activity or BMD. Menopause status remains an important influence on BMD. Thus, measuring serum OC levels in Malaysian RA patients was not useful in identifying those at risk of low BMD.
    Study site: Rheumatology clinic, Hospital Tuanku Jaafar, Seremban, Negeri Sembilan, and Klinik Pakar Puchong, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
    Matched MeSH terms: Private Facilities
  4. Rahman, Md. Shamsur, Matanjun, David, Parash, M. Tanveer Hossain, Shimmi, Sadia Choudhury, Tan, Tek Song, D’Souza, Urban John Arnold, et al.
    MyJurnal
    The main objective of this study was to obtain information regarding the effects of educational and socio-economic status of the patients on the prescribing pattern of non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) by the qualified medical personnel in the outpatient departments (OPDs) of two selected polyclinics in Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia. A total of 200 selected patients (100 from each polyclinic) attending the OPDs were interviewed using a questionnaire. Again data were collected, photocopied and later analyzed. Educated and higher income group of patients mostly attended in a Private Polyclinic (PPC) whereas less educated and lower income group of patients generally attended UMS Polyclinic (UPC). This was reported as a probable reason for the wide variations in the prescribing pattern with respect to pharmacological subclasses of NSAIDs in the OPDs of two polyclinics. The present results strongly support that probable reason. The number of patients taking NSAIDs before coming to hospital was more in PPC compared to UPC. They were influenced by pharmacists, friends and doctor’s advice given previously. In conclusion, it may be mentioned that overall prescribing pattern of NSAIDs among two polyclinics is rational.
    Matched MeSH terms: Private Facilities
  5. Md Bohari NF, Kruger E, John J, Tennant M
    Int Dent J, 2018 Nov 22.
    PMID: 30565655 DOI: 10.1111/idj.12454
    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to analyse, in detail, the distribution of primary dental clinics in relation to the Malaysian population and relative population wealth, to test the hypothesis that an uneven distribution of dental services exists in Malaysia.

    METHOD: This 2016 study located every dental practice in Malaysia (private and public) and mapped these practices against population, using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) tools. Population clusters within 5, 10 and 20 km of a dental clinic were identified, and clinic-to-population ratios were ascertained. Population data were obtained from the Population and Housing Census of Malaysia 2010. Population relative wealth was obtained from the 2014 Report on Household Income and Basic Amenities Survey for Malaysia. The physical address for each dental practice in Malaysia was gathered from the Official Portal of Ministry of Health Malaysia. All data for analysis were extracted from the integrated database in Quantum GIS (QGIS) into Microsoft Excel.

    RESULT: The population of Malaysia (24.9 million) was distributed across 127 districts, with 119 (94%) having at least one dental clinic. Sixty-four districts had fewer than 10 dental clinics, and 11.3% of Malaysians did not reside in the catchment of 20 km from any dental clinic. The total dental clinic-to-population ratio was 1:9,000: for public dental clinics it was 1:38,000 and for private clinics it was 1:13,000.

    CONCLUSION: Dental services were distributed relative to high population density, were unevenly distributed across Malaysia and the majority of people with the highest inaccessibility to a dental service resided in Malaysian Borneo.
    Matched MeSH terms: Private Facilities
  6. Chua WT
    Family Practitioner, 1985;8(2):57-62.
    One hundred and twenty-four women from a semi-urban area who came for consultation for unplanned pregnancy during an eight month period are analysed. It is found that women with a high risk of unplanned pregnancy are mostly housewives, aged between 20 and 34, who have given birth to one or three children, the last of whom is usually below one or two years old. They belong to the lower socio-economic class and are lowly-educated. Most of them have not completed their families. Although most of them have either used or heard of contraceptives begore, the majority were not using any contraceptive at the time of consultation or were using an ineffective method. Their reasons for non-use or default are identified, many of which are related to the pill. Proper motivation of would-be contraceptive receptors and regular follow-up of acceptors by general practitioners or Family Planning Clinic Staff who are knwoledgable in all available methods of contraception are offered as a solutionto the problem of high rate of defaulting and consequent high rate of unplanned pregnancies.
    Study site: private general practice clinic, Perak, Malaysia
    Matched MeSH terms: Private Facilities
  7. Chan SC
    Family Physician, 2003;12(2&3):36-40.
    Between 2/10/2000 and 30/1/2001, the organizational structure and management in 4 general practice (GP) clinics & 2 health centers (HC) in Kinta District were studied by 14 Level 4 medical students of Perak College of Medicine. Data collected from work process files and staff interviews / shadowing showed that GPs in the study had more working experience with postgraduate qualifications than HC doctors. All HC nurses but only one GP clinic nurse had formal training. HC organization was more complex with documentation. GP organization was simple and lacked documentation. HC management was by a group while GPs handled all management aspects. This study enhanced students' understanding of Malaysian primary care system.
    Matched MeSH terms: Private Facilities
  8. Chen WS
    Family Physician, 2005;13:22-23.
    Study site: Private general practice, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
    Matched MeSH terms: Private Facilities
  9. Lam ES
    Family Practitioner, 1978;3(4):31-34.
    Matched MeSH terms: Private Facilities
  10. Sood S, Winn T, Ibrahim S, Gobindram A, Arumugam AA, Razali NC, et al.
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2015 Dec;70(6):341-5.
    PMID: 26988206 MyJurnal
    OBJECTIVE: The natural history of asymptomatic (silent) gallstones has been inadequately studied. Existing information derives from studies based on oral cholecystography or relatively small sample sizes. We planned a retrospective cohort study in subjects with gallstones to determine conversion rates from asymptomatic to symptomatic.
    METHODS: We extracted data from computerised databases of one government hospital and two private clinics in Malaysia. Files were scrutinised to ensure that criteria for asymptomatic gallstones were fulfilled. Patients were called on telephone, further questioned to confirm that the gallstones at detection were truly asymptomatic, and asked about symptoms that were consistent with previously defined criteria for biliary colic. Appropriate ethical clearances were taken.
    RESULTS: 213 (112 males) patients fulfilled the criteria for asymptomatic gallstones and could be contacted. 23 (10.8%) developed pain after an average follow up interval of 4.02 years (range 0.1-11 years). Conversion rates from asymptomatic to symptomatic gallstones were high in the first two years of follow up, averaging 4.03±0.965 per year. Over time the conversion rates slowed, and by year 10 the annual conversion rate averaged only 1.38±0.29. Conversion rates were much higher for females compared to males (F:M hazard ratio 3.23, SE 1.54, p>z 0.014). The lifetime risks for conversion approached 6.15% for males, and 22.1% for females.
    CONCLUSION: In conclusion, asymptomatic gallstones are much more likely to convert to symptomatic in females than in males. Males in whom asymptomatic stones are discovered should be advised conservative treatment. Surgery may be preferable to conservative management if the subject is a young female.
    m radiology records of Hospital
    Study site: Computerised database, Hospital Selayang, Selangor; private clinics, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
    Matched MeSH terms: Private Facilities
  11. Jamshed SQ, Ibrahim MI, Hassali MA, Masood I, Low BY, Shafie AA, et al.
    South Med Rev, 2012 Jul;5(1):22-30.
    PMID: 23093896
    OBJECTIVES: In developing countries out-of-pocket payments (OOP) are as high as 80% of healthcare spending. Generic medicines can be instrumental in reducing this expenditure. The current study is aimed to explore the knowledge, perception, and attitude of general practitioners towards generic medicines in Karachi, Pakistan.
    METHODS: This exploratory, descriptive study was conducted on a sample of 289 randomly selected general practitioners who were dispensing at their private clinics in Karachi, Pakistan. The questionnaires were distributed and collected by hand. Data was entered to SPSS version 17. Fischer's exact test was applied to see the association between variables.
    RESULTS: A total of 206 questionnaires were included in the study. A response rate of 71.3% was achieved. Out of 206 respondents, 139 (67.5%) were male while 67 (32.5%) respondents were female. Close to three quaters of the respondents (n= 148; 71.8%) showed correct knowledge about generic medicines being a 'copy of the brand name medicines' and 'interchangeable with brand name medicines' (n= 148; 71.8%). In terms of safety, the majority of respondents (n=85; 41.26%) incorrectly understood that the generic medicines are less safe than brand name medicines. The total percentage of correct responses was seen in 53% of the respondents. More than half of the respondents agreed that locally manufactured medicines are of the same effectiveness as brand name medicines (n=114; 55.4%). Male practitioners with practice experience of 11-15 years showed positive perception towards the quality of multinational products. The Majority of respondents believed that their prescribing decision is influenced by medical representatives (n=117; 56.8%). More than three-quarters of the respondents expressed their wish to prescribe low cost medicines in their practice (n=157; 76.2%). More than one third of the respondents expressed their uneasiness to prescribe products from all local manufacturers (n=72; 35%).
    CONCLUSION: There were gaps identified in the knowledge of respondents. Although good perception and attitude were noted among the respondents, dissemination of information regarding generic medicines may perhaps strengthen generic prescribing. There is a need to introduce 'Quality by Design' concept in local manufacturing units. This, in turn, can inculcate confidence in prescribers towards locally manufactured generic medicines.
    KEYWORDS: Karachi; Pakistan; attitude; dispensing doctor; general practitioner; generic medicines; perception
    Matched MeSH terms: Private Facilities
  12. Kannan Kutty P, Pathmanathan G, Salleh NM
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2010 Jun;65(2):127-32.
    PMID: 23756797 MyJurnal
    Rotavirus vaccine is available as an optional vaccine in Malaysia. The counselling of optional vaccines is considered an integral part of the health services offered in a private paediatric clinic. While ensuring that all babies are up-todate with their compulsory immunization, counselling of optional vaccines like the rotavirus vaccine could give parents the choice to make an informed decision on the acceptance of this vaccine. Over a period of two years, we counselled the parents regarding diarrhoea caused by rotavirus disease and the rotavirus vaccine. In this study, the factors that were significantly associated with the acceptance of the rotavirus vaccine were the gender of the baby, the mother's age, the mother's occupation, the mode of payment for the vaccine, the number of previous visits to the clinic by the parents, the number of counselling sessions given to the parents and the pre-counselling awareness or knowledge of rotavirus disease and rotavirus vaccine. It is hoped that these findings may assist busy clinicians in their continuous efforts to provide health education and vaccination counselling to the parents of their patients.
    Matched MeSH terms: Private Facilities
  13. Anwar M, Sulaiman SA
    Malays J Med Sci, 2008 Oct;15(4):41-7.
    PMID: 22589637 MyJurnal
    To determine the current practices of private practitioners for the management of STIs in Pulau Pinang, Malaysia, evaluation of pharmacotherapy for STIs in private clinics and to ascertain the management of STIs compared to standard guidelines.
    Methods: Data was collected by self administered questionnaire for private practitioners, which gathered information on their socio-demographic as well as practice characteristics. Descriptive Statistical analysis was performed by using SPSS for windows version 13.0.
    Results: Data was collected from 78 practitioners. Most of the treatment choices mentioned for the treatment of gonorrhea were
    inconsistent with the guidelines. About 51.2% of practitioners did not screen their patients for HIV/AIDS. Majority of private practitioners counseled their patients about HIV/AIDS on irregular basis. A high percentage of 59% did not informed health authorities about STI cases and 32.1% mentioned that they did not use any guidelines.
    Conclusions: Management of STIs by private practitioners with respect to selection of antibiotics, patient counseling and case notification leaves a lot to be desired. Current management practices can adversely impact on HIV/AIDS transmission in the country. Interventions are needed to improve the management practices of private practitioners.
    Key words : Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs), Management
    Matched MeSH terms: Private Facilities
  14. Meftahuddin Tarip, Jamsiah Mustafa
    MyJurnal
    The aim of this study is to describe the epidemiological features of HFMD outbreak in the Hulu Langat District in 2000. Until November 2000, a total of 60 cases were reported and the worst ever reported to the previous years. The mean age of patients was 3.9; 5.8 years with majority of the cases aged between 1 to 4 years old (53.8 per 100,000 of population), male gender (8.3 per 100,000 of populations), and were of Chinese (12.2 per 11 100,000 of populations) and Malay ethnicity (7.2 per 100.000 of populations). All cases were uncomplicated cases and were diagnosed clinically. Most of the notified cases were front the government facilities, which are 44 cases (73.3%). Thirty-five (35) cases (58.4%) were treated as outpatient and 25 cases (41.6%) as in patients (p>0,05). Only 7 cases (11.7%) have history of contact with HFMD patients. The notified cases were mainly from the densely populated areas which were Cheras, Kajang and Ampang. No differences were noted between HFMD cases which have been breasfed for less than 6 month or more, and twenty nine (29) cases (48.3 %) had completed the immunization schedule. In conclusion, the recent emergence of HFMD brings a new challenge, which have to be faced in the prevention and surveillance activities of public health problems in the district.
    Study site: Notified cases from Klinik Kesihatan, hospital, private clinics, Ulu Langat, Selangor, Malaysia
    Matched MeSH terms: Private Facilities
  15. Yoga, R., Mukaram, M., Ramachandran
    Malays Orthop J, 2009;3(2):4-7.
    MyJurnal
    Intrarticular Hyaluronic Acid was administered to 45 patients with various grades of osteoarthritis in the knee. Following 3 fortnightly injections, these patients were reviewed at 6 weeks and 3 months with regard to their knee pain. We found the most patients (84.4%) has decreased knee pain following these injections. Patients who had severe grade osteoarthritis based on knee radiographs before the injections were less likely to have pain reduction compared to those with milder grade osteoarthritis. Only 4 (8.9%) patients showed no improvement and were subsequently considered for surgery. Many patients did not require any further treatment (24.4%) and the remaining were given analgesia (64.4%) to aid in their pain. One patient required another course of this injection. there were no complications recorded in this study. We concluded that Intrarticular Hyaluronic acid is an easy and safe method to treat osteoarthritis. The short-term outcome with regard to knee pain is good in patients with milder grades of osteoarthritis.
    Study site: Private orthopaedic clinic, Johor, Malaysia
    Matched MeSH terms: Private Facilities
  16. Koe, S.L., Puthucheary, S.D., Lam, S.K.
    MyJurnal
    The stools of 97 children with acute gastroenteritis, attending a private paediatric clinic, were studied for infectious agents. Putative pathogenic microorganisms were identified in 47 cases (48.5%). Food poisoning Salmonella was the most common bacteria detected, 25 cases (25.8%). Rotavirus was present in 9 cases (9.2%). Interview of the parents and care-persons revealed a general lack of knowledge in the proper cleaning and sterilisation of milk bottles, rubber teats and pacifiers. In 44 households there were at least one animal kept and there were positive bacterial isolates from 47% of such households. However, positive isolates were found in only 26% of households with no kept animals. The implications of these findings are discussed. (Copied from article).
    Matched MeSH terms: Private Facilities
  17. Lasimbang, Helen B., Naing, Oo Tha, Teo, John Beng Ho, Lidwina Edwin Amir
    MyJurnal
    Evidence-based data confirm the relationship between an increased availability of effective contraception and reduction in induced abortion rate. In Malaysia, the contraception prevalence rate in 1966 was 8.8 per cent to 52 per cent in 1984, but has levelled off since then. In recent years there has been increasing report of babies ‘abandonment’ in Malaysia. The aim of this study is to determine the knowledge, attitudes and practices related to contraception among women and doctors in Kota Kinabalu the capital of Sabah, Malaysia. Descriptive and analytical community-based cross-sectional study was used. A total of 240 women and 60 doctors were selected from either private or public clinics. The instrument used was face-to-face interview for the women and self-administered questionnaires for doctors. Analysis was done using SPSS version 21. The doctors (80%) felt that contraception is extremely important, and routinely discuss (63%) with their patients. Oral contraceptive pill (97%) is the most common type of contraceptive available in their clinics. About 68% of doctors surprisingly cited that abstinence plays a major part in their contraceptive advice. The average correct answer by doctors on knowledge is 62%. The women surveyed (98.8%) have heard of contraception. The main reason for using is for spacing of pregnancy and many stopped or did not use because of fear of side effects. Women attending the public clinic appear to know more about female and male sterilization and intrauterine contraceptive device compared to those attending private clinic. Further research is needed to reinforce this study.
    Study site: Klinik Kesihatan (maternal and child health clinics), private general practitioner clinics. Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia
    Matched MeSH terms: Private Facilities
  18. Ding HJ, Chan SC
    Family Physician, 2003;12(2&3):25-29.
    The morbidity patterns and demographics of patients presenting to two government health centers and four private general practice clinics were studied over one week. Results showed little difference in the morbidity patterns but a significant difference in the demographics of the patients. The commonest illnesses seen were minor ones like upper respiratory tract infection and chronic ones like hypertension and diabetes mellitus. A wide spectrum of illnesses was seen in all the clinics. Both places handled few emergencies and referred only occasionally. There was an equal percentage of patients from both sexes. Ages of the patients varied from place to place and the racial distribution was influenced by several factors, including the existing patient population and the race of the doctor.
    Matched MeSH terms: Private Facilities
  19. Loo JSE, Lim SW, Ng YK, Tiong JJL
    Int J Pharm Pract, 2017 Dec;25(6):429-437.
    PMID: 28211115 DOI: 10.1111/ijpp.12352
    OBJECTIVES: To identify factors influencing the decisions of Malaysian first-year pharmacy undergraduate students in private higher education when choosing to pursue a degree in pharmacy as well as their choice of private university.

    METHODS: This cross-sectional study employed a validated, self-administered questionnaire which was administered to 543 first-year pharmacy students from nine different private universities. Factor analysis was utilised to extract key factors from the responses. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyse the data.

    KEY FINDINGS: Eight factors motivating students' decision to study pharmacy emerged from the responses, accounting for 63.8% of the variance observed. Students were primarily motivated by intrinsic interests, with work conditions and profession attributes also exerting significant influence. In terms of choice of private university, nine factors were identified, accounting for 73.8% of the variance observed. The image of the school and university were most influential factors in this context, followed by university safety, programme attributes and financial factors.

    CONCLUSIONS: First-year pharmacy students in the private higher education sector are motivated by intrinsic interest when choosing to study pharmacy over other courses, while their choice of private university is influenced primarily by the image of the school and university.

    Matched MeSH terms: Private Facilities/economics*
  20. Suki NM, Lian JC, Suki NM
    Int J Health Care Qual Assur, 2011;24(1):42-56.
    PMID: 21456497 DOI: 10.1108/09526861111098238
    PURPOSE: The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether patients' perceptions exceed expectations when seeking treatment in private healthcare settings in the Klang Valley Region of Malaysia.
    DESIGN/METHODOLOGY/APPROACH: A survey was conducted among 191 patients in the Klang Valley Region of Malaysia to measure service quality of the private healthcare setting in Malaysia using SERVQUAL 5 dimensions model by Parasuraman et al. and three additional dimensions of the human element, when it comes to rendering good healthcare services, i.e. courtesy, communication and understanding of customers.
    FINDINGS: The results revealed that the customers' perceptions did not exceed their expectations, as they were dissatisfied with the level of healthcare services rendered by private healthcare settings in that they felt that the waiting time of more than an hour to receive the service was excessive and, when there was a problem, the healthcare provider did not provide a response fast enough.
    RESEARCH LIMITATIONS/IMPLICATIONS: Only eight service quality dimensions were studied. The sample investigated is relatively small, where three private healthcare settings were selected.
    PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: It is recommended that hospital management should look into highlighted areas for which patients have high expectations.
    ORIGINALITY/VALUE: The paper adds to the existing body of research on healthcare service quality, particularly on patients' perceptions and expectations. Survey results should be useful for continuous quality improvement.
    Matched MeSH terms: Private Facilities
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