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  1. Mani V, Ramasamy K, Abdul Majeed AB
    Food Funct, 2013 Apr 25;4(4):557-67.
    PMID: 23360913 DOI: 10.1039/c3fo30356j
    The fresh leaves of Murraya koenigii are often added to various dishes in Asian countries due to the delicious taste and flavour that they impart. In the present study, the effect of the total alkaloidal extract from Murraya koenigii leaves (MKA) with respect to anti-inflammatory, analgesic and anti-ulcerogenic effects were evaluated using different experimental animal models. Oral supplementation of MKA at 10, 20 and 40 mg kg(-1) body weight successfully and dose-dependently reduced the formation of oedema induced by carrageenan, histamine and serotonin as well as formaldehyde-induced arthritis. In addition, the extract (10, 20 and 40 mg kg(-1), p.o.) attenuated the writhing responses induced by an intraperitoneal injection of acetic acid and late phase of pain response induced by a subplantar injection of formalin in mice. MKA at higher doses (20 and 40 mg kg(-1), p.o) reduced the early phase response induced by formalin as well as reaction time on hot plate models. Interestingly, there was no ulcer score with the ulcerogenic effect of MKA. Moreover, all the doses of MKA (10, 20 and 40 mg kg(-1), p.o) showed promising anti-ulcerogenic activity with protection against acute gastric ulcers induced by ethanol plus hydrochloric acid and aspirin models in a dose dependent manner.
  2. Talari MK, Abdul Majeed AB, Tripathi DK, Tripathy M
    Chem. Pharm. Bull., 2012;60(7):818-24.
    PMID: 22790812
    The application of nanomaterials has gained considerable momentum in various fields in recent years due to their high reactivity, excellent surface properties and quantum effects in the nanometer range. The properties of zinc oxide (ZnO) vary with its crystallite size or particle size and often nanocrystalline ZnO is seen to exhibit superior physical and chemical properties due to their higher surface area and modified electronic structure. ZnO nanoparticles are reported to exhibit strong bacterial inhibiting activity and silver (Ag) has been extensively used for its antimicrobial properties since ages. In this study, Ag doped ZnO nanoparticles were synthesized by mechanochemical processing in a high energy ball mill and investigated for antimicrobial activity. The nanocrystalline nature of zinc oxide was established by X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies. It is seen from the XRD data obtained from the samples, that crystallite size of the zinc oxide nanoparticles is seen to decrease with increasing Ag addition. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) data also supported the nanoparticle formation during the synthesis. The doped nanoparticles were subjected to antimicrobial investigation and found that both increase in Ag content and decrease in particle size contributed significantly towards antimicrobial efficiency. It was also observed that Ag doped ZnO nanoparticles possess enhanced antimicrobial potential than that of virgin ZnO against the studied microorganisms of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus.
  3. Mani V, Parle M, Ramasamy K, Abdul Majeed AB
    J. Sci. Food Agric., 2011 Jan 15;91(1):186-92.
    PMID: 20848667 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.4171
    Coriandrum sativum L., commonly known as coriander and belonging to the family Apiaceae (Umbelliferae), is cultivated throughout the world for its nutritional value. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effects of fresh Coriandrum sativum leaves (CSL) on cognitive functions, total serum cholesterol levels and brain cholinesterase activity in mice. In this study, CSL (5, 10 and 15% w/w of diet) was fed orally with a specially prepared diet for 45 days consecutively to experimental animals. Elevated plus-maze and passive avoidance apparatus served as the exteroceptive behavioral models for testing memory. Diazepam, scopolamine and ageing-induced amnesia served as the interoceptive behavioral models.
  4. Chong HY, Leow CY, Abdul Majeed AB, Leow CH
    Virus Res., 2019 12;274:197770.
    PMID: 31626874 DOI: 10.1016/j.virusres.2019.197770
    Flaviviruses are group of single stranded RNA viruses that cause severe endemic infection and epidemics on a global scale. It presents a significant health impact worldwide and the viruses have the potential to emerge and outbreak in a non-endemic geographical region. Effective vaccines for prophylaxis are only available for several flaviviruses such as Yellow Fever virus, Tick-borne Encephalitis Virus, Dengue Virus and Japanese Encephalitis Virus and there is no antiflaviviral agent being marketed. This review discusses the flavivirus genome, replication cycle, epidemiology, clinical presentation and pathogenesis upon infection. Effective humoral response is critical to confer protective immunity against flaviviruses. Hence, we have also highlighted the immune responses elicited upon infection, various diagnostic facilities available for flaviviral disease and monoclonal antibodies available to date against flavivirus infection.
  5. Idris SH, Abdul Majeed AB, Chang LW
    Sci Eng Ethics, 2020 Jun;26(3):1463-1476.
    PMID: 31933118 DOI: 10.1007/s11948-020-00177-6
    Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) have increasingly dominated commodity crop production in the world in the endeavour to address issues related to food security. However, this technology is not without problems, and can give rise to bioethical issues for consumers, particularly Muslims. The Islamic perspective on GMOs is complex and goes beyond just the determination of whether food is halal or not. If the food is halal, but the process to obtain it is not thoyibban, as it is unethical, then the food cannot be permitted under the Maqasid al-Shari'ah. This paper examines ethical issues pertaining to GM crops and how the related ethical issues contradict with Islamic principles beyond the binary distinction between the contaminated and uncontaminated food. Since GM technology is a contemporary issue that may not be directly addressed in the al-Quran and Sunnah, other Islamic sources should also be referred to when drawing up this code of ethics to achieve the objective of Syariah (Maqasid al-Shari'ah). Maqasid al-Shari'ah can be applied to frame the Islamic bioethics guideline as it is comprehensive and encompasses moral principles directly applicable to modern biotechnology. The paper subsequently explores how the principles of Maqasid al-Shari'ah are applied in addressing these ethical issues.
  6. Cheong WS, Leow CY, Abdul Majeed AB, Leow CH
    Int. J. Biol. Macromol., 2020 Mar 15;147:369-375.
    PMID: 31926922 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2020.01.039
    Conventional monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have been widely used in research and diagnostic applications due to their high affinity and specificity. However, multiple limitations, such as large size, complex structure and sensitivity to extreme ambient temperature potentially weaken the performance of mAbs in certain applications. To address this problem, the exploration of new antigen binders is extensively required in relation to improve the quality of current diagnostic platforms. In recent years, a new immunoglobulin-based protein, namely variable domain of new antigen receptor (VNAR) was discovered in sharks. Unlike conventional mAbs, several advantages of VNARs, include small size, better thermostability and peculiar paratope structure have attracted interest of researchers to further explore on it. This article aims to first present an overview of the shark VNARs and outline the characteristics as an outstanding new reagent for diagnostic and therapeutic applications.
  7. Harun A, James RM, Lim SM, Abdul Majeed AB, Cole AL, Ramasamy K
    BMC Complement Altern Med, 2011 Sep 24;11:79.
    PMID: 21943123 DOI: 10.1186/1472-6882-11-79
    BACKGROUND: BACE1 was found to be the major β-secretase in neurons and its appearance and activity were found to be elevated in the brains of AD patients. Fungal endophytic extracts for BACE1 inhibitory activity and cytotoxicity against PC-12 (a rat pheochromocytoma with neuronal properties) and WRL68 (a non-tumorigenic human hepatic) were investigated.

    METHODS: Endophytes were isolated from plants collected from Kuala Pilah, Negeri Sembilan and the National Park, Pahang and the extracts were tested for BACE1 inhibition. For investigation of biological activity, the pure endophytic cultures were cultivated for 14 days on PDA plates at 28°C and underwent semipolar extraction with ethyl acetate.

    RESULTS: Of 212 endophytic extracts (1000 μg/ml), 29 exhibited more than 90% inhibition of BACE1 in the preliminary screening. Four extracts from isolates HAB16R13, HAB16R14, HAB16R18 and HAB8R24 identified as Cytospora rhizophorae were the most active with IC(50(BACE1)) values of less than 3.0 μg/ml. The most active extract HAB16R13 was shown to non-competitively inhibit BACE1 with K(i) value of 10.0 μg/ml. HAB16R13 was considered non-potent against PC-12 and WRL68 (IC(50(CT))) of 60.0 and 40.0 μg/ml, respectively).

    CONCLUSIONS: This first report on endophytic fungal extract with good BACE1 inhibitory activity demonstrates that more extensive study is required to uncover the potential of endophytes.

  8. Hazalin NA, Ramasamy K, Lim SM, Wahab IA, Cole AL, Abdul Majeed AB
    PMID: 19930582 DOI: 10.1186/1472-6882-9-46
    Endophytes, microorganisms which reside in plant tissues, have potential in producing novel metabolites for exploitation in medicine. Cytotoxic and antibacterial activities of a total of 300 endophytic fungi were investigated.
  9. Ponto T, Ismail NI, Abdul Majeed AB, Marmaya NH, Zakaria ZA
    Methods Find Exp Clin Pharmacol, 2010 Jul-Aug;32(6):427-32.
    PMID: 20852752 DOI: 10.1358/mf.2010.32.6.1477907
    Schizophrenia is a chronic psychiatric disorder and pharmacotherapy plays a major role in its management. The 1950s and early 1960s saw milestones in the introduction of psychotropic drugs in clinical practice. A review of drug prescriptions in different settings provides an insight into the pattern of drug use, identifies drug-related problems and may be used to compare recommended guidelines with actual practice. This effort led to the evaluation of the drug prescribing pattern of antipsychotics in patients attending the psychiatric clinic at a government hospital. The data from 371 antipsychotic medication prescriptions that included 200 prescriptions for schizophrenia were collected during one month (1rst-31rst August 2008) at the outpatient pharmacy department. The mean age of patients was 35.0 years (SD = 1.131), with a male to female ratio of 2:1. The most widely used oral antipsychotic was haloperidol (16.3%) while the most common depot preparation prescribed was zuclopenthixol decanoate (8.8%). The daily dose of the average antipsychotic prescribed in this clinic was 342.06 mg equivalent of chlorpromazine. There was no relation between the doses received and ethnicity of the patient (Malay, Chinese or Indian). However, there was a significant relationship between the prescribed dose and patient age (P < 0.042). Nearly 32% of the schizophrenia patients were prescribed with atypical antipsychotics such as olanzapine (10.8%), risperidone (10.0%), quetiapine (7.6%) and clozapine (3.2%). Monotherapy was given to 73.0% of the schizophrenia patients. The majority of patients also received antidepressants. To conclude, this study gave evidence that physicians had a strong preference for monotherapy with conventional antipsychotic drugs while the use of atypical drugs was less prevalent.
  10. Rahim NS, Lim SM, Mani V, Abdul Majeed AB, Ramasamy K
    Pharm Biol, 2017 Dec;55(1):825-832.
    PMID: 28118770 DOI: 10.1080/13880209.2017.1280688
    CONTEXT: Virgin coconut oil (VCO) has been reported to possess antioxidative, anti-inflammatory and anti-stress properties.

    OBJECTIVE: Capitalizing on these therapeutic effects, this study investigated for the first time the potential of VCO on memory improvement in vivo.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty male Wistar rats (7-8 weeks old) were randomly assigned to five groups (n = six per group). Treatment groups were administered with 1, 5 and 10 g/kg VCO for 31 days by oral gavages. The cognitive function of treated-rats were assessed using the Morris Water Maze Test. Brains were removed, homogenized and subjected to biochemical analyses of acetylcholine (ACh) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE), antioxidants [superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GRx)], lipid peroxidase [malondialdehyde (MDA)] as well as nitric oxide (NO). α-Tocopherol (αT; 150 mg/kg) was also included for comparison purposes.

    RESULTS: VCO-fed Wistar rats exhibited significant (p  33%) and NO (≥ 34%). Overall, memory improvement by VCO was comparable to αT.

    DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: VCO has the potential to be used as a memory enhancer, the effect of which was mediated, at least in part, through enhanced cholinergic activity, increased antioxidants level and reduced oxidative stress.

  11. Musa NH, Mani V, Lim SM, Vidyadaran S, Abdul Majeed AB, Ramasamy K
    J. Dairy Res., 2017 Nov;84(4):488-495.
    PMID: 29154736 DOI: 10.1017/S0022029917000620
    Nutritional interventions are now recommended as strategies to delay Alzheimer's disease (AD) progression. The present study evaluated the neuroprotective effect (anti-inflammation) of lactic acid bacteria (either Lactobacillus fermentum LAB9 or L. casei LABPC) fermented cow's milk (CM) against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated microglial BV2 cells in vitro. The ability of CM-LAB in attenuating memory deficit in LPS-induced mice was also investigated. ICR mice were orally administered with CM-LAB for 28 d before induction of neuroinflammation by LPS. Learning and memory behaviour were assessed using the Morris Water Maze Test. Brain tissues were homogenised for measurement of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), antioxidative, lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde (MDA)) and nitrosative stress (NO) parameters. Serum was collected for cytokine analysis. CM-LAB9 and CM-LABPC significantly (P < 0·05) decreased NO level but did not affect CD40 expression in vitro. CM-LAB attenuated LPS-induced memory deficit in mice. This was accompanied by significant (P < 0·05) increment of antioxidants (SOD, GSH, GPx) and reduction of MDA, AChE and also pro-inflammatory cytokines. Unfermented cow's milk (UCM) yielded greater cytokine lowering effect than CM-LAB. The present findings suggest that attenuation of LPS-induced neuroinflamation and memory deficit by CM-LAB could be mediated via anti-inflammation through inhibition of AChE and antioxidative activities.
  12. Khan MAN, Md Rosly NA, Abdul Majeed AB, Ismail NE
    Pak J Pharm Sci, 2018 Sep;31(5):1985-1990.
    PMID: 30150198
    The school students are of particular importance in the HIV/AIDS awareness policies at both local and international level. This study was conducted to assess the level of knowledge of the modes of HIV transmission among urban and rural public secondary school students in Malaysia. In this cross-sectional study, post local ethics approval, 600self-administered questionnaires were randomly disseminated to students in 6 different secondary schools and areas (i.e. 3 urban schools and 3 rural schools). Data were descriptively and inferentially analyzed using Statistical Package of Social Sciences (SPSS®), version 17. The Pearson Chi-Square test was applied where applicable. Most respondents had heard about HIV (overall response rate: 96.2%). However, 8.9% of rural respondents (27/302) never heard about HIV and were excluded. Therefore, 275 urban students (Kuala Lumpur, Selangor, and Pahang) and 275 rural students (Terengganu) who successfully completed and returned the questionnaires were included in data analysis. Many respondents were female and within the age range of 15-16 years old. Most respondents in both areas knew that sharing needles can transmit HIV (93.5% urban; 97.1% rural). Out of 15 items concerning transmission modes of HIV, eight items showed significant values (p < 0.05) of rural vs. urban: saliva, urine, tears, using same swimming pool, blood transfusion, mosquito bites, sharing foods and donating blood to HIV patients. About 90.2% and 79.6% of respondents in urban and rural areas used television and newspapers as main source of knowledge on HIV, respectively. The implementation of incessant HIV and AIDS education programme could be useful in order to enhance and sustain awareness concerning HIV/AIDS among secondary school students.
  13. Appukutty M, Radhakrishnan AK, Ramasamy K, Ramasamy R, Abdul Majeed AB, Noor MI, et al.
    BMC Res Notes, 2012;5:649.
    PMID: 23173926 DOI: 10.1186/1756-0500-5-649
    This study examined the effects of bovine colostrum on exercise -induced modulation of antioxidant parameters in skeletal muscle in mice. Adult male BALB/c mice were randomly divided into four groups (control, colostrum alone, exercise and exercise with colostrum) and each group had three subgroups (day 0, 21 and 42). Colostrum groups of mice were given a daily oral supplement of 50 mg/kg body weight of bovine colostrum and the exercise group of mice were made to exercise on the treadmill for 30 minutes per day. Total antioxidants, lipid hydroperoxides, xanthine oxidase and super oxide dismutase level was assayed from the homogenate of hind limb skeletal muscle.
  14. Yasin SM, Isa MR, Fadzil MA, Zamhuri MI, Selamat MI, Mat Ruzlin AN, et al.
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2016;17(1):275-80.
    PMID: 26838223
    BACKGROUND: A tobacco-free workplace policy is identified as an effective means to reduce tobacco use and protect people from second-hand smoke; however, the number of tobacco-free policies (TFP) remains very low in workplaces in Malaysia. This study explored the factors affecting support for a tobacco-free policy on two healthcare campuses in Malaysia, prior to the implementation of TFP.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: This cross- sectional study was conducted among 286 non-smokers from two healthcare training centres and two nearby colleges in Malaysia from January 2015 to April 2015. A standardized questionnaire was administered via staff and student emails. The questionnaire collected information on sociodemographic characteristics, support for a tobacco-free policy and perceived respiratory and sensory symptoms due to tobacco exposure. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to estimate the independent effects of supporting a tobacco-free campus.

    RESULTS: The percentage of individuals supporting completely tobacco-free facilities was 83.2% (N=238), as opposed to 16.7% (N=48) in support of partially tobacco-free facilities. Compared to the supporters of partially tobacco-free facilities, non-smokers who supported completely tobacco-free health facilities were more likely to be female, have higher education levels, to be very concerned about the effects of other people smoking on their health and to perceive a tobacco-free policy as very important. In addition, they perceived that tobacco smoke bothered them at work by causing headaches and coughs and, in the past 4 weeks, had experienced difficulty breathing. In the multivariate model, after adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics and other factors, only experiencing coughs and headaches increased the odds of supporting a completely tobacco-free campus, up to 2.5- and 1.9-fold, respectively.

    CONCLUSIONS: Coughs and headaches due to other people smoking at work enhances support for a completely tobacco-free campus among non-smokers.

  15. Enche Ady CNA, Lim SM, Teh LK, Salleh MZ, Chin AV, Tan MP, et al.
    J. Neurosci. Res., 2017 Oct;95(10):2005-2024.
    PMID: 28301062 DOI: 10.1002/jnr.24048
    The rapid increase in the older population has made age-related diseases like Alzheimer's disease (AD) a global concern. Given that there is still no cure for this neurodegenerative disease, the drastic growth in the number of susceptible individuals represents a major emerging threat to public health. The poor understanding of the mechanisms underlying AD is deemed the greatest stumbling block against progress in definitive diagnosis and management of this disease. There is a dire need for biomarkers that can facilitate early diagnosis, classification, prognosis, and treatment response. Efforts have been directed toward discovery of reliable and distinctive AD biomarkers but with very little success. With the recent emergence of high-throughput technology that is able to collect and catalogue vast datasets of small metabolites, metabolomics offers hope for a better understanding of AD and subsequent identification of biomarkers. This review article highlights the potential of using multiple metabolomics platforms as useful means in uncovering AD biomarkers from body fluids. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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