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  1. Atiya N, Sulaiman H, Chong J, Ng KP
    J Infect Dev Ctries, 2015 Mar;9(3):313-6.
    PMID: 25771471 DOI: 10.3855/jidc.5208
    We report the first case of an immunocompromised adult patient presenting with cervicofacial lymphadenitis due to Mycobacterium haemophilum, confirmed using hsp65 gene sequencing and line-probe assays. In resource-limited settings, especially in developing countries, appropriate culture methods and rapid molecular diagnostic tools such as hsp65 gene sequencing for identification of this organism may not be readily available. This may cause M. haemophilum infections to go unrecognised or lead to delays in diagnosis. Lack of heightened awareness about the potential for this mycobacterial species to cause infections may also contribute to possible underestimation of M. haemophilum cases in the developing world.
  2. Sulaiman H, Ismail MD, Jalalonmuhali M, Atiya N, Ponnampalavanar S
    Malar. J., 2014;13:341.
    PMID: 25176417 DOI: 10.1186/1475-2875-13-341
    This case report describes a case of presumed acute myocardial infarction in a returned traveler who was later diagnosed to have severe malaria. Emergency coronary angiography was normal and subsequent peripheral blood film was positive for Plasmodium falciparum.
  3. Sulaiman H, Atiya N, Loi KW, Ng KP
    Eur. J. Intern. Med., 2016 Nov;35:e7-e8.
    PMID: 27498273 DOI: 10.1016/j.ejim.2016.07.014
  4. Ng KP, Kuan CS, Kaur H, Na SL, Atiya N, Velayuthan RD
    Trop. Med. Int. Health, 2015 Nov;20(11):1447-1453.
    PMID: 26216479 DOI: 10.1111/tmi.12577
    To describe a prospective laboratory-based surveillance of Candida species that were collected from different anatomical sites of patients admitted to the University of Malaya Medical Centre, Malaysia, from the year 2000 to 2013.
  5. Mariappan V, Thavagnanam S, Vellasamy KM, Teh CJS, Atiya N, Ponnampalavanar S, et al.
    BMC Infect. Dis., 2018 Sep 05;18(1):455.
    PMID: 30185168 DOI: 10.1186/s12879-018-3371-7
    BACKGROUND: Burkholderia pseudomallei is the causative agent of melioidosis, which is a potentially life threatening disease endemic in Southeast Asian countries. In Malaysia, cystic fibrosis (CF) is an uncommon condition. The association between CF and B.pseudomallei infections has been reported previously. However, this is the first case report of a pediatric melioidosis relapse and co-infection with other Gram-negative bacteria in Malaysia.

    CASE PRESENTATION: A 14-year-old Chinese Malaysian boy presented with a history of recurrent pneumonia, poor growth and steatorrhoea since childhood, and was diagnosed with CF. B. pseudomallei was cultured from his sputum during three different admissions between 2013 and 2016. However, the patient succumbed to end stage of respiratory failure in 2017 despite antibiotics treatment against B.pseudomallei. The isolates were compared using multilocus-sequence typing and repetitive-element polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and confirmed that two of the isolates were of same sequence type, which may indicate relapse.

    CONCLUSIONS: CF patients should be aware of melioidosis in endemic regions, as it is an emerging infectious disease, especially when persistent or recurrent respiratory symptoms and signs of infection occur. The high prevalence rates of melioidosis in Malaysia warrants better management options to improve quality of life, and life expectancy in patients with CF. Travel activities to endemic regions should also be given more consideration, as this would be crucial to identify and initiate appropriate empiric treatment.

  6. Lee SH, Jaganath IB, Atiya N, Manikam R, Sekaran SD
    J Food Drug Anal, 2016 10;24(4):855-865.
    PMID: 28911625 DOI: 10.1016/j.jfda.2016.03.010
    Chemotherapies remain far from ideal due to drug resistance; therefore, novel chemotherapeutic agents with higher effectiveness are crucial. The extracts of four Phyllanthus species, namely Phyllanthus niruri, Phyllanthus urinaria, Phyllanthus watsonii, and Phyllanthus amarus, were shown to induce apoptosis and inhibit metastasis of breast carcinoma cells (MCF-7). The main objective of this study was to determine the pathways utilized by these four Phyllanthus species to exert anti-metastatic activities. A cancer 10-pathway reporter was used to investigate the pathways affected by the four Phyllanthus species. Results indicated that these Phyllanthus species suppressed breast carcinoma metastasis and proliferation by suppressing matrix metalloprotein 2 and 9 expression via inhibition of the extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK) pathway. Additionally, inhibition of hypoxia-inducible factor 1-α in the hypoxia pathway caused reduced vascular endothelial growth factor and inducible nitric oxide synthase expression, resulting in anti-angiogenic effects and eventually anti-metastasis. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis identified numerous proteins suppressed by these Phyllanthus species, including invasion proteins, anti-apoptotic protein, protein-synthesis proteins, angiogenic and mobility proteins, and various glycolytic enzymes. Our results indicated that ERK and hypoxia pathways are the most likely targets of the four Phyllanthus species for the inhibition of MCF-7 metastasis.
  7. Lee SH, Atiya N, Wang SM, Manikam R, Raju CS, Sekaran SD
    Intervirology, 2018 Dec 12.
    PMID: 30541013 DOI: 10.1159/000495180
    OBJECTIVE: Herpes simplex virus infection through the neuronal route is the most well-studied mode of viral encephalitis that can persists in a human host for a lifetime. However, the involvement of other possible infection mechanisms by the virus remains underexplored. Therefore, this study aims to determine the temporal effects and mechanisms by which the virus breaches the human brain micro-vascular endothelial cells of the blood-brain barrier.

    METHOD: An electrical cell-substrate impedance-sensing tool was utilized to study the real-time cell-cell barrier or morphological changes in response to the virus infection.

    RESULTS: Herpes simplex virus, regardless of type (i.e., 1 or 2), reduced the cell-cell barrier resistance almost immediately after virus addition to endothelial cells, with negligible involvement of cell-matrix adhesion changes. There is no exclusivity in the infection ability of endothelial cells. From 30 h after HSV infection, there was an increase in cell membrane capacitance with a subsequent loss of cell-matrix adhesion capability, indicating a viability loss of the infected endothelial cells.

    CONCLUSION: This study shows for the first time that destruction of human brain micro-vascular endothelial cells as an in vitro model of the blood-brain barrier could be an alternative invasion mechanism during herpes simplex virus infection.

  8. Mohd Sazlly Lim S, Wong PL, Sulaiman H, Atiya N, Shunmugam RH, Liew SM
    J. Hosp. Infect., 2019 Jan 14.
    PMID: 30653999 DOI: 10.1016/j.jhin.2019.01.012
    OBJECTIVES: We aimed to identify and critically appraise existing clinical prediction models of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-EKP) infection or colonization.

    METHODS: Electronic databases, reference lists, and citations were searched from inception to April 2018. We included papers in any language describing the development or validation, or both, of models and scores to predict the risk of ESBL-EKP infection or colonization.

    RESULTS: 1795 references were screened, of which 4 articles were included in the review. The included studies were carried out in different geographical locations with differing study designs, and inclusion and exclusion criteria. Most if not all studies lacked external validation and blinding of reviewers during the evaluation of the predictor variables and outcome. All studies excluded missing data and most studies did not report the number of patient excluded due to missing data. 15 predictors of infection or colonization with ESBL-EKP were identified. Commonly included predictors are previous antibiotic use, previous hospitalization, transfer from another healthcare facility and previous procedures (urinary catheterization and invasive procedures).

    CONCLUSION: Due to limitations and variations in the study design, clinicians would have to take these differences into consideration when deciding on how to use these models in clinical practice. Due to lack of external validation, the generalizability of these models remains a question. Therefore, further external validation in one's local settings is needed to confirm the usefulness of these models in supporting decision-making.

  9. Yong YK, Tan HY, Saeidi A, Rosmawati M, Atiya N, Ansari AW, et al.
    Innate Immun, 2017 07;23(5):459-467.
    PMID: 28606013 DOI: 10.1177/1753425917714854
    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a major cause of chronic liver disease that may progress to liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Host immune responses represent the key determinants of HBV clearance or persistence. Here, we investigated the role of the early activation marker, CD69 and effector cytokines, granzyme B (GrB) and IFN-γ in the exhaustion of innate-like TCR Vα7.2+CD4+T cells, in 15 individuals with chronic HBV (CHB) infection where six were HBV DNA+ and nine were HBV DNA-. The percentage of cytokine-producing T cells and MAIT cells were significantly perturbed in HBV patients relative to healthy controls (HCs). The intracellular expression of GrB and IFN-γ was significantly reduced in MAIT cells derived from HBV-infected patients as compared to HCs, and the levels correlated with the percentage and levels [mean fluorescence intensity (MFI)] of CD69 expression. The total expression of CD69 (iMFI) was lower in CHB patients as compared to HCs. The frequency of CD69+ cells correlated with the levels of cytokine expression (MFI), particularly in CHB patients as compared to HCs. In summary, the polyfunctionality of peripheral T cells was significantly reduced among CHB patients, especially in the TCR Vα7.2+CD4+T cells, and the levels of cytokine expression correlated with functional cytokine levels.
  10. Kuan CS, Cham CY, Singh G, Yew SM, Tan YC, Chong PS, et al.
    PLoS ONE, 2016;11(8):e0161008.
    PMID: 27570972 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0161008
    Cladophialophora bantiana is a dematiaceous fungus with a predilection for causing central nervous system (CNS) infection manifesting as brain abscess in both immunocompetent and immunocompromised patients. In this paper, we report comprehensive genomic analyses of C. bantiana isolated from the brain abscess of an immunocompetent man, the first reported case in Malaysia and Southeast Asia. The identity of the fungus was determined using combined morphological analysis and multilocus phylogeny. The draft genome sequence of a neurotrophic fungus, C. bantiana UM 956 was generated using Illumina sequencing technology to dissect its genetic fundamental and basic biology. The assembled 37.1 Mb genome encodes 12,155 putative coding genes, of which, 1.01% are predicted transposable elements. Its genomic features support its saprophytic lifestyle, renowned for its versatility in decomposing hemicellulose and pectin components. The C. bantiana UM 956 was also found to carry some important putative genes that engaged in pathogenicity, iron uptake and homeostasis as well as adaptation to various stresses to enable the organism to survive in hostile microenvironment. This wealth of resource will further catalyse more downstream functional studies to provide better understanding on how this fungus can be a successful and persistent pathogen in human.
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