In this article, we speculate the reasons behind the death of Achilles during the Trojan war. Roots of Medicine can be traced to ancient Greek history. From the Hippocrates Oath to the Achilles tendon, it all has a long story to tell. In the history of ancient Greece, Gods played an important role in their lives and the immortals existed.
Arthroscopic sub acromial debridement surgery with acromioplasty is one of the shoulder surgeries performed to treat chronic shoulder pain. This surgical procedure is usually indicated in sub acromial impingement syndrome of shoulder, degenerative rotator cuff tears, severe functional limitation of shoulder joint and often surgery was performed in cases where all the conservative management had failed in the treatment of chronic shoulder pain. Even though the patient would be referred for early rehabilitation, post operative management of this surgical condition is highly challenging. Movement of the shoulder joint is often related with scapulo-thoracic joint, acromio-clavicular joint and sternoclavicular joint and the shoulder movements are governed by various different muscular forces from these joints. Failure to understand this biomechanical complexity of shoulder joint during post operative rehabilitation results in failure of the surgical outcome and might cause severe functional limitation with recurrent shoulder pain. Often in clinical practice, greater emphasis is given to achieve and regain movements in shoulder joint at the expense of the joint stability. However, inadequate scapular stability might further predispose the shoulder joint to excessive loading and results in repetitive injuries leading to chronic shoulder pain. This might affect the surgical and clinical outcome of the acromioplasty and result in surgical failure. Hence, surgeons and clinicians need to understand the biomechanical contributions in the post operative rehabilitation of the shoulder joint. The present case report emphasises the biomechanical model of post operative rehabilitation of a patient who had arthroscopic sub acromial debridement with acromioplasty.
Liver disease is considered as one of the major complications in oxidative stress disorders like diabetes mellitus (DM). DM presents with deterioration in carbohydrate metabolism which is characterized with chronic hyperglycemia. The organ which involves in glucose or carbohydrate metabolism and is most likely to be affected is the liver. Deterioration in liver architecture and metabolism in DM, are considered as common findings. In the present review both biochemical and histological changes occurring in diabetic liver are conferred in detail. To counteract the oxidative stress disorders and its untoward complications, antioxidant or herbs have emerged as alternative medicine. The present review focuses on several herbs with antioxidant properties towards diabetic liver disease such as Liquorice, Pelargonium gravenolens, Momordica charantia, Propolis from bee hives, Dihar, Curcuma Longa, Tinospora cordifolia, Kangen-karyu, Parsley, Chard, Green tea Catechins and Piper sarmentosum (P.s). The herbs or the compounds present in herbs have potential to improve the liver metabolism and maintain the integrity of liver tissue in DM. The review also opens the door for effective use of herbal products for complications involved in the diabetic liver disease.
Preventing osteoporotic fractures in millions of individuals may significantly reduce the associated morbidity and health-care expenditures incurred. As such, the search for newer anti-osteoporotic agents has been ongoing for years. Genetic studies have proven that the secreted protein sclerostin is one of the main culprits, which negatively regulates the bone formation. Recently, sclerostin-neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (Scl-Ab) in rodent studies have shown positive effects on bone homeostasis. An extensive search of the literature was performed in the BIOSIS, Cinahl, EMBASE, Pub- Med, Web of Science and Cochrane Library databases to evaluate the published murine studies on the effects of Scl-Ab on the bone metabolism and histomorphometric parameters. Our systematic review depicts a significant association between Scl-Ab administration and improvement in bone formation, bone density, bone volume and trabecular thickness.
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Diabetes mellitus is commonly known to lead to life threatening complications. Among them, hypertension is one complication which may be highlighted. In modern medical society, several drugs and treatment regimen have developed to treat diabetes mellitus. Although they obtain positive impacts, yet there are certain limitations encountered in the management of the disease due to their adverse effects and non-compliance by the patients. Herbs have been valued as a supplement in treating chronic oxidative stress disorder like diabetes mellitus. In the present review, some of the herbs which possess both anti-hyperglycemic and anti-hypertensive properties are being highlighted. Potential herbs which include Andrographis Paniculata, Ammi Visnaga, Allium sativum, Phyllanthus amarus, Ginkgo biloba, Solanum tuberosum, Tuberosum L. Piper sarmentosum and Lamiaceae family are known to possess antihypertensive properties. Various researches have been conducted on these herbs and positive results have been obtained. Based on these results, the present review article discusses the alternative management of diabetic hypertension with the herbal medicine. In conclusion, the present review article stresses on the need to ensure global awareness about the traditional medicines while treating diabetic hypertension.
Osteoporosis is a common complication observed in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Accelerated bone loss is always a matter of concern. The pathogenesis of RA may be important for better understanding of the bone loss. The mechanism involved in the bone loss in RA is not well understood although cytokines such as interleukin 1 and tumour necrosis factor α (TNF α) have been strongly implicated. TNF α antagonists have revolutionised the treatment of RA in the recent years. Beyond the control of disease activity in RA, accumulating evidence suggests that this form of therapy may provide beneficial effects to the bone metabolism and remodeling. An extensive search of the literature was performed in the Medline, Scopus and EBSCO databases to evaluate the documented research on the effects of TNF α antagonists in RA on bone mineral density and bone turnover markers. The available data based on our systematic review, depict a significant association between TNF α antagonists treatment and suppression of bone resorption.
The incidence of diabetes in developing countries in Asia has increased over the last few years. The economic development is radically changing the lifestyle of the younger generation who prefer to embrace the western lifestyle of eating high calorie fast food with minimal physical exercise. Previously, the rate of diabetes was very low but it is increasing at an alarming rate in the developing countries in Asia. Admittedly, there is paucity of literature on the prevalence of patients with type-1 diabetes in Asian developing countries due to lower field surveys and lack of quantitative data. Few contributing factors such as body mass index (BMI) and its relation with obesity and diabetes, energy dense diet, excessive caloric intake, sedentary behaviors, lifestyle and family history, gene and genomewide association of diabetes, genes and gene polymorphisms are being discussed especially with regard to the Asian population. Dynamics of the diabetes and obesity was depicted for the population of Asian developing countries with special emphasis on China and India. Diabetes has become widespread among the low-income communities. Hence, it is necessary to develop appropriate healthcare policies in order to mitigate this rampant epidemic before it is too late.
Effective cancer management depends on early diagnosis and treatment. There are several microRNAs (miRNAs) which are used for detection of various cancers. Cell-free and circulating miRNAs originate from plasma, either from blood cells or endothelial cells. Cell-free and circulating miRNAs are very much important in the diagnosis and prognosis of cancer therapy. Admittedly, biological knowledge of extracellular miRNAs is still at its preliminary level. Recent discoveries of novel cell-free and circulating miRNAs from the body fluids are now being considered as important biomarkers that may help us in the early diagnosis of any cancer. In the present review, we highlight the biogenesis of miRNAs and their current extracellular pattern, the discovery of circulating miRNA, significant advantages, and different profiling techniques. Finally, we discuss the different circulating miRNAs such as miR-21, miR-20a, miR-155, miR‑221, miR-210, miR-218, miR-200-family, miR-141, miR-122, miR-486-5p, miR‑423-5p, miR-29a, and miR-500 for clinical diagnosis of various cancers. The present review may be beneficial for future researches concerned with miRNAs which are used for detection of various cancers.
The main objective was to determine the predictors of diastolic dysfunction in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Articles pertaining to diastolic dysfunction in RA were retrieved from Scopus, EBSCO, PubMed, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library databases. Keywords such as: diastolic, cardiac, left ventricular function, heart failure, rheumatoid arthritis, and cardiac failure were used. Studies, which examined factors, or predictors of diastolic dysfunction in RA, and those with echocardiographic evaluation of diastolic dysfunction, were included. A total of 8 studies met the eligibility criteria. Most studies (6 out of 7 studies) demonstrated a significant inverse relationship between the E (early)/A (late) ratio and disease duration. The pooled analysis using the random effects model revealed a significant but weak inverse relationship between the ratio of the E to A ventricular filling velocities (E/A) ratio and the disease duration (p less than 0.05, r=-0.385). There was a significant relationship between E/A ratio and disease duration in RA.