Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 49 in total

  1. Zainal Abidin, M., Shamsudin, R., Othman, Z., Abdul Rahman, R.
    Cantaloupes continue to ripen after harvesting which is caused by ethylene production due to climacteric behaviour during postharvest storage. In this study, the cantaloupe fruits harvested at commercial maturity were evaluated for quality attributes during three weeks of storage at 10°C and a relative humidity (RH) of 90±5%. In addition, fresh-cut samples were stored for a further 19 days at 2°C and 87% RH. The fresh-cut samples were prepared on a weekly basis by dipping into deionised water (control) at 2°C for 1 minute. The effect of postharvest storage of cantaloupe on the physico-chemical properties and microbial activity was observed prior to fresh-cut processing. It was found that firmness, luminosity (L*), and titratable acidity (TA) decreased, while total soluble solids (TSS), pH, TSS:TA ratio, microbial activity (total plate count (TPC) and yeast and mould (YM)) of the fresh-cut increased over the postharvest storage period of the fruit. Meanwhile, the orange colour and the intensity (hue angle, hab, and chromaticity) of the flesh did not differ significantly during storage. The cantaloupe stored for three weeks at a low temperature indicated a successful potential for fresh-cut processing due to good maintenance of the product quality.
  2. Jafarizadeh Malmiri, H., Osman, A., Tan, C.P., Abdul Rahman, R.
    Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize the concentrations of chitosan and glycerol for coating Berangan banana (Musa sapientum cv. Berangan). The effects of main edible coating components, chitosan (0.5-2.5%, w/w) and glycerol (0-2%, w/w) on weight loss, firmness, total colour difference, total soluble solids content (TSS) and titratable acidity (TA) of coated banana were studied during 10 days of storage at 26±2°C and 40-50% relative humidity. Results showed that the experimental data could be adequately fitted into a second-order polynomial model with coefficient of determination (R 2 ) ranging from 0.745 to 0.930 for all the variables studied. In general, the chitosan concentration appeared to be the most significant (P< 0.1) factor influencing all variables except for TSS. The optimum concentration of chitosan and glycerol were predicted to be 2.02% and 0.18%, respectively. Statistical assessment showed insignificant difference between experimental and predicted values.
  3. New, C.Y., Abdul Rahman, R., Son, R., Mohammed, A.S.
    Food Research, 2018;2(4):378-390.
    The safety level of microwaved foods remains at vague as this subject was less addressed
    scientifically. A study was initiated to address the matter by investigating on the
    survivability of Salmonella and Shiga-toxigenic Escherichia coli (STEC) O157 in
    microwave heated ready-to-eat (RTE) foods using the Most Probable Number coupled
    Polymerase Chain Reaction (MPN-PCR) technique. A total of 329 samples of various
    ready-to-eat (RTE) convenience meals were collected around Wilayah Persekutuan Kuala
    Lumpur and Selangor regions. Salmonella was positively identified in 66 samples (20.1%,
  4. Ramli R, Abdul Rahman R
    Singapore Dent J, 2005 Dec;27(1):13-6.
    PMID: 16438263
    Minor oral surgery in warfarinized patients can be performed without stopping or altering the dose of the drug. Thirty patients underwent various types of oral surgical procedures without interruption of their anticoagulant therapy and their therapeutic international normalized ratio maintained. Local measures such as pressure, packing the sockets with oxidized regenerated cellulose, and suturing were applied. In some patients, tranexamic acid mouthwashes were prescribed to further enhance haemostasis. Four patients had minimal postoperative bleeding in the form of bloodstained saliva, which lasted for 24 hours. This study highlights the importance of local measures in controlling postoperative bleeding in warfarinized patients undergoing minor oral surgical procedures.
  5. Abdul-Rahman R, Tsuno H, Zainol N
    Water Sci Technol, 2002;45(12):197-204.
    PMID: 12201103
    Elevated levels of nutrients in agroindustry wastewaters, and higher reliance on chlorination pose health threats due to formation of chlorinated organics as well as increased chlorination costs. Removals of ammonium and nitrate compounds were studied using activated carbon from palm shells, as adsorbent and support media. Experiments were carried out at several loadings, F:M from 0.31 to 0.58, and hydraulic residence times (HRT) of 24 h, 12 h and 8 h. Results show that the wastewater treatment process achieved removals of over 90% for COD and 62% for Total-N. Studies on removals from river water were carried out in sequencing batch reactor (SBR) and activated carbon biofilm (ACB) reactor. Removals achieved by the SBR adsorption-biodegradation combination were 67.0% for COD, 58.8% for NH3-N and 25.5% for NO3-N while for adsorption alone the removals were only 37.0% for COD, 35.2% for NH3-N and 13.8% for NO3-N. In the ACB reactor, at HRT of 1.5 to 6 h, removals ranged from 12.5 to 100% for COD, 16.7 to 100% for NO3-N and 13.5 to 100% for NH3-N. Significant decrease in removals was shown at lower HRT. The studies have shown that substantial removals of COD, NO3-N and NH3-N from both wastewater and river water may be achieved via adsorption-biodegradation by biofilm on activated carbon processes.
  6. Mohd Adzahan, N., Mat Hashim, D., Muhammad, K., Abdul Rahman, R., Ghazali, Z., Hashim, K.
    Changes to the physicochemical properties of wheat, sago and tapioca starches subjected to gamma ray, electron beam and microwave irradiations and the conditions that lead to wheat starch having leaching behaviour similar to sago or tapioca starch were studied. The properties were characterised through swelling and leaching behaviours of the starch granules and retrogradation following pasting. The leaching of wheat starch increased tremendously and resulted in amylose to amylopectin ratios in the leachate similar to that of native sago and tapioca starches. This observation is significant as wheat starch is known to have a leachate composition of mostly amylose. This opens up the possibility of utilising wheat starch in snacks where tapioca and sago starch are commonly used. It was observed that the required conditions for such changes were exposure to microwave for 8 and 10 minutes, electron beam at 5 and 10 kGy and gamma ray at 5 kGy.
  7. Sobhi, B., Noranizan, M., Ab Karim, S., Abdul Rahman, R., Bakar, J., Ghazali, Z.
    Chili shrimp paste (CSP) is a favorite condiment in Southeast Asia. Microbial spoilage makes CSP unsuitable for consumption within several days. Thermal treatment was applied to produce microbiologically safe CSP. The effect of heating process on physicochemical and sensorial properties of CSP was studied. Heating at the optimum condition (21.6 min, 80 ˚C) has been shown effective and reliable in controlling microorganisms in CSP. Complete inactivation of peroxidase activities could not be accomplished at the optimal point, and significant reduction of the total phenolic and capsaicinoids contents was observed. Sensorial evaluation indicated that thermally processed CSP was less preferred by panelists when compared to freshly prepared samples of dry weight respectively.
  8. Liza, M.S., Abdul Rahman, R., Mandana, B., Jinap, S., Rahmat, A., Zaidul, I.S.M., et al.
    Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction (SC-CO2) of bioactive flavonoid from Strobilanthes crispus (Pecah Kaca) was performed to study the effects of various parameters such as pressure, temperature and dynamic extraction time on the yield and composition of bioactive flavonoid. The results were also compared with those obtained by conventional Soxhlet extraction in lab conditions. The results from SFE showed that the effect of extraction variables on extraction yields decreased in the following order: pressure, temperature and dynamic extraction time. The extraction pressure played a dominant role in the yield of the sample while the effect of time could be ignored. This study also revealed that both Soxhlet extraction and SC-CO2 extraction can be used to obtain flavonoid compound. Under the optimum conditions, the highest bioactive flavonoid compound content was obtained at 3.98% and eight flavonoid compounds were identified by HPLC.
  9. Abdul Afiq, M.J., Abdul Rahman, R., Che Man, Y.B., AL-Kahtani, H.A., Mansor, T.S.T.
    Date palm is an important plant in arid regions with more than 20 varieties reported all over the world. Date seed is a byproduct of date fruit industry which is normally being discarded, used as animal feed ingredient or turned into non-caffeinated coffee by the Arabs. About 11-18% of date fruit weight is the seed which is composed of carbohydrates, dietary fiber, fat, ash and protein. In addition, the antioxidant content in date seed oil (DSO) was found to be comparable with olive oil, which can be as a good source of antioxidant in order to fulfill the consumers demand. Oleic acid is the major fatty acid found in DSO, followed by lauric, linoleic, palmitic and myristic acid. However, different varieties of date fruits have different fatty acid compositions. This paper reviewed the potential use of date seed and date seed oil in order to discover and develop its usage and find out the suitable application of these seed and oil.
  10. Ghazali, N., Zain, R.B., Samsudin, A.R., Abdul Rahman, R., Othman, N.H.
    Malaysian Dental Journal, 2007;28(2):83-91.
    A review of incident oral and maxillofacial biopsies in Kelantan from January 1994 to December 1998 was carried out to evaluate the scope of pathological lesions managed by the two main oral and maxillofacial units in this state. A total of 357 biopsy reports from incident cases of pathological lesions were reviewed. The biopsies were mainly from intra-oral sites (n=326, 91.3%). Females had more frequent oro-facial lesions compared with males (male:female ratio is 0.8:1). The Bumiputera ethnic group had the most number of biopsies (n=321; 90%). The three most commonly observed histopathological groups were the connective tissue hyperplasia (n=90; 25.2%), epithelial dysplasia and neoplasia (n=68; 19%) and salivary gland cysts/mucocele (n=56; 15.7%). The top five most frequent diagnoses were mucocele (n=56; 15.7%), squamous cell carcinoma (n=45; 12.6%), epulides (n=31; 8.7%), pyogenic granuloma (n=25; 7.0%) and fibroepithelial polyp (n=19; 5.3%). Oro-facial malignancies made up almost one-fifth of all diagnoses and squamous cell carcinoma was the most common sub-type. Lymphomas in the oro-facial region (n=8; 11.4%) were more common than basal cell carcinoma (n=7; 10%) and salivary gland malignancies (n=6; 8.5%). Epithelial jaw cysts consisted of 8.7% (n=31) of all diagnoses, where inflammatory types were more common than the developmental types. Odontogenic tumours consisted of 5.6% (n=20) of all diagnoses and ameloblastoma was the predominant type.
  11. Mohd Jaih, A.A., Abdul Rahman, R., Abdull Razis, A.F., Ariffin, A.A., Al-Awaadh, A., Suleiman, N.
    Oil is one of the major components of date seed alongside dietary fibre, carbohydrate, protein, moisture and ash. Therefore, the present work focused on the extraction of oil from five varieties of date seed using Soxhlet extraction method and subsequently characterised their physicochemical and antioxidant properties accordingly. Oil extracted from the seeds ranged between 8 to 9.8%, whereas the iodine values were between 48.7 to 55.5 g I2/100g. Furthermore, oleic and lauric acids were revealed as the main fatty acids present in the date seed oil, with LaOO (La: lauric acid; O: oleic acid) as the main triacylglycerol. The total phenolic content in the oil ranged from 7.96 to 17.72 mg GAE/g oil, while the antioxidant activity, expressed as EC50, ranged from 5.17 to 17.18 mg/mL. Additionally, the highest reducing activity was observed at 4mg/mL. Hence, oil characteristics are dependent on the type of date, thus indicating that different potential applications may be suggested.
  12. Abdul Rahman R, Hwen-Yee C, Noordin R
    Filaria journal, 2007;6:10.
    PMID: 17961264
    Anti-filarial IgG4 antibody has been shown to be a good marker for detection of lymphatic filaria infection. Previous studies demonstrated that anti-filarial IgG4 assay using BmR1 recombinant antigen was highly specific and sensitive for detection of brugian filariasis. For bancroftian filariasis, an equivalent assay employing recombinant antigen expressed from the ORF of SXP1 gene has been reported. In order to detect infections by all species of lymphatic filarial, BmR1 and BmSXP recombinant antigens were employed in the development of a pan LF-ELISA.
  13. Cheah KL, Yaacob LH, Abdul Rahman R
    PMID: 37292225 DOI: 10.51866/cr.257
    Dumping syndrome after bariatric surgery is common. However, it is rarely seen during pregnancy because patients are usually advised to avoid pregnancy immediately after surgery. This case highlights the importance of avoidance of pregnancy after bariatric surgery. We report a case of unplanned pregnancy in a 35-year-old woman with a history of subfertility for 8 years who conceived spontaneously 3 months after gastric bypass surgery. This occurred because there was no contraception offered to her after the procedure. The pregnancy was complicated with recurrent episodes of hypoglycaemia secondary to dumping syndrome. Primary care providers need to be vigilant and have a high index of suspicion for dumping syndrome in pregnant obese women who have undergone bariatric surgery.
  14. Rajamani L, Cabanban AS, Abdul Rahman R
    Ambio, 2006 Aug;35(5):266-8.
    PMID: 16989512
  15. Wong HS, Abdul Rahman R, Choo SY, Yahya N
    Med J Malaysia, 2012 Aug;67(4):435-7.
    PMID: 23082461 MyJurnal
    We report a rare case of an 18 year old girl with Sturge-Weber syndrome, she had extensive facial port wine stains, right bupthalmos and advanced glaucoma involving both eyes. She underwent right eye glaucoma drainage device surgery under general anaesthesia, and had a difficult intubation due to extensive angiomatous like soft tissue swelling at her upper airway. This report highlights the importance of being aware of the need for continuous follow-up in Sturge-Weber syndrome patients as this syndrome can lead to blindness due to advance glaucoma and the awareness of possible difficult intubation for this group of patients.
  16. Cheong JY, Makmor-Bakry M, Lau CL, Abdul Rahman R
    S. Afr. Med. J., 2012 Jul;102(7):616-9.
    PMID: 22748440
    The incidence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections in intensive care units in Malaysia is significant. Invasive MRSA infections are commonly treated with vancomycin. In clinical practice, the serum vancomycin trough concentration is used as a surrogate marker of vancomycin efficacy. A low concentration of vancomycin may result in less effective therapy and increase the risk of bacterial resistance. We evaluated the relationship between the resolution of MRSA infections and trough concentrations of vancomycin.
  17. Rosli TI, Abdul Rahman R, Abdul Rahman SR, Ramli R
    Singapore Dent J, 2005 Dec;27(1):17-22.
    PMID: 16438264
    The objectives of this study were to determine the sources of stress among undergraduate dental students, and to compare the sources of stress among the 5 years of undergraduate study, between gender, and with other studies done elsewhere. A total of 325 students across the 5 academic years (88.8% response rate) of the Faculty of Dentistry, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, completed the modified Dental Environment Stress questionnaire. All respondents reported that they experienced some form of stress. The preclinical students reported that examinations and fear of failure caused the most stress. The main stressor for clinical students was clinical training, particularly factors relating to meeting clinical requirements. Female students perceived more stress generally than male students. However, male students were more stressed when faced with factors related to clinical training.
  18. Abdullah A, Abdul Rahman R, Aziz S, Abu Bakar S, AbAziz AA
    Med J Malaysia, 2013;68(1):76-8.
    PMID: 23466775 MyJurnal
    Nasal obstruction in neonates is a potentially fatal condition because neonates are obligatory nasal breathers. Bilateral choanal atresia is therefore a neonatal emergency. Several approaches for corrections of choanal atresia are available including the helium laser: YAG. A 5-year-old Chinese girl born with bilateral choanal atresia, had birth asphyxia that required intubation. She underwent multiple surgeries for correction of choanal atresia at other hospitals but failed to improve. She was referred to Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Center (UKMMC) after presenting with intermittent respiratory distress and cyanosis following an upper respiratory tract infection. A repeat computed tomography (CT) scan done preoperatively showed complete bony stenosis over the left choana and finding was confirmed by examination under general anesthesia. She underwent endoscopic transnasal removal of left bony atretic plate. There was no intra or postoperative complications. During follow up 10 years later, the airway on both sides remains patent.
  19. Lim JL, Yusof NS, Md Tarekh NA, Abdul Rahman R
    Cureus, 2020 Nov 19;12(11):e11580.
    PMID: 33364104 DOI: 10.7759/cureus.11580
    Dermatomyositis is often presented as paraneoplastic syndrome. The diagnosis of dermatomyositis can prompt clinicians to further investigate the underlying cause, in particular malignancy. This case report illustrates the association of lung adenocarcinoma and dermatomyositis with antecedent presentation of cutaneous and musculoskeletal manifestations, one year prior to the diagnosis of carcinoma.
  20. Cheah KL, Norhayati MN, Husniati Yaacob L, Abdul Rahman R
    PLoS One, 2021;16(9):e0257843.
    PMID: 34559859 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0257843
    OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of Ashwagandha extract on sleep.

    METHODS: A comprehensive search was conducted in CENTRAL, MEDLINE, SCOPUS, Google Scholars, World Health Organization Trials Portal, ClinicalTrials.gov, Clinical Trial Registry of India, and AYUSH Research Portal for all appropriate trials. Randomized controlled trials that examined the effect of Ashwagandha extract versus placebo on sleep in human participants 18 years old and above were considered. Two authors independently read all trials and independently extracted all relevant data. The primary outcomes were sleep quantity and sleep quality. The secondary outcomes were mental alertness on rising, anxiety level, and quality of life.

    RESULTS: A total of five randomized controlled trials containing 400 participants were analyzed. Ashwagandha extract exhibited a small but significant effect on overall sleep (Standardized Mean Difference -0.59; 95% Confidence Interval -0.75 to -0.42; I2 =  62%). The effects on sleep were more prominent in the subgroup of adults diagnosed with insomnia, treatment dosage ≥600 mg/day, and treatment duration ≥8 weeks. Ashwagandha extract was also found to improve mental alertness on rising and anxiety level, but no significant effect on quality of life. No serious side effects were reported.

    CONCLUSION: Ashwagandha extract appears to has a beneficial effect in improving sleep in adults. However, data on the serious adverse effects of Ashwagandha extract are limited, and more safety data would be needed to assess whether it would be safe for long-term use.

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