Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 25 in total

  1. Padzil, F., Mariatulqabtiah, A. R., Abu, J.
    Jurnal Veterinar Malaysia, 2017;29(2):9-13.
    Avian polyomavirus disease is among the most common viral diseases of domesticated exotic birds as such in psittacine families. Caused by avian polyomavirus (APV) which possess a circular, double-stranded DNA which encodes for major structural virus protein 1 (VP1) and minor structural proteins VP2, VP3 and VP4, the disease is also known as Budgerigar fledgling disease polyomavirus (BFPyV), Papovavirus, and Psittacine polyomavirus. Infections from APV may lead to cutaneous haemorrhage, abdominal distension, feather abnormalities and even death. The APV virus has a broad avian host range and is known to cause acute chronic disease in several psittacine birds such as parrot, cockatoo, macaw, and budgerigar. The current status of APV epidemiology globally has not been fully recorded. Only the studies of the virus and disease caused within several countries are used as references, and few were done together with detection of beak and feather disease virus. Despite the common occurrence of APV among bird breeders in Malaysia, a very limited study has been done to evaluate the prevalence status of APV in Malaysia. In this review, we wish to disseminate knowledge, particularly to pet owners and bird breeders, on APV characterisations, its updated occurrence worldwide and prevention strategies. This information may be useful to trigger in depth study on the epidemiology of disease and better management practises among breeders.
  2. Nasidi, Y., Bamgbade S. Abu, J. A., Adeleke, A. Q., Ali, B.
    The construction organization contributes to the generation of large quantities of
    construction waste across Nigerian cities. Nigeria has been known to lack appropriate procedures for
    managing construction waste, and developers and their contractors are left with the collection and
    disposal of construction waste management, despite the fact that they are expected to embrace all
    administrative, financial, legal, planning, and technological functions involved in solutions to all
    problems of construction waste. Therefore, this leads to ineffective construction waste management.
    This paper examines the effect of the government policy on the relationship between organizational
    resources and construction waste management among construction organizations, in Abuja, Nigeria. A
    quantitative method of survey was used to obtain data from managers of construction project-based
    organizations in Abuja, Nigeria. A total of 310 questionnaires were administered and 178 usable
    questionnaires were returned, yielding 57.4 response rate. Partial least square Structural equation
    model (PLS-SEM) was used to analyse the data. The Cronbach’s Alpha value for the variables ranging
    from 0.885 to 0.972 indicates a very good reliability of the research instrument. It was found that all
    the hypotheses are significant at 5% significance level. It was found that while government policy
    moderates the relationship between the Transformational leadership as a dimension of organizational
    resources and construction waste management, it does not support organizational learning and staff
    training. Copyright © 2016 Penerbit Akademia Baru - All rights reserved.
  3. Reza Sanaei M, Abu J, Nazari M, A B MZ, Allaudin ZN
    Vet Surg, 2013 Nov;42(8):963-70.
    PMID: 24117844 DOI: 10.1111/j.1532-950X.2013.12057.x
    To evaluate the osteogenic potential of avian demineralized bone matrix (DBM) in the context of implant geometry.
  4. Abu J, Wünschmann A, Redig PT, Feeney D
    J. Avian Med. Surg., 2009 Mar;23(1):44-8.
    PMID: 19530406
    A 32-year-old female American flamingo (Phoenicopterus ruber) was presented with a squamous cell carcinoma of the middle digit of the right foot. No clinical, hematologic, or radiologic evidence of metastasis was present. Salvage amputation of the digit resulted in complete cure, whereas previous electrosurgery and radiation therapy were unsuccessful. Three years later, another squamous cell carcinoma was diagnosed in the middle digit of the left foot. The digit was also amputated. Seven months after the second amputation, the bird did not have any recurrence or signs of metastasis.
  5. Mohammed Jajere S, Hassan L, Zakaria Z, Abu J, Abdul Aziz S
    Antibiotics (Basel), 2020 Oct 15;9(10).
    PMID: 33076451 DOI: 10.3390/antibiotics9100701
    The emergence of multidrug resistance (MDR), including colistin resistance, among Enterobacteriaceae recovered from food animals poses a serious public health threat because of the potential transmission of these resistant variants to humans along the food chain. Village chickens or Ayam Kampung are free-range birds and are preferred by a growing number of consumers who consider these chickens to be organic and more wholesome. The current study investigates the antibiogram profiles of Salmonella isolates recovered from village chicken flocks in South-central Peninsular Malaysia. A total of 34 isolates belonging to eight serotypes isolated from village chickens were screened for resistance towards antimicrobials including colistin according to the WHO and OIE recommendations of critical antibiotics. S. Weltevreden accounted for 20.6% of total isolates, followed by serovars Typhimurium and Agona (17.6%). The majority of isolates (73.5%) demonstrated resistance to one or more antimicrobials. Eight isolates (23.5%) were resistant to ≥3 antimicrobial classes. Colistin resistance (minimum inhibitory concentrations: 4-16 mg/L) was detected among five isolates (14.7%), including S. Weltevreden, S. Albany, S. Typhimurium, and Salmonella spp. Univariable analysis of risk factors likely to influence the occurrence of MDR Salmonella revealed that the flock size, poultry production system, and use of antibiotics in the farm were not significantly (p > 0.05) associated with MDR Salmonella. The current study highlights that MDR Salmonella occur at a lower level in village chickens compared to that found in live commercial chickens. However, MDR remains a problem even among free-range chickens with minimal exposure to antibiotics.
  6. Shafiee MN, Chapman C, Barrett D, Abu J, Atiomo W
    Gynecol Oncol, 2013 Nov;131(2):489-92.
    PMID: 23822891 DOI: 10.1016/j.ygyno.2013.06.032
    Endometrial cancer (EC) is the commonest gynaecological cancer in North American and European women. Even though it has been shown that women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) have a three-fold increase in the risk of developing EC compared to women without PCOS, the precise molecular mechanisms which increase EC risk in women with PCOS remain unclear. Clinical strategies to prevent EC in PCOS are therefore not well researched and understood. Although raised estrogen levels, hyperinsulinaemia and, reduced apoptosis have been suggested as potential mechanisms, there is a lack of clarity about how these factors and other factors may interact to increase EC risk in PCOS. This article reviews the literature, on the potential molecular links between PCOS and EC but argues for a paradigm shift, to a systems biology-based approach in future research into the molecular links between PCOS and EC. The potential challenges of a systems biology-based approach are outlined but not considered insurmountable.
  7. Sattar A, Zakaria Z, Abu J, Aziz SA, Rojas-Ponce G
    BMC Vet Res, 2021 Jan 07;17(1):13.
    PMID: 33413380 DOI: 10.1186/s12917-020-02695-8
    BACKGROUND: Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) causes a chronic infectious in the birds known as avian mycobacteriosis. Almost all species of the birds are susceptible to MAC which consists of two closely related species of mycobacteria, that is, M. avium and M. intracellulare. This study aimed to determine the occurrence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium (MAA) in chickens and captive birds in selected states of Peninsular Malaysia.

    RESULTS: A 300 fecal samples were collected from village chickens (n = 100), layer chickens (n = 100) and captive birds (n = 100). Fecal samples were split into two aliquots for microbiological and molecular detection of MAA. Microbiology detection consisted of microscopy (Ziehl-Neelsen staining) and culture of samples decontaminated with 1% Cetylperidinium chloride and vancomycin, nalidixic acid and amphotericin B (VNA) antibiotic cocktail [vancomycin (VAN) 100 μg/ml, nalidixic acid (NAL) 100 μg/ml and amphotericin B (AMB) 50 μg/ml] onto Löwenstein-Jensen (L-J). Molecular detection (PCR-IS901) was performed to detect MAA DNA from the feces and PCR-16S rRNA and IS901 for identification of genus Mycobacterium and Mycobacterium avium sub species avium isolated onto L-J. All samples (296) were AFB negative smear. M. avium was isolated in 0.3% (1/296) samples by culture and detected in 2.5% (6/242) samples by PCR (IS901). Other mycobacteria were found in 1.7% (5/296) chickens. Of five isolates, two were identified as Mycobacterium terrae and M. engbaekii and remaining isolates were not sequenced. Birds positive for M. avium included White Pelican (n = 1) Black Hornbill (n = 1), Macaw (n = 2), Cockatoo (n = 2) and village chicken (n = 1).

    CONCLUSION: It is concluded that chickens and birds were infected with M. avium in selected areas of Peninsular Malaysia. Although, PCR is rapid, reliable and cost effective method for detection of M. avium in a subclinical stage, the culture of the avian feces should still be used as a reference test for the diagnosis of avian tuberculosis.

  8. Lutpi SM, Abu J, Arshad SS, Rahaman NY
    J Vet Res, 2022 Dec;66(4):523-535.
    PMID: 36846031 DOI: 10.2478/jvetres-2022-0061
    INTRODUCTION: Proventricular dilatation disease (PDD) is caused by avian bornavirus (ABV) has been identified in psittacine, non-psittacine birds and waterfowl. Birds may show signs of gastrointestinal tract deficit or neurological dysfunction or even both. The objectives of this study were to determine the molecular prevalence, risk factors and public awareness of ABV and PDD among captive and non-captive birds in Peninsular Malaysia.

    MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 344 cloacal swabs or faeces were collected and subjected to detection using the RT-PCR assay. Meanwhile, KAP questionnaires were distributed by using the Google forms platform.

    RESULTS: Molecular prevalence studies revealed that 4.5% (9/201) of the pet birds were ABV-positive, whereas 0% (0/143) in waterfowl. Nine positive pet birds were identified to be PaBV-2, which is closest to ABV isolates EU781967 (USA). Among the risk factors analysed, category, age and, location, were found to show an association with the ABV positivity. The KAP survey result showed: the respondents have low knowledge (32.9%), however, they showed positive attitude (60.8%) and good practice (94.9%). The association between knowledge, attitude and practice showed that there was a significant association between knowledge-attitude and also attitude-practice (P<0.05).

    CONCLUSION: This study proved that avian bornavirus (ABV) causes proventricular dilatation disease (PDD) among a group of pet birds of Psittaciformes, but it is present in Peninsular Malaysia with a low prevalence rate. Furthermore, in addition to the useful databases obtained from this study, the level of public awareness on the importance of avian bornavirus that causes fatal disorders among a wide range of bird species is satisfactorily raised.

  9. Sattar A, Zakaria Z, Abu J, Aziz SA, Gabriel RP
    PLoS One, 2018;13(8):e0202034.
    PMID: 30096205 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0202034
    Culture is considered the gold standard for definitive diagnosis of mycobacterial infections. However, consensus about the most suitable culture procedure for isolation of nontuberculous mycobacteria is lacking. The study compared the recoveries of mycobacteria after decontamination of spiked and fresh avian feces with 4% sodium hydroxide (NaOH), 12% sulfuric acid (H2SO4), or 1% cetylperidinium chloride (CPC), with and without mixture of three antibiotics, namely vancomycin (VAN, 100 μg/ml), nalidixic acid (NAL, 100 μg/ml), and amphotericin B (AMB, 100 μg/ml). The antibiotic mixture was referred to as VNA. Decontamination procedures were evaluated using two (n = 2) avian fecal samples spiked with 106, 104, and 102 CFU/ml of Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium (ATCC 15769) and fresh avian feces (n = 42). M. avium subsp. avium was detected on the culture media from spiked samples (106 and 104 CFU/ml) decontaminated with NaOH, NaOH-VNA, H2SO4, and H2SO4 -VNA for 2-6 weeks. These bacteria were detected in 2-4 weeks when using CPC and CPC-VNA. M. avium subsp. avium cannot be isolated on culture media from spiked samples (102 CFU/ml) decontaminated with any decontaminating agent. Two mycobacterial isolates, namely, Mycobacterium terrae and M. engbaekii, were isolated from field samples decontaminated with NaOH and CPC-VNA. With regard to the contamination rate, the use of CPC-VNA showed lower contamination rates (5.5% and 19.0%) from spiked and field samples than those of the other methods (NaOH: 22.2% and 59.5%, NaOH-VNA: 16.7% and 21.4%, H2SO4: 11.1% and 40.5%, H2SO4-VNA: 5.5% and 21.4%, and CPC: 66.7% and 50%). In conclusion, the decontamination of fecal samples following a two-step procedure with 1% CPC and VNA can ensure high recovery rate of many mycobacteria with the lowest contamination in cultures.
  10. Sanaei R, Abu J, Nazari M, Zuki MA, Allaudin ZN
    Vet Surg, 2015 Jul;44(5):603-12.
    PMID: 25656987 DOI: 10.1111/vsu.12292
    To evaluate avian allogeneic demineralized bone matrix (DBM) in the healing of long bone defects as a function of geometry and time in a pigeon model.
  11. Wong CL, Sieo CC, Tan WS, Abdullah N, Hair-Bejo M, Abu J, et al.
    Int J Food Microbiol, 2014 Feb 17;172:92-101.
    PMID: 24361838 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2013.11.034
    In this study, a Salmonella Typhimurium lytic bacteriophage, Φ st1, which was isolated from chicken faecal material, was evaluated as a candidate for biocontrol of Salmonella in chickens. The morphology of Φ st1 showed strong resemblance to members of the Siphoviridae family. Φ st1 was observed to be a DNA phage with an estimated genome size of 121 kbp. It was found to be able to infect S. Typhimurium and S. Hadar, with a stronger lytic activity against the former. Subsequent characterisation of Φ st1 against S. Typhimurium showed that Φ st1 has a latent period of 40 min with an average burst size of 22 particles per infective centre. Approximately 86.1% of the phage adsorbed to the host cells within the initial 5 min of infection. At the optimum multiplicity of infection (MOI) (0.1), the highest reduction rate of S. Typhimurium (6.6 log₁₀ CFU/ml) and increment in phage titre (3.8 log₁₀ PFU/ml) was observed. Φ st1 produced adsorption rates of 88.4-92.2% at pH7-9 and demonstrated the highest bacteria reduction (6.6 log₁₀ CFU/ml) at pH9. Φ st1 also showed an insignificant different (P>0.05) reduction rate of host cells at 37 °C (6.4 log₁₀ CFU/ml) and 42 °C (6.0 log₁₀ CFU/ml). The in vivo study using Φ st1 showed that intracloacal inoculation of ~10¹² PFU/ml of the phage in the chickens challenged with ~10¹⁰ CFU/ml of S. Typhimurium was able to reduce (P<0.05) the S. Typhimurium more rapidly than the untreated group. The Salmonella count reduced to 2.9 log₁₀ CFU/ml within 6h of post-challenge and S. Typhimurium was not detected at and after 24h of post-challenge. Reduction of Salmonella count in visceral organs was also observed at 6h post-challenge. Approximately 1.6 log₁₀ FU/ml Φ st1 was found to persist in the caecal wall of the chicks at 72 h of post-challenge. The present study indicated that Φ st1 may serve as a potential biocontrol agent to reduce the Salmonella count in caecal content of chickens.
  12. Sanaei MR, Abu J, Nazari M, Faiz NM, Bakar MZ, Allaudin ZN
    J. Avian Med. Surg., 2011 Dec;25(4):247-53.
    PMID: 22458179
    Autologous bone marrow, alone or as a composite marrow graft, has received much attention in various species. To assess the potential osteogenicity of autologous, extramedullary bone marrow implants in an avian model, 24 adult pigeons (Columba livia) were given intramuscular implantations of autologous marrow aspirated from the medial tibiotarsus. Birds were euthanatized at 1, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 weeks after surgery to evaluate whether ectopic bone had formed at the implant sites. Primary evaluations by in situ radiography and postmortem histologic examinations showed no evidence of bone formation. Further evaluation with histologic scores and histomorphometry revealed a significantly increased rate of angiogenesis at the implant sites by the sixth and tenth week postimplantation (P < .05). No significant differences between the treatment and control sites were present at any other endpoints. Results of this study show that, although autologous bone marrow lacks heterotopic osteogenic potentials in this avian model, it could still function as a useful adjunct to routine bone grafting techniques because of its unique capabilities to promote early angiogenesis.
  13. Jajere SM, Hassan L, Abdul Aziz S, Zakaria Z, Abu J, Nordin F, et al.
    Poult Sci, 2019 Nov 01;98(11):5961-5970.
    PMID: 31392329 DOI: 10.3382/ps/pez392
    Village chicken or Ayam Kampung, common to Southeast Asian countries, has always been regarded as superior in comparison to commercial broiler chicken in terms of wholesomeness and health benefits. The current study investigates the prevalence and risk factors of Salmonella among village chicken flocks from the central and southern states of Peninsular Malaysia. A total of 35 village flocks were sampled from Selangor (n = 19), Melaka (n = 10), Johor (n = 4), and Negeri Sembilan (n = 2). In total, 1,042 samples were collected; these included cloacal swabs (n = 675), eggs (n = 62), pooled drinking water (n = 175), pooled feeds (n = 70), and pooled flies (n = 60). Isolation of Salmonella from cloacal swabs, poultry drinking water, and feeds was carried out according to the protocols and recommendations of the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) terrestrial manual. The prevalence of Salmonella at an individual bird-level was 2.5% (17/675, 95% CI: 1.6 to 4.0). All eggs screened were negative; in the case of environmental samples, however, Salmonella was detected in 5.14% (9/175), 7.14% (5/70), and 5.0% (3/60) for water, feed, and flies, respectively. A total of 34 isolates and 8 Salmonella serotypes were identified. Weltevreden (20.6%) was the most common, followed by Typhimurium and Agona (17.6%), Albany and Enteritidis (8.8%), Molade (5.9%), Corvallis and Schleissheim (2.9%), and others grouped as Salmonella spp. (11.8%). Multivariable logistic regression models revealed that Salmonella positivity among flocks could be strongly predicted by storage of feeds (uncovered feeds; OR = 10.38; 95% CI: 1.25 to 86.39; p = 0.030) and uncovered water tanks (uncovered tank; OR = 6.43; 95% CI: 1.02 to 40.60; p = 0.048). The presence of Salmonella in village chickens in the study area was lower than that of commercial chickens in Malaysia.
  14. Shafiee MN, Ortori CA, Barrett DA, Mongan NP, Abu J, Atiomo W
    Int J Mol Sci, 2020 Jul 03;21(13).
    PMID: 32635401 DOI: 10.3390/ijms21134753
    Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) are more likely to develop endometrial cancer (EC). The molecular mechanisms which increase the risk of EC in PCOS are unclear. Derangements in lipid metabolism are associated with EC, but there have been no studies, investigating if this might increase the risk of EC in PCOS. This was a cross-sectional study of 102 women in three groups of 34 (PCOS, EC and controls) at Nottingham University Hospital, UK. All participants had clinical assessments, followed by obtaining plasma and endometrial tissue samples. Lipidomic analyses were performed using liquid chromatography (LC) coupled with high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) and the obtained lipid datasets were screened using standard software and databases. Using multivariate data analysis, there were no common markers found for EC and PCOS. However, on univariate analyses, both PCOS and EC endometrial tissue samples showed a significant decrease in monoacylglycerol 24:0 and capric acid compared to controls. Further studies are required to validate these findings and investigate the potential role of monoacylglycerol 24:0 and capric acid in the link between PCOS with EC.
  15. Shafiee MN, Seedhouse C, Mongan N, Chapman C, Deen S, Abu J, et al.
    Mol Cell Endocrinol, 2016 Mar 15;424:94-101.
    PMID: 26802879 DOI: 10.1016/j.mce.2016.01.019
    Endometrial cancer (EC) is the most common gynaecological cancer amongst women in the UK. Although previous studies have found that women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) have at least a three-fold increase in endometrial cancer (EC) risk compared to women without PCOS, the precise molecular mechanisms which link between PCOS and EC remain unclear. It has been suggested that insulin resistance may contribute to the increased risk of EC in PCOS. The specific expression of genes related to the insulin-signalling pathway including the IGF system in the endometrium of women with PCOS has however never been measured and compared to that in women with EC without PCOS and control women without EC or PCOS. .

    Study site: University teaching hospital in the United Kingdom
  16. Shafiee MN, Mongan N, Seedhouse C, Chapman C, Deen S, Abu J, et al.
    Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand, 2017 May;96(5):556-562.
    PMID: 28176325 DOI: 10.1111/aogs.13106
    INTRODUCTION: Women with polycystic ovary syndrome have a three-fold higher risk of endometrial cancer. Insulin resistance and hyperlipidemia may be pertinent factors in the pathogenesis of both conditions. The aim of this study was to investigate endometrial sterol regulatory element binding protein-1 gene expression in polycystic ovary syndrome and endometrial cancer endometrium, and to correlate endometrial sterol regulatory element binding protein-1 gene expression with serum lipid profiles.

    MATERIAL AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed at Nottingham University Hospital, UK. A total of 102 women (polycystic ovary syndrome, endometrial cancer and controls; 34 participants in each group) were recruited. Clinical and biochemical assessments were performed before endometrial biopsies were obtained from all participants. Taqman real-time polymerase chain reaction for endometrial sterol regulatory element binding protein-1 gene and its systemic protein expression were analyzed.

    RESULTS: The body mass indices of women with polycystic ovary syndrome (29.28 ± 2.91 kg/m(2) ) and controls (28.58 ± 2.62 kg/m(2) ) were not significantly different. Women with endometrial cancer had a higher mean body mass index (32.22 ± 5.70 kg/m(2) ). Sterol regulatory element binding protein-1 gene expression was significantly increased in polycystic ovary syndrome and endometrial cancer endometrium compared with controls (p 

  17. Handool KO, Ibrahim SM, Kaka U, Omar MA, Abu J, Yusoff MSM, et al.
    J Exp Orthop, 2018 May 02;5(1):13.
    PMID: 29721763 DOI: 10.1186/s40634-018-0128-6
    BACKGROUND: The use of a closed fracture model has become the preferred model to study the fracture healing process, given that the periosteum and the soft tissue surrounding the fracture site play an important role in the fracture healing process. Some techniques like osteotomy, drilling the long bones and the use of the guillotine-like apparatus to induce fracture are characterized by some undesirable effects and complications. The aim of this study is to optimize and evaluate an in vivo fracture model using three-point bending pliers that can be used to study secondary bone fracture healing in rats.

    METHODS: Modified three-point bending pliers were used as a device to create the closed rat tibial bone fracture that was prefixed with an intramedullary pin (23 G × 11/2″) in rats. The exact location of the induced closed fracture was along the long bone. The presence of bone comminution, and the fracture bone alignment were immediately examined after the induction of the fracture until the 6th week.

    RESULTS: All fractures induced were transverse, located in the middle to proximal one third of the tibia, and they all healed without complications. Bone union as shown radiographically occurred within 2-3 weeks postoperative. The average angle of the fracture line with the axis of the tibia was 89.41 ± 2.11°. The lateral and anterio-posterior pin angulation views were 167.33 ± 3.67° and 161.60 ± 4.87° respectively. The average length of proximal end of the fractured bone in comparison with the whole length of intact bone was 41.02 ± 3.27%. There was a significant difference in percentage of the gross callus area and gross callus index, while there was no significant difference in X-ray callus index. There was no significant difference of the gross callus area between slight comminution (n = 4) and non comminution (n = 21).

    CONCLUSION: The optimized rat tibial fracture model resulted in mainly transverse tibial mid-shaft fractures with minimal bone comminution and absence of surrounding soft tissue damage. The size area of consequent soft callus formation and the extent to which the closed fracture model was reproducible are very good outcomes making it feasible for in vivo laboratory research use.

  18. Sinulingga TS, Aziz SA, Bitrus AA, Zunita Z, Abu J
    Trop Anim Health Prod, 2020 Jan;52(1):151-157.
    PMID: 31273582 DOI: 10.1007/s11250-019-01995-y
    Campylobacter is reported as a major cause of foodborne illness worldwide. Consumption of contaminated chicken meat is considered a significant risk factor of Campylobacter infection in humans. This study investigated the occurrence of non-Campylobacter jejuni-Campylobacter coli, in broiler chickens (n = 210) and chicken meat (n = 109). The samples were collected from seven broiler chicken farms (n = 210 cloacal swabs), 11 markets (n = 84 chicken meat), and 5 supermarkets (n = 25 chicken meat) located in different districts of Selangor State. Campylobacter were isolated from cloacal swabs using the Cape Town Protocol and from meat samples using the method of Duffy et al. (2007) with some modifications for Campylobacter isolations which were reported effective in the isolation of non-C. jejuni-C. coli Campylobacter species. The isolates were identified by Gram staining for cellular morphology, wet mount for motility and biochemical tests. Confirmation of presumed Campylobacter isolates was carried out using multiplex PCR (mPCR). One hundred seven (107/210) or 50.9% and twenty-nine (29/109) or 26.6% of chickens and chicken meat samples respectively were positive for Campylobacter species. Among the Campylobacter isolates from chickens, C. jejuni was the most predominantly isolated species (69.5%), followed by C. coli (16.2%). Campylobacter fetus and C. upsaliensis were the non-C. jejuni-C. coli Campylobacter species isolated in this study, at 9.3% and 2.5% respectively. Overall, the findings indicated broiler chickens were colonized not only by the common Campylobacter species but also by other Campylobacter species. We found the Cape Town Protocol useful to detect the occurrence of non-C. jejuni-C. coli isolates in chickens.
  19. Kumar K, Arshad SS, Toung OP, Abba Y, Selvarajah GT, Abu J, et al.
    Trop Anim Health Prod, 2019 Mar;51(3):495-506.
    PMID: 30604332 DOI: 10.1007/s11250-018-01786-x
    Flaviviruses (FVs) are arthropod-borne viruses of medical and veterinary importance. Numerous species of FVs have been isolated from various host; mainly humans, animals, ticks, and mosquitoes. Certain FVs are extremely host-specific; at the same time, some FVs can infect an extensive range of species. Based on published literatures, 11 species of FVs have been detected from diverse host species in Malaysia. In humans, dengue virus and Japanese encephalitis virus have been reported since 1901 and 1942. In animals, the Batu Cave virus, Sitiawan virus, Carey Island, Tembusu virus, Duck Tembusu virus, and Japanese encephalitis viruses were isolated from various species. In mosquitoes, Japanese encephalitis virus and Kunjin virus were isolated from Culex spp., while Zika virus and Jugra virus were isolated from Aedes spp. In ticks, the Langat virus was isolated from Ixodes spp. One of the major challenges in the diagnosis of FVs is the presence of sero-complexes as a result of cross-reactivity with one or more FV species. Subsequently, the distribution of specific FVs among humans and animals in a specific population is problematic to assess and often require comprehensive and thorough analyses. Molecular assays such as quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and digital droplet RT-PCR (ddRT-PCR) have been used for the differentiation of flavivirus infections to increase the accuracy of epidemiological data for disease surveillance, monitoring, and control. In situations where sero-complexes are common in FVs, even sensitive assays such as qRT-pCR can produce false positive results. In this write up, an overview of the various FV sero-complexes reported in Malaysia to date and the challenges faced in diagnosis of FV infections are presented.
  20. Shafiee MN, Khan G, Ariffin R, Abu J, Chapman C, Deen S, et al.
    Gynecol Oncol, 2014 Jan;132(1):248-53.
    PMID: 24183733 DOI: 10.1016/j.ygyno.2013.10.028
    Current data indicate that there is a significant risk of endometrial cancer (EC) in women with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), although further research needed to clarify the exact molecular mechanisms. Endometrial hyperplasia is a premalignant condition that usually heralds EC and it shares identical risk factors with EC. Metabolic syndrome with a triad of obesity, hyperinsulinaemia and diabetes, which is commonly observed in PCOS appears to be a key mechanism in EC pathogenesis. Measures to improve insulin resistance could therefore play a role in reducing the risk of EC in women with PCOS. Metformin is an insulin sensitising agent which is safe, widely available and currently licensed for type-2 diabetes. It has been clearly shown in both animal and human studies that metformin is of value in reversing endometrial hyperplasia. Metformin may therefore prevent EC in PCOS. This article reviews the use of metformin in reducing EC risk in PCOS and makes a case for future research on this topic.
Related Terms
Contact Us

Please provide feedback to Administrator (afdal@afpm.org.my)

External Links