Displaying all 9 publications

  1. Low CF, Chong CM
    Fish Shellfish Immunol, 2020 Sep;104:605-612.
    PMID: 32619624 DOI: 10.1016/j.fsi.2020.06.047
    Classical characteristic of the innate immune system is the lack of ability to build up immunological memory, contrast to the adaptive immune system that is capable of "remembering" antigens, and rapidly mount a greater magnitude of immune response upon subsequent exposure to the same antigens. Peculiarly, immunological memory of innate immunity is evidenced in invertebrates. At least three different memory phenomena have been described, namely sustained unique response, recalled response, and immune shift. Studies attended to decipher the mechanistic biology of the innate immune memory reveals the role of epigenetics, which modulates the response of immune memory, and the heritability of immune memory to subsequent generations. A parthenogenetic Artemia model demonstrated successful transgenerational epigenetic inheritance of resistance trait against Vibrio campbellii. Following, the role of invertebrate hemocytes and Down syndrome cell adhesion molecule (Dscam) in innate immune memory is reviewed. While there is no vertebrate antibody homolog found in invertebrates, Dscam was found to resemble the functionality of vertebrate antibody. Insight of Dscam as immune factor was illustrated further in the current review.
  2. Yap CK, Chong CM, Tan SG
    Environ Monit Assess, 2011 Mar;174(1-4):389-400.
    PMID: 20437264 DOI: 10.1007/s10661-010-1464-x
    It has been widely reported that allozyme frequency variation is a potential indicator of heavy metal-induced impacts in aquatic populations. In the present study, wild populations of horseshoe crab (Carcinoscorpius rotundicauda) were collected from contaminated and uncontaminated sites of Peninsular Malaysia. By adopting horizontal starch gel electrophoresis, seven enzyme systems were used to study allozyme polymorphisms. Nine polymorphic loci were observed in C. rotundicauda. The relationships of allozyme variations with the concentrations of Cd, Cu, Ni, and Zn in sediments and in muscle tissues of horseshoe crabs were determined. Based on genetic distance, the lower mean value of Nei's D (0.017) indicated that both of the contaminated populations of Kg. Pasir Puteh and Kuala Juru were very closely related when compared to the relatively uncontaminated Pantai Lido population. Higher heterozygosities were shown by the contaminated populations when compared to the uncontaminated population. Different allelic frequencies could be observed for the aldolase (ALD; E.C. locus between the contaminated and uncontaminated populations of C. rotundicauda. The dendrogram of genetic relationships of the three populations of C. rotundicauda showed the same clustering pattern as the dendrograms are based on heavy metals in the sediments and in the horseshoe crabs' abdominal muscles. From the F statistics, the present study showed that the three populations of horseshoe crabs were considered to have undergone moderate genetic differentiation with a mean F (ST) value of 0.092 .The current results suggest that allozyme polymorphism in horseshoe crabs is a potential biomonitoring tool for metal contamination, although further validation is required.
  3. Ebrahimi M, Daeman NH, Chong CM, Karami A, Kumar V, Hoseinifar SH, et al.
    Fish Physiol Biochem, 2017 Aug;43(4):1195-1207.
    PMID: 28349418 DOI: 10.1007/s10695-017-0365-0
    Dietary organic acids are increasingly being investigated as a potential means of improving growth and nutrient utilization in aquatic animals. A 9-week study was performed to compare equal amounts (2%) of different organic acids (sodium butyrate, acetate, propionate, or formate) on the growth, muscle proximate composition, fatty acid composition, cholesterol and lipid peroxidation, differential cell counts, plasma biochemistry, intestinal short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) level, and liver histopathology to red hybrid tilapia (Oreochromis sp.) (initial mean weight of 2.87 g). A second experiment was performed to determine their effects on lipid peroxidation and trimethylamine (TMA) when added at 1% to tilapia meat and left out for 24 h. The results of the first experiment showed no treatment effect to growth, feeding efficiencies, or muscle fatty acid composition, but all dietary organic acids significantly decreased intestinal SCFA. Dietary butyrate and propionate significantly decreased muscle lipid peroxidation compared to the control group, but the dietary formate treatment had the lowest lipid peroxidation compared to all treatments. Muscle crude protein and lipid in tilapia fed the formate diet were significantly lower and higher, respectively, and showed evidence of stress based on the differential cell counts, significantly higher plasma glucose and liver glycogen, as well as inflammatory responses in the liver. Although a potential benefit of dietary organic acids was a reduction to lipid peroxidation, this could be accomplished post-harvest by direct additions to the meat. In addition, inclusions of butyrate and propionate to tilapia meat significantly decreased TMA, which might be a more cost-effective option to improve the shelf life of tilapia products.
  4. Chew PC, Christianus A, Zudaidy JM, Ina-Salwany MY, Chong CM, Tan SG
    Animals (Basel), 2021 Sep 08;11(9).
    PMID: 34573599 DOI: 10.3390/ani11092633
    In this study, a mixture of Tor tambra and T. tambroides with unknown genetic background were collected from 11 localities in Malaysia for broodstock development and sperm cryo-banking. This study aims to assess the microsatellite (simple sequence repeat, SSR) variation, genetic diversity, genetic differentiation, level of gene flow, population structure, genetic relatedness and their demographic aspects among these Tor populations, in addition to establishing their SSR profile by employing 22 SSR markers via fragment analysis. Total genomic DNA was extracted from 181 samples (91 cryopreserved milt samples and 90 scale samples of live broodfish). Results showed the Tor spp. collection retained their genetic variation but exhibited excessive homozygosity among individuals within population. Moderate genetic differentiation was shown among the populations, with highly significant (p < 0.001) fixation indices (FST, FIS and FIT). A low gene flow over all loci (Nm 1.548) indicates little genetic variation transfer between populations. The genetic structures of all the populations were successfully resolved into four main clusters by an unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) dendrogram generated based on Nei's genetic distances. The population structures based on principal coordinates analysis (PCoA) and the Bayesian model also suggested four distinct clusters following geographical regions and eight closely related populations. This study provided a useful baseline reference for better genetic management and utilization of the Tor spp. stocks in their breeding and conservation programmes.
  5. Lee PT, Yamamoto FY, Low CF, Loh JY, Chong CM
    Front Immunol, 2021;12:773193.
    PMID: 34975860 DOI: 10.3389/fimmu.2021.773193
    The gastrointestinal immune system plays an important role in immune homeostasis regulation. It regulates the symbiotic host-microbiome interactions by training and developing the host's innate and adaptive immunity. This interaction plays a vital role in host defence mechanisms and at the same time, balancing the endogenous perturbations of the host immune homeostasis. The fish gastrointestinal immune system is armed with intricate diffused gut-associated lymphoid tissues (GALTs) that establish tolerance toward the enormous commensal gut microbiome while preserving immune responses against the intrusion of enteric pathogens. A comprehensive understanding of the intestinal immune system is a prerequisite for developing an oral vaccine and immunostimulants in aquaculture, particularly in cultured fish species. In this review, we outline the remarkable features of gut immunity and the essential components of gut-associated lymphoid tissue. The mechanistic principles underlying the antigen absorption and uptake through the intestinal epithelial, and the subsequent immune activation through a series of molecular events are reviewed. The emphasis is on the significance of gut immunity in oral administration of immunoprophylactics, and the different potential adjuvants that circumvent intestinal immune tolerance. Comprehension of the intestinal immune system is pivotal for developing effective fish vaccines that can be delivered orally, which is less labour-intensive and could improve fish health and facilitate disease management in the aquaculture industry.
  6. Mahizan NA, Yang SK, Moo CL, Song AA, Chong CM, Chong CW, et al.
    Molecules, 2019 Jul 19;24(14).
    PMID: 31330955 DOI: 10.3390/molecules24142631
    The evolution of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in pathogens has prompted extensive research to find alternative therapeutics. Plants rich with natural secondary metabolites are one of the go-to reservoirs for discovery of potential resources to alleviate this problem. Terpenes and their derivatives comprising of hydrocarbons, are usually found in essential oils (EOs). They have been reported to have potent antimicrobial activity, exhibiting bacteriostatic and bactericidal effects against tested pathogens. This brief review discusses the activity of terpenes and derivatives against pathogenic bacteria, describing the potential of the activity against AMR followed by the possible mechanism exerted by each terpene class. Finally, ongoing research and possible improvisation to the usage of terpenes and terpenoids in therapeutic practice against AMR are discussed.
  7. Selvaraja M, Che Ku Daud CKD, Abdul Jalil M, Md. Shah A, Amin Nordin S, Ahmad Bajari Z, et al.
    Joint involvement is common in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients, however, screening for joint specific autoantibodies in patients is not routinely performed. This may be due to the lack of known antigens and available tissue. The rat musculoskeletal tissue may be a suitable source of antigen to detect arthritic autoantibodies.
    Method: We tested plasma of SLE patients, with arthritis (N=9) and without arthritis (N=7) as well as plasma from normal individuals (N=7) on fresh sectioned tissue from rat plantar hind paw using indirect immunofluorescence method.
    Results: Binding of autoantibodies to striation in skeletal muscle cells in the tissue was clearly demonstrable in all samples from SLE with arthritis but not on slides incubated with plasma from normal or SLE without arthritis.
    Conclusion: Thus, rat plantar tissue may be suitable for detecting autoantibodies from SLE patients that may be involved in the pathogenesis of lupus arthritis.
  8. Varijakzhan D, Loh JY, Yap WS, Yusoff K, Seboussi R, Lim SE, et al.
    Mar Drugs, 2021 Apr 27;19(5).
    PMID: 33925365 DOI: 10.3390/md19050246
    Marine sponges are sessile invertebrates that can be found in temperate, polar and tropical regions. They are known to be major contributors of bioactive compounds, which are discovered in and extracted from the marine environment. The compounds extracted from these sponges are known to exhibit various bioactivities, such as antimicrobial, antitumor and general cytotoxicity. For example, various compounds isolated from Theonella swinhoei have showcased various bioactivities, such as those that are antibacterial, antiviral and antifungal. In this review, we discuss bioactive compounds that have been identified from marine sponges that showcase the ability to act as antibacterial, antiviral, anti-malarial and antifungal agents against human pathogens and fish pathogens in the aquaculture industry. Moreover, the application of such compounds as antimicrobial agents in other veterinary commodities, such as poultry, cattle farming and domesticated cats, is discussed, along with a brief discussion regarding the mode of action of these compounds on the targeted sites in various pathogens. The bioactivity of the compounds discussed in this review is focused mainly on compounds that have been identified between 2000 and 2020 and includes the novel compounds discovered from 2018 to 2021.
  9. Moo CL, Osman MA, Yang SK, Yap WS, Ismail S, Lim SH, et al.
    Sci Rep, 2021 10 21;11(1):20824.
    PMID: 34675255 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-021-00249-y
    Antimicrobial resistance remains one of the most challenging issues that threatens the health of people around the world. Plant-derived natural compounds have received considerable attention for their potential role to mitigate antibiotic resistance. This study was carried out to assess the antimicrobial activity and mode of action of a monoterpene, 1,8-cineol (CN) against carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (KPC-KP). Results showed that resazurin microplate assay and time-kill analysis revealed bactericidal effects of CN at 28.83 mg/mL. Zeta potential showed that CN increased the surface charge of bacteria and an increase of outer membrane permeability was also detected. CN was able to cause leakage of proteins and nucleic acids in KPC-KP cells upon exposure to CN and ethidium bromide influx/efflux experiment showed the uptake of ethidium bromide into the cell; this was attributed to membrane damage. CN was also found to induce oxidative stress in CN-treated KPC-KP cells through generation of reactive oxygen species which initiated lipid peroxidation and thus damaging the bacterial cell membrane. Scanning and transmission electron microscopies further confirmed the disruption of bacterial cell membrane and loss of intracellular materials. In this study, we demonstrated that CN induced oxidative stress and membrane damage resulting in KPC-KP cell death.
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