Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 24 in total

  1. Abdul Kadir AH, Myint Han
    Med J Malaysia, 1988 Sep;43(3):218-23.
    PMID: 3241579
  2. Darwish M, Aris A, Puteh MH, Jusoh MNH, Abdul Kadir A
    J Environ Manage, 2017 Dec 01;203(Pt 2):861-866.
    PMID: 26935149 DOI: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2016.02.033
    Struvite precipitation has been widely applied for the removal of ammonium-nitrogen (NH4-N) from wastewater. Due to the high cost of phosphorus (P) reagents, the current research trend was directed to find alternative sources of P, in order to maintain a sustainable NH4-N removal process. The current study investigated waste bones ashes as alternative sources of P. Different types of bones' ashes were characterized, in which the ash produced from waste fish bones was the highest in P content (17%wt.). The optimization of the factors affecting P extraction from ash by acidic leaching showed that applying 2M H2SO4 and 1.25 kg H2SO4/kg ash achieved the highest P recovery (95%). Thereafter, the recovered P was successfully used in struvite precipitation, which achieved more than 90% NH4-N removal and high purity struvite.
  3. Kasim R, Draman N, Abdul Kadir A, Muhamad R
    Introduction: Pregnancy is common among women in the reproductive age and is associated with several risks. Preconception care has thus been introduced to promote health before conception and to improve pregnancy-related outcomes. The aim of this study was to determine the level of knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding preconception care among women attending antenatal care appointments. Methodology: This was a cross-sectional study conducted from April to December 2012 at Klinik Kesihatan Bachok. A self-administered questionnaire was administered to 135 respondents from 18 to 45 years of age. The questionnaire consisted of four domains, assessing socio-demographic data and knowledge, attitudes and practice of preconception care. Results: The mean (SD) knowledge, attitude and practice scores were 11.37 (3.94), 15.39 (2.12) and 10.13 (2.30), respectively. In total, 98.5% of the respondents had good attitudes, 45.2% had good practices, and 51.9% had good knowledge of preconception care. Conclusion: Women in Bachok have fair knowledge of and good attitude towards preconception care. However, they have poor preconception care practices.
  4. Hassan II, Nik Hussain NH, Sulaiman Z, Abdul Kadir A, Mat Nor MZ
    Enferm Clin, 2020 03;30 Suppl 2:190-193.
    PMID: 32204142 DOI: 10.1016/j.enfcli.2019.07.075
    OBJECTIVE: This study explores how menopausal women perceived supports provided by their husbands.

    METHODOLOGY: Total of 13 menopausal women recruited using a combination of purposive and snowball techniques from two sources, tertiary hospital and local communities in the state of Kelantan, Malaysia. The in-depth semi-structured interview guided was used to explore how they perceived supports provided by their husbands. The data were then analysed using a thematic analysis.

    RESULTS: Five (5) themes have emerged which comprises of emotional, instrumental, appraisal, guidance, and sexual supports. One of which was a new theme (sexual intimacy support) that had not been existed previously in other literature reviews.

    CONCLUSION: Majority of menopausal women perceived the supports provided by their husband were negative, rather than positive supports that they had hoped. These findings suggest that an education program tool for husbands as a support person is much needed to ensure women walk through the menopause phase in a more meaningful life.

  5. Abdul Wahab P, Mohd Yusoff D, Abdul Kadir A, Ali SH, Lee YY, Kueh YC
    PeerJ, 2020;8:e8581.
    PMID: 32175185 DOI: 10.7717/peerj.8581
    Background: Chronic constipation is a common symptom among the elderly, and it may affect their quality of life (QoL). A lack of available research focused on the elderly means that this effect is not well understood. This study aimed to develop and validate a new scale (Elderly-Constipation Impact Scale (E-CIS)) to measure the impact of chronic constipation on QoL among the elderly.

    Methods: A pool of items was generated from a qualitative study, literature reviews, and expert reviews. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was performed on the original 40 items of the E-CIS and followed by 27 items for confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). A total of 470 elderly people with chronic constipation were involved.

    Results: The mean age of the participants was 68.64 ± 6.57. Finally, only 22 items were indicated as appropriately representing the E-CIS, which were grouped into seven subscales: 'daily activities', 'treatment satisfaction', 'lack of control of bodily function', 'diet restriction', 'symptom intensity', 'anxiety' and 'preventive actions'. The scale was confirmed as valid (root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) = 0.04, comparative fit index (CFI) = 0.961, Tucker-Lewis index (TLI) = 0.952 and chi-square/degree of freedom (chiSq/df) = 1.44) and reliable (Cronbach's alpha: 0.66-0.85, composite reliability (CR) = 0.699-0.851) to assess the impact of chronic constipation on the elderly's QoL.

    Conclusions: The E-CIS is useful to measure the impact of chronic constipation on the elderly's QoL. A further test is needed to determine the validity and reliability of this scale in other elderly population.

  6. Idris SB, Abdul Kadir A, Abdullah JFF, Ramanoon SZ, Basit MA, Abubakar MZZA
    Front Vet Sci, 2020;7:270.
    PMID: 32613011 DOI: 10.3389/fvets.2020.00270
    The development and utilization of nano-antibiotics is currently gaining attention as a possible solution to antibiotic resistance. The aim of this study was therefore to determine the pharmacokinetics of free oxytetracycline (OTC) and oxytetracycline loaded cockle shell calcium carbonate-based nanoparticle (OTC-CNP) after a single dose of intraperitoneal (IP) administration in BALB/c mice. A total of 100 female BALB/c mice divided into two groups of equal number (n = 50) were administered with 10 mg/kg OTC and OTC-CNP, respectively. Blood samples were collected before and post-administration from both groups at time 0, 5, 10, 15, and 30 min and 1, 2, 6, 24, and 48 h, and OTC plasma concentration was quantified using a validated HPLC-UV method. The pharmacokinetic parameters were analyzed using a non-compartment model. The Cmax values of OTC in OTC-CNP and free OTC treated group were 64.99 and 23.53 μg/ml, respectively. OTC was detected up to 24 h in the OTC-CNP group as against 1 h in the free OTC group following intraperitoneal administration. In the OTC-CNP group, the plasma elimination rate of OTC was slower while the half-life, the area under the curve, and the volume of the distribution were increased. In conclusion, the pharmacokinetic profile of OTC in the OTC-CNP group differs significantly from that of free OTC. However, further studies are necessary to determine the antibacterial efficacy of OTC-CNP for the treatment of bacterial diseases.
  7. Abdul Basit M, Abdul Kadir A, Loh TC, Abdul Aziz S, Salleh A, Kaka U, et al.
    Animals (Basel), 2020 Jul 16;10(7).
    PMID: 32708616 DOI: 10.3390/ani10071209
    This research was conducted to estimate the effects of Persicaria odorata leaf meal (POLM) on haematological indices, serum biochemical attributes, and internal organs parameters, including histomorphological features of the liver, in broiler chickens. A total of 120 one-day-old male broiler chicks (Cobb-500) were randomly allocated into four experimental groups. The dietary treatments were basal diet (BD), which served as the control (C), along with BD + 2 g/kg POLM (Po2), BD + 4 g/kg POLM (Po4), BD + 8 g/kg POLM (Po8), which were the supplemented groups. The body weight gain (BWG) showed a linear increase and feed conversion ratio (FCR) showed a linear decrease with increasing POLM dosage at day 42 (p ˂ 0.05) and for the overall growth performance period (p ˂ 0.01). On day 21 and day 42, the values of red blood cells (RBCs), white blood cells (WBCs), haemoglobin (Hb), and packed cell volume (PCV) showed linear increases (p ˂0.05) as the dosage of POLM increased in the diet. On day 21, dietary supplementation of POLM linearly decreased (p ˂ 0.05) the serum activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), aspartate aminotransaminase (AST), alanine aminotransaminase (ALT), and serum levels of urea and creatinine. On the other hand, serum levels of total protein (TP), albumin, and globulin showed a linear increase (p ˂ 0.05) as the POLM dosage increased. On day 42, the serum activity of AST and ALT and serum levels of glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, urea, and creatinine showed linear decreases (p ˂ 0.05) with increased levels of POLM in the diet. However, POLM supplementation linearly increased (p ˂ 0.05) the serum levels of TP and globulin. Dietary inclusion of POLM did not influence the organ parameters and showed no adverse effects on the liver histomorphology. In conclusion, supplementation of POLM increased the growth performance, improving haematological indices and serum biochemistry profiles of broiler chickens without any deleterious effects on the liver histomorphology. The results of the present study provide evidence that POLM can be safely used at a dose rate of 8 g/kg of feed as an alternative to conventional antimicrobial growth promoters (AGPs).
  8. Nordin ML, Abdul Kadir A, Zakaria ZA, Abdullah R, Abdullah MNH
    BMC Complement Altern Med, 2018 Mar 12;18(1):87.
    PMID: 29530022 DOI: 10.1186/s12906-018-2153-5
    BACKGROUND: Ardisia crispa Thunb. D.C is used mostly in some parts of the Asian region by traditional practitioners to treat certain diseases associated with oxidative stress and inflammation including cancer and rheumatism. In Malaysia, it is popularly known as 'Mata Ayam' and local traditional practitioners believed that the root of the plant is therapeutically beneficial.

    METHODS: The cytotoxic effect of hydromethanolic extract of A. crispa and its solvents partitions (ethyl acetate and aqueous extracts) against breast cancer cells were evaluated by using MTT assay. The cells were treated with concentration of extracts ranging from 15.63 μg/mL- 1000 μg/mL for 72 h. The quantification of phenolic and flavonoid contents of the extracts were carried out to determine the relationship between of phytochemical compounds responsible for cytotoxic and antioxidative activities. The antioxidant capacity was measured by DPPH and ABTS free radical scavenging assay and expressed as milligram (mg) Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity per 1 g (g) of tested extract.

    RESULTS: The hydromethanolic and ethyl acetate extracts showed moderate cytotoxic effect against MCF-7 with IC50 values of 57.35 ± 19.33 μg/mL, and 54.98 ± 14.10 μg/mL, respectively but aqueous extract was inactive against MCF-7. For MDA-MB-231, hydromethanolic, ethyl acetate and aqueous extracts exhibited weak cytotoxic effects against MDA-MB-231 with IC50 values more than 100 μg/mL. The plant revealed high total phenolic content, total flavonoid and antioxidant capacity.

    CONCLUSION: The response of different type of breast cancer cell lines towards A. crispa extract and its partitions varied. Accordingly, hydromethanolic and ethyl acetate extracts appear to be more cytotoxic to oestrogen receptor (ER) positive breast cancer than oestrogen receptor (ER) negative breast cancer. However, aqueous extract appears to have poor activity to both types of breast cancer. Besides that, hydromethanolic and ethyl acetate extracts exhibit higher TPC, TFC and antioxidant capacity compared to aqueous extract. Synergistic effect of anticancer and antioxidant bioactives compounds of A. crispa plausibly contributed to the cytotoxic effects of the extract.

  9. Abdul Kadir A, Mohd Arif MF, Ishak A, Hassan II, Mohd Noor N
    Biomed Res Int, 2018;2018:4329751.
    PMID: 29955601 DOI: 10.1155/2018/4329751
    Objective: To adapt and validate the Malay version of Osteoarthritis Knee and Hip Quality of Life (OAKHQOL) questionnaire.

    Design: The OAKHQOL was adapted into Malay version using forward-backward translation methodology. It was then validated in a cross-sectional study of 191 patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA). Patients completed the OAKHQOL and Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) questionnaire. Confirmatory analysis, reliability analysis, and Pearson correlation test were performed.

    Results: The new five-factor model of 28 items demonstrated an acceptable level of goodness of fit (comparative fit index = 0.915, Tucker-Lewis index = 0.905, incremental fit index = 0.916, chi-squared/degree of freedom = 1.953, and root mean square error of approximation = 0.071), signifying a fit model. The Cronbach's alpha value and the composite reliability of each construct ranged from 0.865 to 0.933 and 0.819 to 0.921, respectively. The Pearson correlation coefficient between the OAKHQOL and the WOMAC showed adequate criterion validity. Known groups validity showed statistical difference in body mass index in physical activity, mental health, and pain construct. The pain domain was statistically different between the age groups.

    Conclusion: The Malay version OAKHQOL questionnaire is a valid and reliable instrument to assess health-related quality of life in knee OA patients.
  10. Soo May L, Sanip Z, Ahmed Shokri A, Abdul Kadir A, Md Lazin MR
    Complement Ther Clin Pract, 2018 Aug;32:181-186.
    PMID: 30057048 DOI: 10.1016/j.ctcp.2018.06.012
    BACKGROUND: Osteoarthritis is a common problem affecting the joints in the elderly, caused disability and consequently decrease the quality of life. The conservative treatment includes the usage of analgesia, but the use of herbal medicine is growing. Momordica charantia or bitter melon has been widely described to have anti-diabetic and anti-inflammatory effects. However, its effect on reducing pain in primary knee osteoarthritis is not well studied. We aim to determine the effects of Momordica charantia in reducing pain among primary knee osteoarthritis patients.
    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-eight and thirty-seven primary knee osteoarthritis patients underwent 3 months of Momordica charantia and placebo supplementation respectively. Three 500 mg per capsule of Momordica charantia were taken thrice daily. Rescue analgesia was allowed as needed. Pain and symptoms throughout the Momordica charantia supplementation period were assessed using Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score and EQ-5D-3L Health questionnaire, while rescue analgesia intake throughout the period of supplementation was measured using analgesic score.
    RESULTS: After 3 months supplementation period, body weight, body mass index, and fasting blood glucose reduced significantly in the Momordica charantia group. There were also significant improvements in Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score subscales and EQ-5D-3L dimension score, and reduction in analgesic score. The placebo group had also shown significant improvements in certain Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score subscales and EQ-5D-3L dimension score, but with increased of the analgesic score.
    CONCLUSION: Momordica charantia supplementation offers a safe alternative to reducing pain and improving symptoms among the primary knee osteoarthritis patients while reducing the need for analgesia consumption. These beneficial effects can be seen as early as 3 months of supplementation.
    Study site: Orthopaedic clinic, Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (HUSM), Kelantan, Malaysia
  11. Mohajerani A, Hui SQ, Mirzababaei M, Arulrajah A, Horpibulsuk S, Abdul Kadir A, et al.
    Materials (Basel), 2019 Aug 07;12(16).
    PMID: 31394815 DOI: 10.3390/ma12162513
    Fibres have been used in construction materials for a very long time. Through previous research and investigations, the use of natural and synthetic fibres have shown promising results, as their presence has demonstrated significant benefits in terms of the overall physical and mechanical properties of the composite material. When comparing fibre reinforcement to traditional reinforcement, the ratio of fibre required is significantly less, making fibre reinforcement both energy and economically efficient. More recently, waste fibres have been studied for their potential as reinforcement in construction materials. The build-up of waste materials all around the world is a known issue, as landfill space is limited, and the incineration process requires considerable energy and produces unwanted emissions. The utilisation of waste fibres in construction materials can alleviate these issues and promote environmentally friendly and sustainable solutions that work in the industry. This study reviews the types, properties, and applications of different fibres used in a wide range of materials in the construction industry, including concrete, asphalt concrete, soil, earth materials, blocks and bricks, composites, and other applications.
  12. Mohajerani A, Burnett L, Smith JV, Kurmus H, Milas J, Arulrajah A, et al.
    Materials (Basel), 2019 Sep 20;12(19).
    PMID: 31547011 DOI: 10.3390/ma12193052
    Nanoparticles are defined as ultrafine particles sized between 1 and 100 nanometres in diameter. In recent decades, there has been wide scientific research on the various uses of nanoparticles in construction, electronics, manufacturing, cosmetics, and medicine. The advantages of using nanoparticles in construction are immense, promising extraordinary physical and chemical properties for modified construction materials. Among the many different types of nanoparticles, titanium dioxide, carbon nanotubes, silica, copper, clay, and aluminium oxide are the most widely used nanoparticles in the construction sector. The promise of nanoparticles as observed in construction is reflected in other adoptive industries, driving the growth in demand and production quantity at an exorbitant rate. The objective of this study was to analyse the use of nanoparticles within the construction industry to exemplify the benefits of nanoparticle applications and to address the short-term and long-term effects of nanoparticles on the environment and human health within the microcosm of industry so that the findings may be generalised. The benefits of nanoparticle utilisation are demonstrated through specific applications in common materials, particularly in normal concrete, asphalt concrete, bricks, timber, and steel. In addition, the paper addresses the potential benefits and safety barriers for using nanomaterials, with consideration given to key areas of knowledge associated with exposure to nanoparticles that may have implications for health and environmental safety. The field of nanotechnology is considered rather young compared to established industries, thus limiting the time for research and risk analysis. Nevertheless, it is pertinent that research and regulation precede the widespread adoption of potentially harmful particles to mitigate undue risk.
  13. Nordin ML, Abdul Kadir A, Zakaria ZA, Othman F, Abdullah R, Abdullah MN
    PMID: 28400849 DOI: 10.1155/2017/9368079
    This study was conducted to investigate the cytotoxicity and apoptosis effect of A. crispa extract and its solvent partition (ethyl acetate and aqueous extract) against Mus musculus mammary carcinoma cell line (4T1). The normal mouse fibroblast cell line (NIH3T3) was used as comparison for selective cytotoxicity properties. The cytotoxicity evaluation was assessed using MTT assay. AO/PI dual fluorescent staining assay and Annexin V-FITC were used for apoptosis analysis. Results showed that 80% methanol extract from leaves showed most promising antimammary cancer agent with IC50 value of 42.26 ± 1.82 μg/mL and selective index (SI) value of 10.22. Ethyl acetate was cytotoxic for both cancer and normal cell while aqueous extract exhibited poor cytotoxic effect. 4T1 cells labelled with AO/PI and Annexin V-FITC and treated with 80% methanol extract demonstrated that the extract induces apoptosis to 4T1 mammary cancer cells. In conclusion, 80% methanol extract of A. crispa was selectively cytotoxic towards 4T1 cells but less cytotoxic towards NIH3T3 cells and induced the cancerous cells into apoptotic stage as early as 6 hours.
  14. Abdul Rahim MH, Zakaria ZA, Mohd Sani MH, Omar MH, Yakob Y, Cheema MS, et al.
    PMID: 27190528 DOI: 10.1155/2016/1494981
    The objectives of the present study were to determine the mechanisms of antinociceptive effect of methanol extract of Clinacanthus nutans (Acanthaceae) leaves (MECN) using various animal nociceptive models. The antinociceptive activity of orally administered 10% DMSO, 100 mg/kg acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), 5 mg/kg morphine, or MECN (100, 250, and 500 mg/kg) was determined using the acetic acid-induced abdominal constriction (ACT), formalin-induced paw licking (FT), and hot plate tests (HPT). The role of opioid and nitric oxide/cyclic guanosine monophosphate (NO/cGMP) systems was also investigated. The results showed that MECN produced a significant (p < 0.05) antinociceptive response in all nociceptive models with the recorded ED50 value of 279.3 mg/kg for the ACT, while, for the early and late phases of the FT, the value was >500 mg/kg or 227.7 mg/kg, respectively. This antinociceptive activity was fully antagonized by naloxone (a nonselective opioid antagonist) but was partially reversed by l-arginine (l-arg; a nitric oxide [NO] precursor), Nω-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (l-NAME; an NO synthase inhibitor), or their combinations thereof. In contrast, 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazole[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ; a soluble guanylyl cyclase inhibitor) enhanced the extract's antinociception. UHPLC analysis revealed the presence of several flavonoid-based compounds with antinociceptive action. In conclusion, MECN exerted the peripherally and centrally mediated antinociceptive activity via the modulation of the opioid/NO-mediated, but cGMP-independent, systems.
  15. Ab Wahab SZ, Nik Hussain NH, Zakaria R, Abdul Kadir A, Mohamed N, Tohit NM, et al.
    Complement Ther Med, 2018 Dec;41:154-160.
    PMID: 30477832 DOI: 10.1016/j.ctim.2018.08.015
    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the long-term effects of Tualang Honey versus Honey Cocktail (mixture of honey, bee bread, and royal jelly) on cardiovascular markers and anthropometric measurements of postmenopausal women.

    METHODS: We conducted a randomised, double blinded, two-armed parallel study comparing 20 g/day of Tualang Honey versus 20 g/day Honey Cocktail among postmenopausal women aged 45-65 years. The cardiovascular parameters and anthropometrics measurements were assessed at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months of the intervention.

    RESULTS: 100 subjects were successfully randomised into the groups. There was a significant decrease in the diastolic blood pressure from 77.92 mmHg at baseline to 73.45 mmHg at 12 months (F-statistic = 2.55, p-value = 0.047) in the Tualang Honey group compared to Honey Cocktail. There was also a significant decrease in the fasting blood sugar from 6.11 mmol/L at baseline to 5.71 mmol/L at 12 months (F-statistic = 4.03, p-value = 0.021) in the Tualang Honey group compared to the Honey Cocktail group. The body mass index remained unchanged at 27 kg/m2 (F-statistic = 1.60, p-value = 0.010) throughout 12 months of the intervention in the Honey Cocktail group.

    CONCLUSION: Subjects who received Honey Cocktail showed remarkable effects on body mass index. However, Tualang Honey supplementation showed superior effect in lowering diastolic blood pressure and fasting blood sugar compared to Honey Cocktail. Further studies are required to ascertain the underlying mechanism(s) of Tualang Honey and Honey Cocktail on each observed parameter.

  16. Zakaria ZA, Abdul Rahim MH, Mohd Sani MH, Omar MH, Ching SM, Abdul Kadir A, et al.
    BMC Complement Altern Med, 2019 Apr 02;19(1):79.
    PMID: 30940120 DOI: 10.1186/s12906-019-2486-8
    BACKGROUND: Methanol extract (MECN) of Clinacanthus nutans Lindau leaves (family Acanthaceae) demonstrated peripherally and centrally mediated antinociceptive activity via the modulation of opioid/NO-mediated, but cGMP-independent pathway. In the present study, MECN was sequentially partitioned to obtain petroleum ether extract of C. nutans (PECN), which was subjected to antinociceptive study with aims of establishing its antinociceptive potential and determining the role of opioid receptors and L-arginine/nitric oxide/cyclic-guanosine monophosphate (L-arg/NO/cGMP) pathway in the observed antinociceptive activity.

    METHODS: The antinociceptive potential of orally administered PECN (100, 250, 500 mg/kg) was studied using the abdominal constriction-, hot plate- and formalin-induced paw licking-test in mice (n = 6). The effect of PECN on locomotor activity was also evaluated using the rota rod assay. The role of opioid receptors was determined by pre-challenging 500 mg/kg PECN (p.o.) with antagonist of opioid receptor subtypes, namely β-funaltrexamine (β-FNA; 10 mg/kg; a μ-opioid antagonist), naltrindole (NALT; 1 mg/kg; a δ-opioid antagonist) or nor-binaltorphimine (nor-BNI; 1 mg/kg; a κ-opioid antagonist) followed by subjection to the abdominal constriction test. In addition, the role of L-arg/NO/cGMP pathway was determined by prechallenging 500 mg/kg PECN (p.o.) with L-arg (20 mg/kg; a NO precursor), 1H-[1, 2, 4] oxadiazolo [4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ; 2 mg/kg; a specific soluble guanylyl cyclase inhibitor), or the combinations thereof (L-arg + ODQ) for 5 mins before subjection to the abdominal constriction test. PECN was also subjected to phytoconstituents analyses.

    RESULTS: PECN significantly (p  0.05) affect the locomotor activity of treated mice. The antinociceptive activity of PECN was significantly (p  0.05) affected by ODQ. HPLC analysis revealed the presence of at least cinnamic acid in PECN.

    CONCLUSION: PECN exerted antinocicpetive activity at peripheral and central levels possibly via the activation of non-selective opioid receptors and modulation of the NO-mediated/cGMP-independent pathway partly via the synergistic action of phenolic compounds.

  17. Aziz AA, Salina AA, Abdul Kadir AB, Badiah Y, Cheah YC, Nor Hayati A, et al.
    Med J Malaysia, 2008 Sep;63 Suppl C:15-7.
    PMID: 19227671
    The National Mental Health Registry (NMHR) collects information about patients with mental disorder in Malaysia. This information allows us to estimate the incidence of selected mental disorders, and to evaluate risk factors and treatment in the country. The National Mental Health Registry (NMHR) presented its first report in 2004, a year after its establishment. The report focused on schizophrenia as a pioneer project for the National Mental Health Registry. The development of the registry has progressed with data collected from government-based facilities, the academia and the private sector. The 2003-2005 report was recently published and distributed. Since then the registry has progressed to include suicides and other mental illnesses such as depression. The NMHR Report 2003-2005 provides detailed information about the profile of persons with Schizophrenia who presented for the first time to various psychiatry and mental health providers throughout Malaysia. More detailed description regarding pharmacotherapy is reported and few cross tabulations done in an effort to provide better understanding and more clinically meaningful reports.
  18. Ab Wahab SZ, Abdul Kadir A, Nik Hussain NH, Omar J, Yunus R, Baie S, et al.
    PMID: 26101537 DOI: 10.1155/2015/849647
    Channa striatus has been consumed for decades as a remedy to promote wound healing by women during postpartum period. The objectives of this study were to compare postoperative pain, wound healing based on wound evaluation scale (WES), wound cosmetic appearance based on visual analogue scale (VAS) scores and patient satisfaction score (PSS), and safety profiles between C. striatus group and placebo group after six weeks of lower segment caesarean section (LSCS) delivery. A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was conducted. Subjects were randomised in a ratio of 1 : 1 into either the C. striatus group (500 mg daily) or placebo group (500 mg of maltodextrin daily). 76 subjects were successfully randomised, with 38 in the C. striatus group and 35 in the placebo group. There were no significant differences in postoperative pain (p = 0.814) and WES (p = 0.160) between the C. striatus and placebo groups. However, VAS and PSS in the C. striatus group were significantly better compared with the placebo group (p = 0.014 and p < 0.001, resp.). The safety profiles showed no significant differences between the groups. In conclusion, six-week supplementation of 500 mg of C. striatus extract showed marked differences in wound cosmetic appearance and patient's satisfaction and is safe for human consumption.
  19. Zakaria ZA, Abdul Rahim MH, Roosli RAJ, Mohd Sani MH, Omar MH, Mohd Tohid SF, et al.
    Pain research & management, 2018;2018:9536406.
    PMID: 29686743 DOI: 10.1155/2018/9536406
    Methanolic extract of Clinacanthus nutans Lindau leaves (MECN) has been proven to possess antinociceptive activity that works via the opioid and NO-dependent/cGMP-independent pathways. In the present study, we aimed to further determine the possible mechanisms of antinociception of MECN using various nociceptive assays. The antinociceptive activity of MECN was (i) tested against capsaicin-, glutamate-, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-, bradykinin-induced nociception model; (ii) prechallenged against selective antagonist of opioid receptor subtypes (β-funaltrexamine, naltrindole, and nor-binaltorphimine); (iii) prechallenged against antagonist of nonopioid systems, namely, α2-noradrenergic (yohimbine), β-adrenergic (pindolol), adenosinergic (caffeine), dopaminergic (haloperidol), and cholinergic (atropine) receptors; (iv) prechallenged with inhibitors of various potassium channels (glibenclamide, apamin, charybdotoxin, and tetraethylammonium chloride). The results demonstrated that the orally administered MECN (100, 250, and 500 mg/kg) significantly (p < 0.05) reversed the nociceptive effect of all models in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, the antinociceptive activity of 500 mg/kg MECN was significantly (p < 0.05) inhibited by (i) antagonists of μ-, δ-, and κ-opioid receptors; (ii) antagonists of α2-noradrenergic, β-adrenergic, adenosinergic, dopaminergic, and cholinergic receptors; and (iii) blockers of different K+ channels (voltage-activated-, Ca2+-activated, and ATP-sensitive-K+ channels, resp.). In conclusion, MECN-induced antinociception involves modulation of protein kinase C-, bradykinin-, TRVP1 receptors-, and glutamatergic-signaling pathways; opioidergic, α2-noradrenergic, β-adrenergic, adenosinergic, dopaminergic, and cholinergic receptors; and nonopioidergic receptors as well as the opening of various K+ channels. The antinociceptive activity could be associated with the presence of several flavonoid-based bioactive compounds and their synergistic action with nonvolatile bioactive compounds.
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