Displaying publications 81 - 100 of 170 in total

  1. Gan S, Piao SH, Choi HJ, Zakaria S, Chia CH
    Carbohydr Polym, 2016 Feb 10;137:693-700.
    PMID: 26686181 DOI: 10.1016/j.carbpol.2015.11.035
    Cellulose carbamate (CC) was produced from kenaf core pulp (KCP) via a microwave reactor-assisted method. The formation of CC was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and nitrogen content analysis. The degree of substitution, zeta potential and size distribution of CC were also determined. The CC was characterized with scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and thermogravimetry analysis. The CC particles were then dispersed in silicone oil to prepare CC-based anhydrous electric stimuli-responsive electrorheological (ER) fluids. Rhelogical measurement was carried out using rotational rheometer with a high voltage generator in both steady and oscillatory shear modes to examine the effect of electric field strength on the ER characteristics. The results showed that the increase in electric field strength has enhanced the ER properties of CC-based ER fluid due to the chain formation induced by electric polarization among the particles.
    Matched MeSH terms: Stress, Mechanical
  2. Oshkour AA, Talebi H, Shirazi SF, Bayat M, Yau YH, Tarlochan F, et al.
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:807621.
    PMID: 25302331 DOI: 10.1155/2014/807621
    This study is focused on finite element analysis of a model comprising femur into which a femoral component of a total hip replacement was implanted. The considered prosthesis is fabricated from a functionally graded material (FGM) comprising a layer of a titanium alloy bonded to a layer of hydroxyapatite. The elastic modulus of the FGM was adjusted in the radial, longitudinal, and longitudinal-radial directions by altering the volume fraction gradient exponent. Four cases were studied, involving two different methods of anchoring the prosthesis to the spongy bone and two cases of applied loading. The results revealed that the FG prostheses provoked more SED to the bone. The FG prostheses carried less stress, while more stress was induced to the bone and cement. Meanwhile, less shear interface stress was stimulated to the prosthesis-bone interface in the noncemented FG prostheses. The cement-bone interface carried more stress compared to the prosthesis-cement interface. Stair climbing induced more harmful effects to the implanted femur components compared to the normal walking by causing more stress. Therefore, stress shielding, developed stresses, and interface stresses in the THR components could be adjusted through the controlling stiffness of the FG prosthesis by managing volume fraction gradient exponent.
    Matched MeSH terms: Stress, Mechanical
  3. Feng Z, Wagatsuma Y, Kikuchi M, Kosawada T, Nakamura T, Sato D, et al.
    Biomaterials, 2014 Sep;35(28):8078-91.
    PMID: 24976242 DOI: 10.1016/j.biomaterials.2014.05.072
    Fibroblast-mediated compaction of collagen gels attracts extensive attention in studies of wound healing, cellular fate processes, and regenerative medicine. However, the underlying mechanism and the cellular mechanical niche still remain obscure. This study examines the mechanical behaviour of collagen fibrils during the process of compaction from an alternative perspective on the primary mechanical interaction, providing a new viewpoint on the behaviour of populated fibroblasts. We classify the collagen fibrils into three types - bent, stretched, and adherent - and deduce the respective equations governing the mechanical behaviour of each type; in particular, from a putative principle based on the stationary state of the instantaneous Hamiltonian of the mechanotransduction system, we originally quantify the stretching force exerted on each stretched fibrils. Via careful verification of a structural elementary model based on this classification, we demonstrate a clear physical picture of the compaction process, quantitatively elucidate the panorama of the micro mechanical niche and reveal an intrinsic biphasic relationship between cellular traction force and matrix elasticity. Our results also infer the underlying mechanism of tensional homoeostasis and stress shielding of fibroblasts. With this study, and sequel investigations on the putative principle proposed herein, we anticipate a refocus of the research on cellular mechanobiology, in vitro and in vivo.
    Matched MeSH terms: Stress, Mechanical
  4. Moo EK, Han SK, Federico S, Sibole SC, Jinha A, Abu Osman NA, et al.
    J Biomech, 2014 Mar 21;47(5):1004-13.
    PMID: 24480705 DOI: 10.1016/j.jbiomech.2014.01.003
    Cartilage lesions change the microenvironment of cells and may accelerate cartilage degradation through catabolic responses from chondrocytes. In this study, we investigated the effects of structural integrity of the extracellular matrix (ECM) on chondrocytes by comparing the mechanics of cells surrounded by an intact ECM with cells close to a cartilage lesion using experimental and numerical methods. Experimentally, 15% nominal compression was applied to bovine cartilage tissues using a light-transmissible compression system. Target cells in the intact ECM and near lesions were imaged by dual-photon microscopy. Changes in cell morphology (N(cell)=32 for both ECM conditions) were quantified. A two-scale (tissue level and cell level) Finite Element (FE) model was also developed. A 15% nominal compression was applied to a non-linear, biphasic tissue model with the corresponding cell level models studied at different radial locations from the centre of the sample in the transient phase and at steady state. We studied the Green-Lagrange strains in the tissue and cells. Experimental and theoretical results indicated that cells near lesions deform less axially than chondrocytes in the intact ECM at steady state. However, cells near lesions experienced large tensile strains in the principal height direction, which are likely associated with non-uniform tissue radial bulging. Previous experiments showed that tensile strains of high magnitude cause an up-regulation of digestive enzyme gene expressions. Therefore, we propose that cartilage degradation near tissue lesions may be due to the large tensile strains in the principal height direction applied to cells, thus leading to an up-regulation of catabolic factors.
    Matched MeSH terms: Stress, Mechanical
  5. Chan BT, Abu Osman NA, Lim E, Chee KH, Abdul Aziz YF, Abed AA, et al.
    PLoS One, 2013;8(6):e67097.
    PMID: 23825628 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0067097
    Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is the most common myocardial disease. It not only leads to systolic dysfunction but also diastolic deficiency. We sought to investigate the effect of idiopathic and ischemic DCM on the intraventricular fluid dynamics and myocardial wall mechanics using a 2D axisymmetrical fluid structure interaction model. In addition, we also studied the individual effect of parameters related to DCM, i.e. peak E-wave velocity, end systolic volume, wall compliance and sphericity index on several important fluid dynamics and myocardial wall mechanics variables during ventricular filling. Intraventricular fluid dynamics and myocardial wall deformation are significantly impaired under DCM conditions, being demonstrated by low vortex intensity, low flow propagation velocity, low intraventricular pressure difference (IVPD) and strain rates, and high-end diastolic pressure and wall stress. Our sensitivity analysis results showed that flow propagation velocity substantially decreases with an increase in wall stiffness, and is relatively independent of preload at low-peak E-wave velocity. Early IVPD is mainly affected by the rate of change of the early filling velocity and end systolic volume which changes the ventriculo:annular ratio. Regional strain rate, on the other hand, is significantly correlated with regional stiffness, and therefore forms a useful indicator for myocardial regional ischemia. The sensitivity analysis results enhance our understanding of the mechanisms leading to clinically observable changes in patients with DCM.
    Matched MeSH terms: Stress, Mechanical
  6. Bajuri MN, Kadir MR, Amin IM, Ochsner A
    Proc Inst Mech Eng H, 2012 Jul;226(7):510-20.
    PMID: 22913098 DOI: 10.1177/0954411912445846
    The wrist is the most complex joint for virtual three-dimensional simulations, and the complexity is even more pronounced when dealing with skeletal disorders of the joint such, as rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In order to analyse the biomechanical difference between healthy and diseased joints, three-dimensional models of these two wrist conditions were developed from computed tomography images. These images consist of eight carpal bones, five metacarpal bones, the distal radius and ulna. The cartilages were developed based on the shape of the available articulations and ligaments were simulated via mechanical links. The RA model was developed accurately by simulating all ten common criteria of the disease related to the wrist. Results from the finite element (FE) analyses showed that the RA model produced three times higher contact pressure at the articulations compared to the healthy model. Normal physiological load transfer also changed from predominantly through the radial side to an increased load transfer approximately 5% towards the ulnar. Based on an extensive literature search, this is the first ever reported work that simulates the pathological conditions of the rheumatoid arthritis of the wrist joint.
    Matched MeSH terms: Stress, Mechanical
  7. Latifi MH, Ganthel K, Rukmanikanthan S, Mansor A, Kamarul T, Bilgen M
    Biomed Eng Online, 2012;11:23.
    PMID: 22545650 DOI: 10.1186/1475-925X-11-23
    Effective fixation of fracture requires careful selection of a suitable implant to provide stability and durability. Implant with a feature of locking plate (LP) has been used widely for treating distal fractures in femur because of its favourable clinical outcome, but its potential in fixing proximal fractures in the subtrochancteric region has yet to be explored. Therefore, this comparative study was undertaken to demonstrate the merits of the LP implant in treating the subtrochancteric fracture by comparing its performance limits against those obtained with the more traditional implants; angle blade plate (ABP) and dynamic condylar screw plate (DCSP).
    Matched MeSH terms: Stress, Mechanical
  8. Soon CF, Youseffi M, Berends RF, Blagden N, Denyer MC
    Biosens Bioelectron, 2013 Jan 15;39(1):14-20.
    PMID: 22809522 DOI: 10.1016/j.bios.2012.06.032
    Keratinocyte traction forces play a crucial role in wound healing. The aim of this study was to develop a novel cell traction force (CTF) transducer system based on cholesteryl ester liquid crystals (LC). Keratinocytes cultured on LC induced linear and isolated deformation lines in the LC surface. As suggested by the fluorescence staining, the deformation lines appeared to correlate with the forces generated by the contraction of circumferential actin filaments which were transmitted to the LC surface via the focal adhesions. Due to the linear viscoelastic behavior of the LC, Hooke's equation was used to quantify the CTFs by associating Young's modulus of LC to the cell induced stresses and biaxial strain in forming the LC deformation. Young's modulus of the LC was profiled by using spherical indentation and determined at approximately 87.1±17.2kPa. A new technique involving cytochalasin-B treatment was used to disrupt the intracellular force generating actin fibers, and consequently the biaxial strain in the LC induced by the cells was determined. Due to the improved sensitivity and spatial resolution (∼1μm) of the LC based CTF transducer, a wide range of CTFs was determined (10-120nN). These were found to be linearly proportional to the length of the deformations. The linear relationship of CTF-deformations was then applied in a bespoke CTF mapping software to estimate CTFs and to map CTF fields. The generated CTF map highlighted distinct distributions and different magnitude of CTFs were revealed for polarized and non-polarized keratinocytes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Stress, Mechanical
  9. Syahrom A, Abdul Kadir MR, Abdullah J, Öchsner A
    Med Biol Eng Comput, 2011 Dec;49(12):1393-403.
    PMID: 21947767 DOI: 10.1007/s11517-011-0833-0
    The relationship between microarchitecture to the failure mechanism and mechanical properties can be assessed through experimental and computational methods. In this study, both methods were utilised using bovine cadavers. Twenty four samples of cancellous bone were extracted from fresh bovine and the samples were cleaned from excessive marrow. Uniaxial compression testing was performed with displacement control. After mechanical testing, each specimen was ashed in a furnace. Four of the samples were exemplarily scanned using micro-computed tomography (μCT) and three dimensional models of the cancellous bones were reconstructed for finite element simulation. The mechanical properties and the failure modes obtained from numerical simulations were then compared to the experiments. Correlations between microarchitectural parameters to the mechanical properties and failure modes were then made. The Young's modulus correlates well with the bone volume fraction with R² = 0.615 and P value 0.013. Three different types of failure modes of cancellous bone were observed: oblique fracture (21.7%), perpendicular global fracture (47.8%), and scattered localised fracture (30.4%). However, no correlations were found between the failure modes to the morphological parameters. The percentage of error between computer predictions and the actual experimental test was from 6 to 12%. These mechanical properties and information on failure modes can be used for the development of synthetic cancellous bone.
    Matched MeSH terms: Stress, Mechanical
  10. Moo EK, Herzog W, Han SK, Abu Osman NA, Pingguan-Murphy B, Federico S
    Biomech Model Mechanobiol, 2012 Sep;11(7):983-93.
    PMID: 22234779 DOI: 10.1007/s10237-011-0367-2
    Experimental findings indicate that in-situ chondrocytes die readily following impact loading, but remain essentially unaffected at low (non-impact) strain rates. This study was aimed at identifying possible causes for cell death in impact loading by quantifying chondrocyte mechanics when cartilage was subjected to a 5% nominal tissue strain at different strain rates. Multi-scale modelling techniques were used to simulate cartilage tissue and the corresponding chondrocytes residing in the tissue. Chondrocytes were modelled by accounting for the cell membrane, pericellular matrix and pericellular capsule. The results suggest that cell deformations, cell fluid pressures and fluid flow velocity through cells are highest at the highest (impact) strain rate, but they do not reach damaging levels. Tangential strain rates of the cell membrane were highest at the highest strain rate and were observed primarily in superficial tissue cells. Since cell death following impact loading occurs primarily in superficial zone cells, we speculate that cell death in impact loading is caused by the high tangential strain rates in the membrane of superficial zone cells causing membrane rupture and loss of cell content and integrity.
    Matched MeSH terms: Stress, Mechanical
  11. Raja Izaham RM, Abdul Kadir MR, Abdul Rashid AH, Hossain MG, Kamarul T
    Injury, 2012 Jun;43(6):898-902.
    PMID: 22204773 DOI: 10.1016/j.injury.2011.12.006
    The use of open wedge high tibial osteotomy (HTO) to correct varus deformity of the knee is well established. However, the stability of the various implants used in this procedure has not been previously demonstrated. In this study, the two most common types of plates were analysed (1) the Puddu plates that use the dynamic compression plate (DCP) concept, and (2) the Tomofix plate that uses the locking compression plate (LCP) concept. Three dimensional model of the tibia was reconstructed from computed tomography images obtained from the Medical Implant Technology Group datasets. Osteotomy and fixation models were simulated through computational processing. Simulated loading was applied at 60:40 ratios on the medial:lateral aspect during single limb stance. The model was fixed distally in all degrees of freedom. Simulated data generated from the micromotions, displacement and, implant stress were captured. At the prescribed loads, a higher displacement of 3.25 mm was observed for the Puddu plate model (p<0.001). Coincidentally the amount of stresses subjected to this plate, 24.7 MPa, was also significantly lower (p<0.001). There was significant negative correlation (p<0.001) between implant stresses to that of the amount of fracture displacement which signifies a less stable fixation using Puddu plates. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that the Tomofix plate produces superior stability for bony fixation in HTO procedures.
    Matched MeSH terms: Stress, Mechanical
  12. Singh VA, Nagalingam J, Saad M, Pailoor J
    Biomed Eng Online, 2010;9:48.
    PMID: 20831801 DOI: 10.1186/1475-925X-9-48
    Sterilization and re-usage of tumour bone for reconstruction after tumour resection is now gaining popularity in the East. This recycle tumour bone needs to be sterilized in order to eradicate the tumour cells before re-implantation for limb salvage procedures. The effect of some of these treatments on the integrity and sterility of the bone after treatment has been published but there has yet been a direct comparison between the various methods of sterilization to determine the one method that gives the best tumour kill without compromising the bone's structural integrity.
    Matched MeSH terms: Stress, Mechanical
  13. AL-Makramani BM, Razak AA, Abu-Hassan MI
    J Prosthodont, 2009 Aug;18(6):484-8.
    PMID: 19694015
    PURPOSE: This study investigated the occlusal fracture resistance of Turkom-Cerafused alumina compared to Procera AllCeram and In-Ceram all-ceramic restorations.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixmaster dies were duplicated from the prepared maxillary first premolar tooth using nonprecious metal alloy (Wiron 99). Ten copings of 0.6 mm thickness were fabricated from each type of ceramic, for a total of thirty copings. Two master dies were used for each group, and each of them was used to lute five copings. All groups were cemented with resin luting cement Panavia F according to manufacturer's instructions and received a static load of 5 kg during cementation. After 24 hours of distilled water storage at 37 degrees C, the copings were vertically compressed using a universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min.

    RESULTS: The results of the present study showed the following mean loads at fracture: Turkom-Cera (2184 +/- 164 N), In-Ceram (2042 +/- 200 N), and Procera AllCeram (1954 +/- 211 N). ANOVA and Scheffe's post hoc test showed that the mean load at fracture of Turkom-Cera was significantly different from Procera AllCeram (p < 0.05). Scheffe's post hoc test showed no significant difference between the mean load at fracture of Turkom-Cera and In-Ceram or between the mean load at fracture of In-Ceram and Procera AllCeram.

    CONCLUSION: Because Turkom-Cera demonstrated equal to or higher loads at fracture than currently accepted all-ceramic materials, it would seem to be acceptable for fabrication of anterior and posterior ceramic crowns.

    Matched MeSH terms: Stress, Mechanical
  14. Ooi FK, Singh R, Singh HJ, Umemura Y
    Osteoporos Int, 2009 Jun;20(6):963-72.
    PMID: 18839049 DOI: 10.1007/s00198-008-0760-6
    SUMMARY: This study determines the minimum level of exercise required to maintain 8 weeks of jumping exercise-induced bone gains in rats. It was found that the minimum level of exercise required for maintaining the different exercise-induced bone gains varied between 11% and 18% of the initial exercise intensity.

    INTRODUCTION: This study ascertains the minimum level of follow-up exercise required to maintain bone gains induced by an 8-week jumping exercise in rats.

    METHODS: Twelve groups of 12-week old rats (n = 10 rats per group) were given either no exercise for 8 (8S) or 32 weeks (32S), or received 8 weeks of standard training program (8STP) that consisted of 200 jumps per week, given at 40 jumps per day for 5 days per week, followed by 24 weeks of exercise at loads of either 40 or 20 or 10 jumps per day, for either 5, or 3, or 1 day/week. Bone mass, strength, and morphometric properties were measured in the right tibia. Data were analyzed using one-way analyses of variance.

    RESULTS: Bone mass, strength, mid-shaft periosteal perimeter and cortical area were significantly (p < 0.05) higher in the rats given 8STP than that in the 8S group. The minimal level of exercise required to maintain the bone gains was 31, 36, 25, and 21 jumps per week for mass, strength, periosteal perimeter and cortical area, respectively.

    CONCLUSIONS: Eight weeks of jumping exercise-induced bone gains could be maintained for a period of 24 weeks with follow-up exercise consisting of 11% to 18% of the initial exercise load.

    Matched MeSH terms: Stress, Mechanical
  15. Eshraghi A, Abu Osman NA, Karimi MT, Gholizadeh H, Ali S, Wan Abas WA
    Am J Phys Med Rehabil, 2012 Dec;91(12):1028-38.
    PMID: 23168378 DOI: 10.1097/PHM.0b013e318269d82a
    The objectives of this study were to compare the effects of a newly designed magnetic suspension system with that of two existing suspension methods on pistoning inside the prosthetic socket and to compare satisfaction and perceived problems among transtibial amputees.
    Matched MeSH terms: Stress, Mechanical
  16. Gholizadeh H, Abu Osman NA, Eshraghi A, Ali S, Sævarsson SK, Wan Abas WA, et al.
    J Rehabil Res Dev, 2012;49(9):1321-30.
    PMID: 23408214
    Poor suspension increases slippage of the residual limb inside the socket during ambulation. The main purpose of this article is to evaluate the pistoning at the prosthetic liner-socket interface during gait and assess patients' satisfaction with two different liners. Two prostheses with seal-in and locking liners were fabricated for each of the 10 subjects with transtibial amputation. The Vicon motion system was used to measure the pistoning during gait. The subjects were also asked to complete a Prosthesis Evaluation Questionnaire. The results revealed higher pistoning inside the socket during gait with the locking liner than with the seal-in liner (p < 0.05). The overall satisfaction with the locking liner was higher (p < 0.05) because of the relative ease with which the patients could don and doff the device. As such, pistoning may not be the main factor that determines patients' overall satisfaction with the prosthesis and other factors may also contribute to comfort and satisfaction with prostheses. The article also verifies the feasibility of the Vicon motion system for measuring pistoning during gait.
    Matched MeSH terms: Stress, Mechanical
  17. Omar FN, Hanipah SH, Xiang LY, Mohammed MAP, Baharuddin AS, Abdullah J
    J Mech Behav Biomed Mater, 2016 09;62:106-118.
    PMID: 27183430 DOI: 10.1016/j.jmbbm.2016.04.043
    Experimental and numerical investigation was conducted to study the micromechanics of oil palm empty fruit bunch fibres containing silica bodies. The finite viscoelastic-plastic material model called Parallel Rheological Network model was proposed, that fitted well with cyclic and stress relaxation tensile tests of the fibres. Representative volume element and microstructure models were developed using finite element method, where the models information was obtained from microscopy and X-ray micro-tomography analyses. Simulation results showed that difference of the fibres model with silica bodies and those without ones is larger under shear than compression and tension. However, in comparison to geometrical effect (i.e. silica bodies), it is suggested that ultrastructure components of the fibres (modelled using finite viscoelastic-plastic model) is responsible for the complex mechanical behaviour of oil palm fibres. This can be due to cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin components and the interface behaviour, as reported on other lignocellulosic materials.
    Matched MeSH terms: Stress, Mechanical
  18. Roychoudhury PK, Gomes J, Bhattacharyay SK, Abdulah N
    Artif Cells Blood Substit Immobil Biotechnol, 1999 Sep-Nov;27(5-6):399-402.
    PMID: 10595439
    Studies were carried out in T-flasks and bioreactor to produce urokinase enzyme using HT 1080 human kidney cell line. While growing the cell line it has been observed that the lag phase is reduced considerably in the bioreactor as compared to T-flask culture. The HT 1080 cell adhesion rate and urokinase production were observed to be the function of serum concentration in the medium. The maximum urokinase activity of 3.1 x 10(-4) unit ml(-1) was achieved in the bioreactor at around 65 h of batch culture. Since HT 1080 is an anchorage dependent cell line, therefore, the hydrodynamic effects on the cell line were investigated.
    Matched MeSH terms: Stress, Mechanical
  19. Tan YT, Peh KK, Al-Hanbali O
    AAPS PharmSciTech, 2000;1(3):E24.
    PMID: 14727910
    This study examined the mechanical (hardness, compressibility, adhesiveness, and cohesiveness) and rheological (zero-rate viscosity and thixotropy) properties of polyethylene glycol (PEG) gels that contain different ratios of Carbopol 934P (CP) and polyvinylpyrrolidone K90 (PVP). Mechanical properties were examined using a texture analyzer (TA-XT2), and rheological properties were examined using a rheometer (Rheomat 115A). In addition, lidocaine release from gels was evaluated using a release apparatus simulating the buccal condition. The results indicated that an increase in CP concentration significantly increased gel compressibility, hardness, and adhesiveness, factors that affect ease of gel removal from container, ease of gel application onto mucosal membrane, and gel bioadhesion. However, CP concentration was negatively correlated with gel cohesiveness, a factor representing structural reformation. In contrast, PVP concentration was negatively correlated with gel hardness and compressibility, but positively correlated with gel cohesiveness. All PEG gels exhibited pseudoplastic flow with thixotropy, indicating a general loss of consistency with increased shearing stress. Drug release T50% was affected by the flow rate of the simulated saliva solution. A reduction in the flow rate caused a slower drug release and hence a higher T50% value. In addition, drug release was significantly reduced as the concentrations of CP and PVP increased because of the increase in zero-rate viscosity of the gels. Response surfaces and contour plots of the dependent variables further substantiated that various combinations of CP and PVP in the PEG gels offered a wide range of mechanical, rheological, and drug-release characteristics. A combination of CP and PVP with complementary physical properties resulted in a prolonged buccal drug delivery.
    Matched MeSH terms: Stress, Mechanical
  20. Pingguan-Murphy B, El-Azzeh M, Bader DL, Knight MM
    J Cell Physiol, 2006 Nov;209(2):389-97.
    PMID: 16883605
    Mechanical loading modulates cartilage homeostasis through the control of matrix synthesis and catabolism. However, the mechanotransduction pathways through which chondrocytes detect different loading conditions remain unclear. The present study investigated the influence of cyclic compression on intracellular Ca2+ signalling using the well-characterised chondrocyte-agarose model. Cells labelled with Fluo4 were visualised using confocal microscopy following a period of 10 cycles of compression between 0% and 10% strain. In unstrained agarose constructs, not subjected to cyclic compression, a subpopulation of approximately 45% of chondrocytes exhibited spontaneous global Ca2+ transients with mean transient rise and fall times of 19.4 and 29.4 sec, respectively. Cyclic compression modulated global Ca2+ signalling by increasing the percentage of cells exhibiting Ca2+ transients (population modulation) and/or reducing the rise and fall times of these transients (transient shape modulation). The frequency and strain rate of compression differentially modulated these Ca2+ signalling characteristics providing a potential mechanism through which chondrocytes may distinguish between different loading conditions. Treatment with apyrase, gadolinium and the P2 receptor blockers, suramin and basilen blue, significantly reduced the percentage of cells exhibiting Ca2+ transients following cyclic compression, such that the mechanically induced upregulation of Ca2+ signalling was completely abolished. Thus cyclic compression appears to activate a purinergic pathway involving the release of ATP followed by the activation of P2 receptors causing a combination of extracellular Ca2+ influx and intracellular Ca2+ release. Knowledge of this fundamental cartilage mechanotransduction pathway may lead to improved therapeutic strategies for the treatment of cartilage damage and disease.
    Matched MeSH terms: Stress, Mechanical
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