Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 30 in total

  1. Jayaram G, Abdul Rahman N
    Acta Cytol., 1997 Jul-Aug;41(4 Suppl):1253-60.
    PMID: 9990253
    Ki-1-positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma (Ki-1 ALCL), one of the more recently described pleomorphic types of lymphoma, affects mostly children and adolescents and is sometimes mistaken for carcinoma or sarcoma.
  2. Rosdi, N.H., Mohd Kanafi, N., Abdul Rahman, N.
    Cellulose acetate (CA) is an interesting material due to its wide spectrum of utilities across different domains ranging from absorbent to membrane filters. In this study, polystyrene (PS) nanofibres, and cellulose acetate/polystyrene (CA/PS) blend nanofibres with various ratios of CA: PS from 20: 80 to 80: 20 were fabricated by using electrospinning technique. The SEM images show that the nanofibres exhibited non-uniform and random orientation with the average fibre diameter in the range of 100 to 800 nm. It was found that the incorporation of PS had a great effect on the morphology of nanofibre. At high proportion of PS, no or less beaded CA/PS nanofibres were formed. Thermal properties of the composite nanofibres were investigated by using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) techniques. The TGA results showed thermal stability of CA/PS nanofibres were higher than pristine CA.
  3. Abdul-Rahman NR, Mohammad KF, Ibrahim S
    Singapore Med J, 2009 Jun;50(6):e223-5.
    PMID: 19551303
    The Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome is a combination of venous and capillary malformations associated with soft tissue and/or bony limb hypertrophy, with or without lymphatic malformations. Although persistent foetal veins are rare, the persistence of the lateral marginal vein is a common association in this syndrome. It results in venous hypertension, which gives rise to venous varicosities, which are commonly seen in this syndrome. This is a case report of a 28-year-old man with Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome, with persistence of the lateral marginal vein, affecting his right lower limb. He was treated with an above-knee amputation. The amputated limb was dissected to demonstrate the anatomy of the lateral marginal vein. To the best of the authors' knowledge, the gross anatomy of the lateral marginal vein has not been previously reported.
  4. Nordin NA, Abdul Rahman N, Abdullah AH
    Molecules, 2020 Jul 06;25(13).
    PMID: 32640766 DOI: 10.3390/molecules25133081
    Heavy metal pollution, such as lead, can cause contamination of water resources and harm human life. Many techniques have been explored and utilized to overcome this problem, with adsorption technology being the most common strategies for water treatment. In this study, carbon nanofibers, polyacrylonitrile (PAN)/sago lignin (SL) carbon nanofibers (PAN/SL CNF) and PAN/SL activated carbon nanofibers (PAN/SL ACNF), with a diameter approximately 300 nm, were produced by electrospinning blends of polyacrylonitrile and sago lignin followed by thermal and acid treatments and used as adsorbents for the removal of Pb(II) ions from aqueous solutions. The incorporation of biodegradable and renewable SL in PAN/SL blends fibers produces the CNF with a smaller diameter than PAN only but preserves the structure of CNF. The adsorption of Pb(II) ions on PAN/SL ACNF was three times higher than that of PAN/SL CNF. The enhanced removal was due to the nitric acid treatment that resulted in the formation of surface oxygenated functional groups that promoted the Pb(II) ions adsorption. The best-suited adsorption conditions that gave the highest percentage removal of 67%, with an adsorption capacity of 524 mg/g, were 40 mg of adsorbent dosage, 125 ppm of Pb(II) solution, pH 5, and a contact time of 240 min. The adsorption data fitted the Langmuir isotherm and the pseudo-second-order kinetic models, indicating that the adsorption is a monolayer, and is governed by the availability of the adsorption sites. With the adsorption capacity of 588 mg/g, determined via the Langmuir isotherm model, the study demonstrated the potential of PAN/SL ACNFs as the adsorbent for the removal of Pb(II) ions from aqueous solution.
  5. Mohamed NA, Mansur FAF, Abdul Rahman N
    Malays J Pathol, 2020 Apr;42(1):107-110.
    PMID: 32342938
    INTRODUCTION: Malaysia declared its intent to eliminate malaria by 2020, with a phased goal of achieving zero local transmission. Nonetheless, Malaysia is highl susceptible to malaria importation due to geographical proximity to high-burden countries e.g. Thailand, Myanmar and high influx of foreign workers and students from Asia and Africa.

    CASE SERIES: We accumulated all malaria cases diagnosed in a tertiary hospital within a period of two years. Three cases were reported, where all of the patients were foreigners with recent travel history to African countries. All of them were infected by P. falciparum, responded to treatment and discharged well.

    DISCUSSION: This case series highlighted the importance of acquiring recent travel history during history taking and having a high index of suspicions on malaria when dealing with feverish patients originated particularly from African countries.

  6. Mohd Zahid AZ, Abdul Rahman N, Ahmad ZA
    Med J Malaysia, 2021 07;76(4):585-587.
    PMID: 34305125
    Adenomyosis is a common gynaecological condition encountered in clinical practice. Treatment of adenomyosis can present a great challenge to gynaecologists as women often become resistant to hormonal treatment eventually needing surgical intervention. Hysterectomy has long been the definitive treatment for adenomyosis. However, with women currently being diagnosed at an earlier age and still have not completed their family, there is an increasing demand for effective intervention with uterine conservation. We report here two cases of patients who had undergone a combination of hysteroscopic resection of the endomyometrium combined with Mirena insertion with successful outcome.
  7. Zakaria AF, Kamaruzaman S, Abdul Rahman N
    Polymers (Basel), 2021 Oct 19;13(20).
    PMID: 34685349 DOI: 10.3390/polym13203590
    The issue of heavy metal contamination has caused a great deal of concern among water quality experts today, as it contributes to water pollution. Activated carbon nanofibers (ACNFs) showed a significant ability in removing heavy metals from the wastewater. In this study, polyacrylonitrile (PAN) was blended and electrospun with an abundant and inexpensive biopolymer, lignin and a water soluble polymer, poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG), by using an electrospinning technique to form nanofibers. The electrospun nanofibers were then investigated as a precursor for the production of porous ACNFs to study the removal of nickel(II) ions by adsorption technique. PEG was added to act as a porogen and to create the porous structure of carbon nanofibers (CNFs). CNFs were prepared by thermal treatment of the electrospun nanofibers and followed by activation of CNFs by thermal and acid treatment on CNFs. Attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) spectral analysis of the ACNFs showed a strong absorption peak of the C-O functional group, indicating the increase in the oxygenated compound. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) images concluded that the ACNFs have more porous and compact fibers with a smaller fiber diameter of 263 ± 11 nm, while the CNFs are less compact and have slightly larger fiber diameter of 323 ± 6 nm. The adsorption study showed that the ACNFs possessed a much higher adsorption capacity of 18.09 mg/g compared with the CNFs, which the amount adsorbed was achieved only at 2.7 mg/g. The optimum adsorption conditions that gave the highest percentage of 60% for nickel(II) ions removal were 50 mg of adsorbent dosage, 100 ppm of nickel(II) solution, pH 3, and a contact time of 60 min. The study demonstrated that the fabrication of ACNFs from PAN/lignin/PEG electrospun nanofibers have potential as adsorbents for the removal of heavy metal contaminants.
  8. Ahmad MAT, Abdul Rahman N
    Polymers (Basel), 2021 Nov 15;13(22).
    PMID: 34833237 DOI: 10.3390/polym13223938
    In this study, polyacrylonitrile (PAN) was mixed with a renewable polymer, lignin, to produce electrospun nanofibers by using an electrospinning technique. Lignin was utilized as a soft template that was removed from the nanofibers by using a selective dissolution technique to create porous PAN nanofibers. These nanofibers were characterized with Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), thermogravimetry analysis (TGA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) to study their properties and morphology. The results showed that lignin can be homogeneously mixed into the PAN solution and successfully electrospun into nanofibers. FESEM results showed a strong relationship between the PAN: lignin ratio and the diameter of the electrospun fibers. Lignin was successfully removed from electrospun nanofibers by a selective chemical dissolution technique, which resulted in roughness and porousness on the surface of the nanofibers. Based on the BET result, the specific surface area of the PAN/lignin nanofibers was more than doubled following the removal of lignin compared to PAN nanofibers. The highest specific surface area of nanofibers after selective chemical dissolution was found at an 8:2 ratio of PAN/lignin, which was 32.42 m2g-1 with an average pore diameter of 5.02 nm. The diameter of electrospun nanofibers was also slightly reduced after selective chemical dissolution. Porous PAN nanofibers can be seen as the precursors to the production of highly porous carbon nanofibers.
  9. Chua LS, Abdul-Rahman N, Rosidi B, Lee CT
    Nat Prod Res, 2013 Mar;27(4-5):314-8.
    PMID: 22468741 DOI: 10.1080/14786419.2012.676552
    A water extraction method has been used to extract plant proteins from the roots of Eurycoma longifolia harvested from Perak and Pahang, Malaysia. On the basis of the spectroscopic Bradford assay, Tongkat Ali Perak and Pahang contained 0.3868 and 0.9573 mg mL(-1) of crude protein, respectively. The crude proteins were separated by one dimensional 15% sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis into two (49.8 and 5.5 kD) and four (49.8, 24.7, 21.1 and 5.5 kD) protein spots for Tongkat Ali Perak and Pahang, respectively. Isoleucine was present in the highest concentration significantly. Both plant samples showed differences in the mineral and trace element profiles, but the minerals calcium, magnesium and potassium were present in the highest concentration. The highly concerned toxic metals such as arsenic and lead were not detected.
  10. Abdul Rahman NH, Chieng BW, Ibrahim NA, Abdul Rahman N
    Polymers (Basel), 2017 Nov 07;9(11).
    PMID: 30965890 DOI: 10.3390/polym9110588
    The aim was to explore the utilization of tea leaf waste fibers (TLWF) as a source for the production of cellulose nanocrystals (CNC). TLWF was first treated with alkaline, followed by bleaching before being hydrolyzed with concentrated sulfuric acid. The materials attained after each step of chemical treatments were characterized and their chemical compositions were studied. The structure analysis was examined by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD). From FTIR analysis, two peaks at 1716 and 1207 cm-1-which represent C=O stretching and C⁻O stretching, respectively-disappeared in the spectra after the alkaline and bleaching treatments indicated that hemicellulose and lignin were almost entirely discarded from the fiber. The surface morphology of TLWF before and after chemical treatments was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) while the dimension of CNC was determined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The extraction of CNC increased the surface roughness and the crystallinity index of fiber from 41.5% to 83.1%. Morphological characterization from TEM revealed the appearance of needle-like shaped CNCs with average diameter of 7.97 nm. The promising results from all the analyses justify TLWF as a principal source of natural materials which can produce CNC.
  11. Nasran HS, Mohd Yusof H, Halim M, Abdul Rahman N
    Molecules, 2020 Jun 04;25(11).
    PMID: 32512825 DOI: 10.3390/molecules25112618
    Anthracnose is a fungal disease causing major losses in crop production. Chemical fungicides widely used in crop plantations to combat fungal infections can be a threat to the environment and humans in the long term. Recently, biofungicides have gained much interest as an alternative to chemical fungicides due to their environmentally friendly nature. Biofungicide products in powder form can be formulated using the freeze-drying technique to provide convenient storage. Protective agent formulation is needed in maintaining the optimal viable cells of biofungicide products. In this study, 8.10 log colony-forming unit (CFU)/mL was the highest cell viability of Paenibacillus polymyxa Kp10 at 22 h during incubation. The effects of several selected protective agents on the viability of P. polymyxa Kp10 after freeze-drying were studied. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used for optimizing formulation for the protective agents. The combination of lactose (10% w/v), skim milk (20% w/v), and sucrose (27.5% w/v) was found to be suitable for preserving P. polymyxa Kp10 during freeze-drying. Further, P. polymyxa Kp10 demonstrated the ability to inhibit fungal pathogens, Colletotrichum truncatum and C. gloeosporioides, at 60.18% and 66.52% of inhibition of radial growth, respectively.
  12. Yehye WA, Abdul Rahman N, Alhadi AA, Khaledi H, Weng NS, Ariffin A
    Molecules, 2012 Jun 25;17(7):7645-65.
    PMID: 22732881 DOI: 10.3390/molecules17077645
    A computer-aided predictions of antioxidant activities were performed with the Prediction Activity Spectra of Substances (PASS) program. Antioxidant activity of compounds 1, 3, 4 and 5 were studied using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and lipid peroxidation assays to verify the predictions obtained by the PASS program. Compounds 3 and 5 showed more inhibition of DPPH stable free radical at 10⁻⁴ M than the well-known standard antioxidant, butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). Compound 5 exhibited promising in vitro inhibition of Fe²⁺-induced lipid peroxidation of the essential egg yolk as a lipid-rich medium (83.99%, IC₅₀ 16.07 ± 3.51 μM/mL) compared to α-tocopherol (α-TOH, 84.6%, IC₅₀ 5.6 ± 1.09 μM/mL). The parameters for drug-likeness of these BHT analogues were also evaluated according to the Lipinski’s “rule-of-five” (RO5). All the BHT analogues were found to violate one of the Lipinski’s parameters (LogP > 5), even though they have been found to be soluble in protic solvents. The predictive polar surface area (PSA) and absorption percent (% ABS) data allow us to conclude that they could have a good capacity for penetrating cell membranes. Therefore, one can propose these new multipotent antioxidants (MPAOs) as potential antioxidants for tackling oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation processes.
  13. Abdul Rahman N, Ramli R, Abdul Rahman R, Hussaini HM, Abdul Hamid AL
    Geriatr Gerontol Int, 2010 Jan;10(1):64-9.
    PMID: 20102384 DOI: 10.1111/j.1447-0594.2009.00561.x
    Road traffic accidents are the main cause of trauma in Malaysia. It has been shown that there was an increase in admissions for trauma patients older than 60 years in the last decade. The purpose of this study was to determine the pattern of maxillofacial injuries in the geriatric patients referred to Seremban Hospital, Malaysia.
  14. Chia SL, Tan WS, Shaari K, Abdul Rahman N, Yusoff K, Satyanarayanajois SD
    Peptides, 2006 Jun;27(6):1217-25.
    PMID: 16377031
    A peptide with the sequence CTLTTKLYC has previously been identified to inhibit the propagation of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) in embryonated chicken eggs and tissue culture. NDV has been classified into two main groups: the velogenic group, and mesogenic with lentogenic strains as the other group based on its dissociation constants. In this study the peptide, CTLTTKLYC, displayed on the pIII protein of a filamentous M13 phage was synthesized and mutated in order to identify the amino acid residues involved in the interactions with NDV. Mutations of C1 and K6 to A1 and A6 did not affect the binding significantly, but substitution of Y8 with A8 dramatically reduced the interaction. This suggests that Y8 plays an important role in the peptide-virus interaction. The three-dimensional structure of the peptide was determined using circular dichroism (CD), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and molecular modeling. The peptide exhibited two possible conformers. One that consists of consecutive beta-turns around T2-L3-T4-T5 and K6-L7-Y8-C9. The other conformer exhibited a beta-hairpin bend type of structure with a bend around L3-T4-T5-K6.
  15. Abdul Rahman N, Abd Halim MR, Mahawi N, Hasnudin H, Al-Obaidi JR, Abdullah N
    Biomed Res Int, 2017;2017:2038062.
    PMID: 28503566 DOI: 10.1155/2017/2038062
    Corn was inoculated with Lactobacillus plantarum and Propionibacterium freudenreichii subsp. shermanii either independently or as a mixture at ensiling, in order to determine the effect of bacterial additives on corn silage quality. Grain corn was harvested at 32-37% of dry matter and ensiled in a 4 L laboratory silo. Forage was treated as follows: bacterial types: B0 (without bacteria-control), B1 (L. plantarum), B2 (P. freudenreichii subsp. shermanii), and B3 (combination of L. plantarum and P. freudenreichii subsp. shermanii). Each 2 kg of chopped forage was treated with 10 mL of bacterial culture and allowed to ferment for 27 days. The first experiment determined the most suitable wavelength for detection of bacteria (490 nm and 419 nm for B1 and B2, resp.) and the preferable inoculation size (1 × 105 cfu/g). The second experiment analysed the effect of B1 and B2 applied singly or as a mixture on the fermentation characteristics and quality of corn silage. L. plantarum alone increased crude protein (CP) and reduced pH rapidly. In a mixture with P. freudenreichii, the final pH was the lowest compared to other treatments. As a mixture, inclusion of bacteria resulted in silage with lower digestibility than control. Corn silage treated with L. plantarum or P. freudenreichii either alone or mixed together produced desirable silage properties; however, this was not significantly better than untreated silage.
  16. Dabbagh A, Abu Kasim NH, Yeong CH, Wong TW, Abdul Rahman N
    J Aerosol Med Pulm Drug Deliv, 2018 06;31(3):139-154.
    PMID: 29022837 DOI: 10.1089/jamp.2017.1382
    Targeted delivery of chemotherapeutics through the respiratory system is a potential approach to improve drug accumulation in the lung tumor, while decreasing their negative side effects. However, elimination by the pulmonary clearance mechanisms, including the mucociliary transport system, and ingestion by the alveolar macrophages, rapid absorption into the blood, enzymatic degradation, and low control over the deposition rate and location remain the main complications for achieving an effective pulmonary drug delivery. Therefore, particle-based delivery systems have emerged to minimize pulmonary clearance mechanisms, enhance drug therapeutic efficacy, and control the release behavior. A successful implementation of a particle-based delivery system requires understanding the influential parameters in terms of drug carrier, inhalation technology, and health status of the patient's respiratory system. This review aims at investigating the parameters that significantly drive the clinical outcomes of various particle-based pulmonary delivery systems. This should aid clinicians in appropriate selection of a delivery system according to their clinical setting. It will also guide researchers in addressing the remaining challenges that need to be overcome to enhance the efficiency of current pulmonary delivery systems for aerosols.
  17. Mohamad FS, Mat Zaid MH, Abdullah J, Zawawi RM, Lim HN, Sulaiman Y, et al.
    Sensors (Basel), 2017 Dec 02;17(12).
    PMID: 29207463 DOI: 10.3390/s17122789
    This article describes chemically modified polyaniline and graphene (PANI/GP) composite nanofibers prepared by self-assembly process using oxidative polymerization of aniline monomer and graphene in the presence of a solution containing poly(methyl vinyl ether-alt-maleic acid) (PMVEA). Characterization of the composite nanofibers was carried out by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and Raman spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). SEM images revealed the size of the PANI nanofibers ranged from 90 to 360 nm in diameter and was greatly influenced by the proportion of PMVEA and graphene. The composite nanofibers with an immobilized DNA probe were used for the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis by using an electrochemical technique. A photochemical indicator, methylene blue (MB) was used to monitor the hybridization of target DNA by using differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) method. The detection range of DNA biosensor was obtained from of 10-6-10-9 M with the detection limit of 7.853 × 10-7 M under optimum conditions. The results show that the composite nanofibers have a great potential in a range of applications for DNA sensors.
  18. Tan WL, Lee YK, Ho YF, Yusof R, Abdul Rahman N, Karsani SA
    PeerJ, 2018;5:e3939.
    PMID: 29404200 DOI: 10.7717/peerj.3939
    Dengue is endemic throughout tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Currently, there is no clinically approved therapeutic drug available for this acute viral infection. Although the first dengue vaccine Dengvaxia has been approved for use in certain countries, it is limited to those without a previous dengue infection while the safety and efficacy of the vaccine in those elderly and younger children still need to be identified. Therefore, it is becoming increasingly important to develop therapeutics/drugs to combat dengue virus (DENV) infection. YK51 is a synthetic analogue of 4-Hydroxypandurantin A (a compound found in the crude extract of the rhizomes of Boesenbergia rotunda) that has been extensively studied by our research group. It has been shown to possess outstanding antiviral activity due to its inhibitory activity against NS2B/NS3 DENV2 protease. However, it is not known how YK51 affects the proteome of DENV infected cells. Therefore, we performed a comparative proteomics analysis to identify changes in protein expression in DENV infected HepG2 cells treated with YK51. Classical two-dimensional gel electrophoresis followed by protein identification using tandem mass spectrometry was employed in this study. Thirty proteins were found to be down-regulated with YK51 treatment. In silico analysis predicted that the down-regulation of eight of these proteins may inhibit viral infection. Our results suggested that apart from inhibiting the NS2B/NS3 DENV2 protease, YK51 may also be causing the down-regulation of a number of proteins that may be responsible in, and/or essential to virus infection. However, functional characterization of these proteins will be necessary before we can conclusively determine their roles in DENV infection.
  19. Mohd Yusof H, Abdul Rahman N, Mohamad R, Zaidan UH, Samsudin AA
    Sci Rep, 2020 11 17;10(1):19996.
    PMID: 33204003 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-020-76402-w
    This study aims to utilize the cell-biomass (CB) and supernatant (CFS) of zinc-tolerant Lactobacillus plantarum TA4 as a prospective nanofactory to synthesize ZnO NPs. The surface plasmon resonance for the biosynthesized ZnO NPs-CFS and ZnO NPs-CB was 349 nm and 351 nm, respectively, thereby confirming the formation of ZnO NPs. The FTIR analysis revealed the presence of proteins, carboxyl, and hydroxyl groups on the surfaces of both the biosynthesized ZnO NPs that act as reducing and stabilizing agents. The DLS analysis revealed that the poly-dispersity indexes was less than 0.4 for both ZnO NPs. In addition, the HR-TEM micrographs of the biosynthesized ZnO NPs revealed a flower-like pattern for ZnO NPs-CFS and an irregular shape for ZnO NPs-CB with particles size of 291.1 and 191.8 nm, respectively. In this study, the biosynthesized ZnO NPs exhibited antibacterial activity against pathogenic bacteria in a concentration-dependent manner and showed biocompatibility with the Vero cell line at specific concentrations. Overall, CFS and CB of L. plantarum TA4 can potentially be used as a nanofactory for the biological synthesis of ZnO NPs.
  20. Mohd Yusof H, Abdul Rahman N, Mohamad R, Hasanah Zaidan U, Samsudin AA
    Animals (Basel), 2021 Jul 14;11(7).
    PMID: 34359225 DOI: 10.3390/ani11072093
    Since the emergence of multidrug-resistant bacteria in the poultry industry is currently a serious threat, there is an urgent need to develop a more efficient and alternative antibacterial substance. Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) have exhibited antibacterial efficacy against a wide range of microorganisms. Although the in vitro antibacterial activity of ZnO NPs has been studied, little is known about the antibacterial mechanisms of ZnO NPs against poultry-associated foodborne pathogens. In the present study, ZnO NPs were successfully synthesized using Lactobacillus plantarum TA4, characterized, and their antibacterial potential against common avian pathogens (Salmonella spp., Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus aureus) was investigated. Confirmation of ZnO NPs by UV-Visual spectroscopy showed an absorption band center at 360 nm. Morphologically, the synthesized ZnO NPs were oval with an average particle size of 29.7 nm. Based on the dissolution study of Zn2+, ZnO NPs released more ions than their bulk counterparts. Results from the agar well diffusion assay indicated that ZnO NPs effectively inhibited the growth of the three poultry-associated foodborne pathogens. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were assessed using various concentrations of ZnO NPs, which resulted in excellent antibacterial activity as compared to their bulkier counterparts. S. aureus was more susceptible to ZnO NPs compared to the other tested bacteria. Furthermore, the ZnO NPs demonstrated substantial biofilm inhibition and eradication. The formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cellular material leakage was quantified to determine the underlying antibacterial mechanisms, whereas a scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to examine the morphological changes of tested bacteria treated with ZnO NPs. The findings suggested that ROS-induced oxidative stress caused membrane damage and bacterial cell death. Overall, the results demonstrated that ZnO NPs could be developed as an alternative antibiotic in poultry production and revealed new possibilities in combating pathogenic microorganisms.
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