In this article, we speculate the reasons behind the death of Achilles during the Trojan war. Roots of Medicine can be traced to ancient Greek history. From the Hippocrates Oath to the Achilles tendon, it all has a long story to tell. In the history of ancient Greece, Gods played an important role in their lives and the immortals existed.
Arthroscopic sub acromial debridement surgery with acromioplasty is one of the shoulder surgeries performed to treat chronic shoulder pain. This surgical procedure is usually indicated in sub acromial impingement syndrome of shoulder, degenerative rotator cuff tears, severe functional limitation of shoulder joint and often surgery was performed in cases where all the conservative management had failed in the treatment of chronic shoulder pain. Even though the patient would be referred for early rehabilitation, post operative management of this surgical condition is highly challenging. Movement of the shoulder joint is often related with scapulo-thoracic joint, acromio-clavicular joint and sternoclavicular joint and the shoulder movements are governed by various different muscular forces from these joints. Failure to understand this biomechanical complexity of shoulder joint during post operative rehabilitation results in failure of the surgical outcome and might cause severe functional limitation with recurrent shoulder pain. Often in clinical practice, greater emphasis is given to achieve and regain movements in shoulder joint at the expense of the joint stability. However, inadequate scapular stability might further predispose the shoulder joint to excessive loading and results in repetitive injuries leading to chronic shoulder pain. This might affect the surgical and clinical outcome of the acromioplasty and result in surgical failure. Hence, surgeons and clinicians need to understand the biomechanical contributions in the post operative rehabilitation of the shoulder joint. The present case report emphasises the biomechanical model of post operative rehabilitation of a patient who had arthroscopic sub acromial debridement with acromioplasty.
Preventing osteoporotic fractures in millions of individuals may significantly reduce the associated morbidity and health-care expenditures incurred. As such, the search for newer anti-osteoporotic agents has been ongoing for years. Genetic studies have proven that the secreted protein sclerostin is one of the main culprits, which negatively regulates the bone formation. Recently, sclerostin-neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (Scl-Ab) in rodent studies have shown positive effects on bone homeostasis. An extensive search of the literature was performed in the BIOSIS, Cinahl, EMBASE, Pub- Med, Web of Science and Cochrane Library databases to evaluate the published murine studies on the effects of Scl-Ab on the bone metabolism and histomorphometric parameters. Our systematic review depicts a significant association between Scl-Ab administration and improvement in bone formation, bone density, bone volume and trabecular thickness.
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Diabetes mellitus is commonly known to lead to life threatening complications. Among them, hypertension is one complication which may be highlighted. In modern medical society, several drugs and treatment regimen have developed to treat diabetes mellitus. Although they obtain positive impacts, yet there are certain limitations encountered in the management of the disease due to their adverse effects and non-compliance by the patients. Herbs have been valued as a supplement in treating chronic oxidative stress disorder like diabetes mellitus. In the present review, some of the herbs which possess both anti-hyperglycemic and anti-hypertensive properties are being highlighted. Potential herbs which include Andrographis Paniculata, Ammi Visnaga, Allium sativum, Phyllanthus amarus, Ginkgo biloba, Solanum tuberosum, Tuberosum L. Piper sarmentosum and Lamiaceae family are known to possess antihypertensive properties. Various researches have been conducted on these herbs and positive results have been obtained. Based on these results, the present review article discusses the alternative management of diabetic hypertension with the herbal medicine. In conclusion, the present review article stresses on the need to ensure global awareness about the traditional medicines while treating diabetic hypertension.
Osteoporosis is a common complication observed in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Accelerated bone loss is always a matter of concern. The pathogenesis of RA may be important for better understanding of the bone loss. The mechanism involved in the bone loss in RA is not well understood although cytokines such as interleukin 1 and tumour necrosis factor α (TNF α) have been strongly implicated. TNF α antagonists have revolutionised the treatment of RA in the recent years. Beyond the control of disease activity in RA, accumulating evidence suggests that this form of therapy may provide beneficial effects to the bone metabolism and remodeling. An extensive search of the literature was performed in the Medline, Scopus and EBSCO databases to evaluate the documented research on the effects of TNF α antagonists in RA on bone mineral density and bone turnover markers. The available data based on our systematic review, depict a significant association between TNF α antagonists treatment and suppression of bone resorption.
There is little doubt that family factors can influence involvement in delinquency, although the full nature and extent of their influences remain unclear. In recent decades, testosterone has been increasingly implicated as a contributor to adolescent offending. The present study sought to determine whether two important types of familial factors--parental socioeconomic status and amicable parent-child relationships--are interacting with testosterone (and possibly other androgens) to affect delinquency. A large sample of North American college students self-reported their involvement in eight categories of delinquency along with self-ratings of various androgen-promoted traits (e.g., muscularity and low-deep voice), parental social status, and the quality of the relationships they had with parents. In both sexes, parent-child relationships and androgens were significantly associated with delinquency but parental social status was not. Factor analysis revealed that the authors' measures of all four categories of variables exhibited strong loadings onto their respective factors. Androgens and amicable parent-child relationships were associated with delinquency but parental social status was not. About one third of the influence of parent-child relationships on delinquency appeared to be attributable to androgens. Findings are discussed from the perspective of the evolutionary neuroandrogenic theory of delinquent and criminal behavior.
Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a chronic inflammatory disorder with predilection for the axial skeleton, leading to progressive restricted mobility and deformity of the spine. The fundamental mechanism involves autoimmunity orchestrated by T cells. Similar to other rheumatic diseases, the complex interplay of cytokines such as tumour necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-6 (IL 6) and interleukin-10 (IL 10) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of the disease. Despite extensive research over the past decades, the treatment options for AS, are limited. Non steroidal antiinflammatory drugs are the first line of therapy, whereas anti TNF drugs are administered for refractory cases which fail to respond to the treatment. There have been conflicting views on the correlation of IL 6 with disease activity in AS. As such, the debate on the role of anti IL6 in AS is still ongoing. Anti IL 6 such as tocilizumab and siltuximab have proven efficacy based on the large randomized controlled trials. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved these drugs for treating rheumatoid arthritis and systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Researchers have adventurously experimented anti IL 6 therapy in AS but the conclusions made were not consolidated into international guidelines or consensus statement for clinical practice. In the present review, we explore the role of anti IL6 in the treatment of AS based on the cumulative evidence over recent years.
We hereby present a case of planned complex suicide. In this case study, we report a teen-aged girl who committed suicide by strangulating herself, and subsequently fell from the 13th floor of a housing apartment. The planned complex suicide was substantiated by the presence of a suicide note and a photograph captured in a mobile handset. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first case involving self-strangulation and fall from height, in which the photograph was stored in the handset. This is to further emphasize that objects like mobile handsets can be important in determining the cause and manner of death. The available evidence at the site of incident should be explored meticulously in order to arrive at a proper conclusion.
Many studies have shown that females smile more than males do in social situations. The present study extends this research by examining a large sample of high school yearbook photographs. In addition to assessing the degree of smiling, ratings were obtained of the following traits for each photograph: hair length, hair colour, masculine-feminine appearance and physical attractiveness. Results reconfirmed earlier research showing that females smile more than males do while they are being photographed. Other findings were that smiling was positively correlated with hair length, femininity and physical attractiveness for females but not for males. When a multivariate analysis was performed, none of these traits predicted smiling in males, and only femininity was significant in predicting smiling in females. Although social learning theories of smiling can account for some of these findings, a recently proposed neurohormonal theory seems to best explain why femininity is related to smiling in females but not in males.
Antifertility agents with safety and effectiveness in terms of minimum side effects have always been a subject of debate. Many studies have been conducted on plants to observe the antifertility effect, but majority of them were toxic. Pegaga or Centella asiatica L. is one of the popular herb traditionally consumed raw amongst people in Malaysia. The main objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of Centella asiatica L. extract on rat testis.