Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 96 in total

  1. Sthaneshwar P, Chan SP
    Malays J Pathol, 2010 Jun;32(1):43-7.
    PMID: 20614725 MyJurnal
    Type IV collagen is the principal component of glomerular basement membrane and messangial matrix. Studies have shown increased levels of urinary type IV collagen (uIV) in diabetic patients compared to healthy controls. The concentration of uIV increases gradually as diabetic nephropathy progresses.
    AIM AND METHOD: This study was carried out to determine whether urinary type IV collagen (uIV) can serve as an indicator of diabetic nephropathy. Using a sandwich enzyme immunoassay technique, uIV excretion was determined in 30 type 2 diabetic patients with normoalbuminuria and 20 patients with microalbuminuria.
    RESULTS: uIV excretion was significantly increased in type 2 diabetics, in both normoalbuminuric and microalbuminuric patients, compared with healthy controls. The increase in urinary type IV collagen was well correlated with the amount of urinary albumin but not with HbA1C.
    CONCLUSION: Our findings that uIV is higher in those with microalbuminuria and correlates with albuminuria, support uIV as an indicator of diabetic nephropathy. Whether the increased uIV excretion would predict the impending renal failure needs further confirmation.
  2. Chan SP, Colagiuri S
    Diabetes Res Clin Pract, 2015 Oct;110(1):75-81.
    PMID: 26361859 DOI: 10.1016/j.diabres.2015.07.002
    AIMS: Sulfonylureas are well positioned in treating type 2 diabetes, after lifestyle modification and metformin. The sulfonylurea gliclazide was given preference over glibenclamide in older people with type 2 diabetes in the World Health Organization model list of essential medicines. Consequently, a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials of the efficacy and safety of gliclazide versus other oral insulinotropic agents (sulfonylureas, dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors, and glinides) was performed.

    METHODS: Two reviewers searched MEDLINE for studies of ≥12 weeks duration in adults with type 2 diabetes. The key search word was "gliclazide", filtered with "randomized controlled trial", "human" and "19+ years". Differences were explored in mean change in glycated hemoglobin (HbA(1c)) from baseline (primary outcome) and risk of hypoglycemia (secondary outcome) between gliclazide and other oral insulinotropic agents; and other sulfonylureas.

    RESULTS: Nine out of 181 references reported primary outcomes, of which 7 reported secondary outcomes. Gliclazide lowered HbA1c more than other oral insulinotropic agents, with a weighted mean difference of -0.11% (95%, CI -0.19 to -0.03%, P=0.008, I(2)=60%), though not more than other sulfonylureas (-0.12%; 95%, CI -0.25 to 0.01%, P=0.07, I(2)=77%). Risk of hypoglycemia with gliclazide was not different to other insulinotropic agents (RR 0.85; 95%, CI 0.66 to 1.09, P=0.20, I(2)=61%) but significantly lower than other sulfonylureas (RR 0.47; 95%, CI 0.27 to 0.79, P=0.004, I(2)=0%).

    CONCLUSION: Compared with other oral insulinotropic agents, gliclazide significantly reduced HbA1c with no difference regarding hypoglycemia risk. Compared with other sulfonylureas, HbA1c reduction with gliclazide was not significantly different, but hypoglycemia risk was significantly lower.

  3. Jeyamalar R, Chan SP
    Int J Cardiol, 1995 Nov 10;52(1):83-4.
    PMID: 8707441
    Thyrotoxicosis gives rise to a high output cardiac failure. Rarely, it can cause a dilated cardiomyopathy with severe impairment of myocardial function which improves significantly following treatment.
  4. Mafauzy M, Hussein Z, Chan SP
    Med J Malaysia, 2011 Aug;66(3):175-81.
    PMID: 22111435 MyJurnal
    DiabCare Malaysia 2008 evaluated the current status of diabetes care in Malaysia as a continuation of similar cross-sectional studies conducted previously in 1997, 1998, 2001 and 2003. The current study recruited 1670 patients from general hospitals, diabetes clinics and referral clinics to study current scenario of diabetes management. We report the results of type 2 diabetic population who constituted 92.8% (n = 1549). Results showed deteriorating glycaemic control with mean HbA1c of 8.66 +/- 2.09% with only 22% of the patients achieving ADA target of < 7%. 80.3% of patients were hypertensive and 75% were on anti-hypertensive medication. 46% of patients had LDL levels > 2.6 mmol/L; 19.8% had triglycerides > 2.2 mmol/L; 27.4% had HDL < 1 mmol/L despite 85% of the patients being on lipid lowering agents. Microvascular, macrovascular and severe late complications were reported in 75%, 28.9% and 25.4% patients respectively. The rates of diabetic complications were cataract 27.2%, microalbuminuria 7%, neuropathy symptoms 45.9%, leg amputation 3.8% and history of angina pectoris was 18.4%. Quality of life evaluation showed that about one third of patients have poor quality of life. Also, there was poor adherence to diet, exercise and self testing of blood glucose. In conclusion, majority of the patients were still not satisfactorily controlled. There is an urgent need for effective remedial measures to increase adherence to practice guidelines and to educate both patients and healthcare personnel on importance of achieving clinical targets for metabolic control.
  5. Vijay AP, Chan SP
    JUMMEC, 2009;12(2):47-56.
    Achieving and maintaining good glycaemic control remains an important goal in the management of this common and prevalent disorder. Recent evidence from important megatrials, ACCORD, ADVANCE, VADT, UKPDS-10 year follow-up as well as the STENO-2 follow-up study, have cleared doubts concerning the benefits of targeting good glycaemic control. For the first time, we have the reassurance that macrovascular benefits can be realised from good glycaemic control. The legacy effect of prior good glucose control from the UKPDS-10 year follow-up, reinforces the results seen from the DCCT-EDIC (for Type 1 diabetes). The Intervention Phase of the UKPDS revealed benefits for reduction of microvascular complications, while it was only at the end of the Post-Trial Monitoring Phase where significant improvements in both micro and macrovascular outcomes were seen. The other three Trials assessing the effect of glycaemic control on cardiovascular outcomes, although largely negative for CV benefit, give valuable insight towards appropriate patient characteristics for which aggressive glucose control can and should be instituted. Individualising glycaemic targets, which has been the approach that many clinicians have been practising, has received new impetus albeit with clearer details. Getting to glycaemic goal early in the course of T2DM and Doing to Safely (Avoiding hypoglycaemia)are the key ingredients to successful management. The legacy of the memory of initial good metabolic/glycaemic control is investment in good health with benefits of reductions in both micro and more importantly, macrovascular disease, years later. Multifactorial interventions that include blood pressure, lipid lowering in addition to glucose control in these individuals with the Metabolic Syndrome result in more immediate beneficial additive effects on cardiovascular outcomes.
  6. Lai P, Chua SS, Chan SP
    Osteoporos Int, 2010 Oct;21(10):1637-56.
    PMID: 20379700 DOI: 10.1007/s00198-010-1199-0
    A systematic review was conducted to evaluate evidence concerning the effect of non-drug interventions by healthcare professionals on community-dwelling postmenopausal osteoporotic women. Evidence available indicates that such interventions are effective in improving the quality of life, medication compliance, and calcium intake, but effect on other outcomes is less conclusive.

    INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study is to conduct a systematic review to evaluate evidence concerning the effect of non-drug interventions by healthcare professionals on community-dwelling postmenopausal osteoporotic women.

    METHODS: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published in English between year 1990 and 2009 were identified. Types of patient outcome used as assessment included quality of life (QOL), bone mineral density (BMD), medication compliance and persistence, knowledge level, and lifestyle modification.

    RESULTS: Twenty four RCTs met the inclusion criteria. Seven studies assessed interventions by physiotherapists, six by physicians, seven by nurses, three by multi-disciplinary teams and one by dietitians. Variability in the types and intensity of interventions made comparison between each study difficult. Collectively, these studies provided some evidence to show that interventions by healthcare professionals improved the QOL medication compliance and calcium intake of patients but its effects on BMD, medication persistence, knowledge, and other lifestyle modifications were less conclusive.

    CONCLUSIONS: From this review, it was found that some outcome measures of such non-drug interventions still required further studies. Future studies should use validated instruments to assess the outcomes, with focus on common definitions of interventions and outcome measures, more intensive one-to-one interventions, appropriate control groups, adequate randomization procedures, and also provide information on effect size.
  7. Chan SP, Scott BB, Sen SS
    PMID: 20977729 DOI: 10.1186/1471-2474-11-248
    BACKGROUND: Osteoporosis treatment guidelines recommend calcium and vitamin D supplementation for both prevention as well as treatment, however, compliance with these guidelines is often unsatisfactory. This study investigated the opinion of Asian physicians and Asian patients regarding vitamin D and calcium and patients' use of both.
    METHODS: Physicians selected from Malaysia, Taiwan, Philippines, Korea and Singapore were asked to grade the significance of vitamin D and calcium in the treatment of osteoporosis and their patients' use of these supplements. In addition, physicians recruited seven eligible osteoporotic women to answer a questionnaire to determine their use of vitamin D and calcium, and their attitudes and beliefs regarding these supplements.
    RESULTS: In total, 237 physicians and 1463 osteoporosis patients completed the questionnaire. The results revealed that 22% of physicians in Malaysia, 12% in Taiwan, 72% in the Philippines, 50% in Korea and 24% in Singapore rated the importance of vitamin D supplementation as being extremely important. For calcium, 27% of physicians in Malaysia, 30% in Taiwan, 80% in the Philippines, 50% in Korea and 38% in Singapore rated the importance as being extremely important. Forty-three percent of patients in Malaysia, 38% in Taiwan, 73% in the Philippines, 35% in Korea and 39% in Singapore rated the importance of vitamin D as being extremely important. For calcium, 69% of patients in Malaysia, 58% in Taiwan, 90% in the Philippines, 70% in Korea and 55% in Singapore rated the importance as being extremely important. In addition, results of the patient questionnaire revealed that only a very small number regularly took both supplements. In addition, the results indicated that, with the exception of patients from the Philippines, the majority of patients had no or infrequent discussion with their physician about vitamin D and calcium.
    CONCLUSIONS: There is generally suboptimal appreciation by both physicians and patients of the importance of vitamin D and calcium for maintenance of bone health as reflected in the low number of patients who reported regularly taking these supplements. Recognition of this problem should translate to appropriate action to improve education for both physicians and patients, with a goal to increase use of these supplements among Asian patients with osteoporosis.
  8. Jayapalan JJ, Muniandy S, Chan SP
    Indian J Hum Genet, 2010 May;16(2):78-86.
    PMID: 21031056 DOI: 10.4103/0971-6866.69351
    Wide inter-ethnic allelic variations of the Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE) i nsertion-deletion (I/D) gene polymorphism were thought to be responsible for the conflicting gene-diabetic nephropathy disease association worldwide. We have investigated the genetic susceptibility of the ACE gene to diabetic nephropathy in the multiethnic Malaysian population.
  9. Jayapalan JJ, Muniandy S, Chan SP
    PMID: 19058590
    Discrepancies in angiotensin-1 converting enzyme (ACE) allele genetic susceptibility with disease etiology have been attributed to ethnic differences. We investigated ACE gene polymorphism of the multiethnic Malaysian population by utilizing nested polymerase chain reaction. Allelic frequency of 0.65 and 0.35 for I and D allele, respectively in the pooled population was comparable with other Asian populations. A significant association was found between the Malaysian ethnic groups and ACE I/D genotype. The II genotype was found at higher frequency among the Malays but a greater frequency of DD genotype among Indians.
  10. Indran M, Rokiah P, Chan SP, Kuppusamy UR
    Med J Malaysia, 2004 Jun;59(2):166-70.
    PMID: 15559165 MyJurnal
    The present study was designed to explore the relationship between lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes in young Malaysian insulin dependant diabetes mellitus (IDDM) patients. Indicative parameters of lipid peroxidation, activities of antioxidant enzymes and diabetes parameters were evaluated in single blood samples from 30 young type 1 diabetic patients and 30 healthy control subjects. Antioxidant enzymes namely superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were significantly decreased while plasma malondialdehyde (MDA), an indicator for lipid peroxidation was significantly increased in IDDM patients compared to control subjects. Positive correlations between HbA1c and MDA; fasting blood glucose (FBG) and MDA and negative correlations between HbA1c and SOD; MDA and SOD were observed in these patients. No significant correlation existed between HbA1c and fasting blood glucose, GPx or CAT in the diabetic patients. The strong correlations found between lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzymes and diabetes parameters confirms the existence of oxidative stress in our IDDM patients.
  11. Nadesan K, Chan SP, Wong CM
    Malays J Pathol, 1998 Jun;20(1):49-54.
    PMID: 10879265
    Heat stroke, which is also known as "sun stroke," is a medical emergency, and fatalities can occur unless it is diagnosed early and treated efficiently. Heat stroke may manifest quite suddenly, giving little time to differentiate it from extreme physical exhaustion in collapsed subjects. It is also known to lead to serious disseminated intravascular coagulation. Sudden death in a young female is presented who collapsed after trekking in a hilly, jungle area in Malaysia on a warm, humid day. She had joined a weight reduction programme a few weeks earlier. She was found collapsed and in a semiconscious state in the jungle by her groupmates and was taken to hospital. On admission she was unconscious, hyperpyrexic, with rapid, thready pulse and a low blood pressure. Biochemical studies revealed metabolic acidosis, elevated liver and cardiac enzymes and impairment of renal function. Her coagulation profile was found to be impaired and she started bleeding through the mouth and nostrils. She also developed watery diarrhoea and initially a septicaemic condition, including acute enteritis was suspected. Despite active treatment, her condition deteriorated and she died eight hours after admission. Autopsy confirmed a generalised bleeding tendency, with pulmonary, oesophageal and gastrointestinal mucosal haemorrhages. Flame-shaped subendocardial shock haemorrhages were seen in the interventricular septum on the left side of the heart. The findings support a diagnosis of heat stroke. Various aspects related to heat stroke, the autopsy diagnosis and its prevention are discussed.
  12. Chan KS, Looi LM, Chan SP
    Malays J Pathol, 1993 Dec;15(2):155-8.
    PMID: 8065179
    A 35-year-old Chinese man who was known to have insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus was admitted for fever and weight loss. During his hospital stay, he fell to his death from his ward at the twelfth floor. The clinical features, radiological findings and gross organ changes at autopsy closely simulated miliary tuberculosis. Histology, however, revealed extensive necrosis of the adrenal glands, lungs, spleen, kidneys and thyroid associated with the presence of Histoplasma capsulatum organisms. This case highlights the similarity both clinically and pathologically between histoplasmosis and tuberculosis and emphasizes the need to be aware of this infection in a nonendemic area among patients with a compromised immune system.
  13. Adam N, Lim SS, Ananda V, Chan SP
    Singapore Med J, 2010 Jul;51(7):e129-32.
    PMID: 20730389
    Vasoactive intestinal peptide-producing tumour (VIPoma) or Verner-Morrison syndrome is a very rare neuroendocrine tumour. It occurs in less than ten percent of all pancreatic islet cell tumours, and about 70 percent to 80 percent of these tumours originate from the pancreas. Diagnosis is characteristically delayed. The first-line treatment is surgical. It may be curative in forty percent of patients with benign and non-metastatic disease. Palliative surgery is indicated in extensive disease, followed by conventional somatostatin analogue (octreotide) therapy. Somatostatin analogues improve hormone-mediated symptoms, reduce tumour bulk and prevent local and systemic effects. We present a female patient with VIPoma syndrome, which had metastasised to the liver at diagnosis. The patient underwent palliative Whipple procedure and subsequent cytoreductive radiofrequency ablations to her liver metastases. Unfortunately, after symptomatic improvement for three years, her disease progressed. Currently, she is on daily octreotide, achieving partial control of her symptoms.
  14. Foo SH, Chan SP, Ananda V, Rajasingam V
    Singapore Med J, 2010 May;51(5):e89-93.
    PMID: 20593136
    Most functional phaeochromocytomas/paragangliomas produce noradrenaline and/or adrenaline. Those that produce dopamine are rare. We describe the distinguishing clinical features of dopamine-secreting phaeochromocytomas and paragangliomas from those that secrete noradrenaline/adrenaline and the impact on their management. We present a case of a dopamine-secreting paraganglioma from our institution and review 14 case reports of dopamine-secreting phaeochromocytomas/paragangliomas published between 1984 and 2008. As observed in the literature, 80% of the tumours were extra-adrenal. Most patients presented with non-specific symptoms or mass effect without the classical presentation of catecholamine excess. The majority were diagnosed with urinary or plasma dopamine. Five patients had malignant tumours and 12 patients underwent surgical resection of the primary tumours. Unlike noradrenaline/adrenaline-secreting phaeochromocytomas/paragangliomas, dopamine-secreting tumours lack a classical presentation, are extra-adrenal and have a higher malignant potential. A routine inclusion of urinary or plasma dopamine as part of catecholamine screening in all suspected phaeochromocytomas and paragangliomas is recommended.
  15. Chung WW, Chua SS, Lai PS, Chan SP
    Patient Prefer Adherence, 2014;8:1185-94.
    PMID: 25214772 DOI: 10.2147/PPA.S66619
    Background: Diabetes mellitus is a lifelong chronic condition that requires self-management. Lifestyle modification and adherence to antidiabetes medications are the major determinants of therapeutic success in the management of diabetes.
    Purpose: To assess the effects of a pharmaceutical care (PC) model on medication adherence and glycemic levels of people with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
    Patients and methods: A total of 241 people with type 2 diabetes were recruited from a major teaching hospital in Malaysia and allocated at random to the control (n=121) or intervention (n=120) groups. Participants in the intervention group received PC from an experienced pharmacist, whereas those in the control group were provided the standard pharmacy service. Medication adherence was assessed using the Malaysian Medication Adherence Scale, and glycemic levels (glycated hemoglobin values and fasting blood glucose [FBG]) of participants were obtained at baseline and after 4, 8, and 12 months.
    Results: At baseline, there were no significant differences in demographic data, medication adherence, and glycemic levels between participants in the control and intervention groups. However, statistically significant differences in FBG and glycated hemoglobin values were observed between the control and intervention groups at months 4, 8, and 12 after the provision of PC (median FBG, 9.0 versus 7.2 mmol/L [P<0.001]; median glycated hemoglobin level, 9.1% versus 8.0% [P0.001] at 12 months). Medication adherence was also significantly associated with the provision of PC, with a higher proportion in the intervention group than in the control group achieving it (75.0% versus 58.7%; P=0.007).
    Conclusion: The provision of PC has positive effects on medication adherence as well as the glycemic control of people with type 2 diabetes. Therefore, the PC model used in this study should be duplicated in other health care settings for the benefit of more patients with type 2 diabetes.
    Keywords: pharmaceutical care, medication adherence, glycemic control, type 2 diabetes mellitus
    Study site: major teaching hospital in Malaysia
  16. Kwan M, Chan C, Ng W, Merican A, Chung W, Chan S
    Malays Orthop J, 2013 Jul;7(2):12-7.
    PMID: 25722819 MyJurnal DOI: 10.5704/MOJ.1307.008
    There are reported cases of cortical reaction over the tension side of the normal femoral shafts in patients on long term treatment with alendronate, leading to subsequent femoral shaft fractures. We performed a retrospective review of patients with low-energy femoral shaft fracture on alendronate, admitted to our institution during the period 2004 to May 2009. The presence of radiological changes of cortical hypertrophy with or without Looser's zone over the tension side of the femoral bone (normal limb) was determined and correlated with clinical symptoms. Thirteen patients were identified. Average duration of alendronate use was 6.5 ± 3.3 years (ranges, two to 10 years). These radiological changes were noted in four patients. Average duration of alendronate usage in these four patients was 6.5 ± 2.4 years (ranges, 5 to10 years). Prodromal thigh pain was present in a patient, who had cortical hypertrophy with the presence of a Looser's zone traversing the cortex on the femoral shaft. One patient had Looser's zone limited at the lateral hypertrophied cortex without prodromal pain. The interobserver kappa coefficient was 0.96. A femoral radiograph should be performed in all patients who are on long-term alendronate therapy who present with thigh pain. We propose a new grading system based on our observation of the radiological features in these four cases. This new grading of the radiological spectrum of femoral shaft cortical pathology has the potential to stratify the risk of low energy femoral fracture for patients treated with long-term alendronate therapy.
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