Salivary gland swelling is a rare complication of upper endoscopy with less than twelve cases reported in the literature. The swelling is usually transient in nature, with complete resolution in a few hours .While all the major paired salivary glands have been implicated, the exact aetiology remains obscure. In this case report, a sixty one year old female presents with unilateral swelling of the right parotid gland immediately following an upper endoscopy. There was complete resolution of the pneumoparotid with no neurological sequelae.
Gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy has evolved tremendously from the early days when candlelight was used to illuminate scopes to the extent that it has now become an integral part of the practice of modern gastroenterology. The first gastroscope was a rigid scope first introduced by Adolf Kussmaul in 1868. However this scope suffered from the 2 drawbacks of poor illumination and high risk of instrumental perforation. Rudolf Schindler improved on this by inventing the semiflexible gastroscope in 1932. But it was Basil Hirschowitz, using the principle of light conduction in fibreoptics, who allowed us to "see well" for the first time when he invented the flexible gastroscopy in 1958. With amazing speed and innovation, instrument companies, chiefly Japanese, had improved on the Hirschowitz gastroscope and invented a flexible colonoscope. Walter McCune introduced the technique of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) in 1968 which has now evolved into a sophisticated procedure. The advent of the digital age in the 1980s saw the invention of the videoendoscope. Videoendoscopes have allowed us to start seeing the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) "better" with high magnification and resolution and optical/digital enhancements. Fusing confocal and light microscopy with endoscopy has allowed us to perform an "optical biopsy" of the GI mucosa. Development of endoscopic ultrasonography has allowed us to see "beyond" the GIT lumen. Seeing better has allowed us to do better. Endoscopists have ventured into newer procedures such as the resection of mucosal and submucosal tumours and the field of therapeutic GI endoscopy sees no end in sight.
Dyspepsia is perhaps the most common gastrointestinal disease universally. The prevalence of dyspepsia ranges from 7-40% in population based studies worldwide. These figures vary with definition of dyspepsia used and also with the survey methodology. As with Western studies, functional dyspepsia (FD) predominates in Asia. With a decline in peptic ulcer disease and gastric cancer, the proportion of FD is set to increase further. Studies have shown FD to account for 50-70% of cases of uninvestigated dyspepsia. In Malaysia dyspepsia has been reported in up to 15% of a rural and 25% of an urban population. No racial differences were seen in the rural survey. In the urban survey, Malays and Indians were found to have significantly more dyspepsia than Chinese. No clear explanation can be found for these racial differences. In clinical practice, Malays seem to complain a lot of wind and bloating in the "stomach." This is interesting to note when you compare it with the prevalence of H. pylori which is distinctly less common amongst Malays compared to the Indians and Chinese. As with many Asian populations, many Malaysians do not consult for complains of dyspepsia. Many will self medicate and others may even bear with their complains. This is probably true in the rural population. Traditional medications are often used and these are often ethnic based. Different types of lotions for example are used for massaging the putative area in the abdomen by Malay, Chinese and Indian patients. Moxibustion and acupuncture is still practiced by Chinese traditional physicians for treatment of dyspepsia. The notion that mood disorders may underlies dyspepsia is still poorly accepted by a less educated or rural population who consider a psychiatric consultation a taboo. Amongst urban dwellers where Westernized medical care is readily available and the awareness of potential serious disease like cancer is higher, consultation for dyspepsia is certainly higher. Indeed a higher education level has been identified as independent risk factors for dyspepsia in both an urban and rural population survey in Malaysia. With greater consultation for dyspepsia, there has also been a higher demand and utilization of endoscopy services for investigation of gastrointestinal diseases in the country.
Gastrointestinal endoscopy started in the early 1970s in Malaysia with the help of Japanese doctors. It has evolved over the past 30 years. The gastrointestinal endoscopy unit at the University of Malaya Medical Centre has been in the forefront in providing endoscopy services to patients as well as training doctors in endoscopy in the country. In recent years, trainees have included those from neighboring countries in South-East Asia. Among our most significant achievements is the organization of regular international therapeutic endoscopy workshops since 1993 where leading endoscopists from throughout the world have accepted our invitation as teaching faculty. In 2008, the World Organization of Digestive Endoscopy accorded the high distinction of Centre of Excellence to the endoscopy unit of the University of Malaya Medical Centre.
Observations of racial differences in the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori in Malaysia have been intriguing. The Indians and Chinese consistently have a higher prevalence compared to the Malays. The racial cohort theory has been proposed to explain these differences where transmission and perpetuation of infection takes place within a racial group rather than between races, races being separate owing to the low rate of interracial marriages. Studies have demonstrated distinctive bacterial strains between races. Phylogenetic studies have shown that H. pylori isolates amongst Chinese and Indians are distinctive while Malays have Indian and other strains suggesting a more recent acquisition of the bacterium from Indians. H. pylori is recognized as the major causative factor in peptic ulcer disease and gastric cancer. Despite the high prevalence of H. pylori, Indians have a relatively low prevalence of peptic ulcer disease and a low incidence of gastric cancer. This paradox with regards to gastric cancer has been termed the "Indian enigma". Bacterial strain differences between races may be putative but this observation may also indicate gastroprotective environmental factors or a lower genetic susceptibility to develop cancer in the Indians.
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), previously uncommon in Asia, has now become an important disease in the region. Although much variability exists between studies, most endoscopy-based studies show a prevalence of erosive esophagitis of more than 10%. Symptom-based studies also show a prevalence of 6-10%. Two longitudinal follow-up studies on GERD symptoms have shown an increase with time, and several endoscopy-based time trend studies have also shown a significant increase in erosive reflux esophagitis. Studies on Barrett's esophagus have been confounded by the description of short (SSBE) and long segment (LSBE) Barrett's esophagus. Great variation in prevalence rates has been reported. SSBE vary from 0.1% to more than 20% while LSBE vary from 1-2%. Of the putative causative factors, obesity has been the most important. Many studies have linked GERD-esophagitis as well as occurrence of reflux symptoms with an increase in body mass index (BMI), obesity, especially visceral or central obesity, and metabolic syndrome. A decline in Helicobacter pylori infection with growing affluence in Asia has been broadly thought to result in healthier stomachs and a higher gastric acid output resulting in reflux disease. However, variable results have been obtained from association and H. pylori eradication studies.
The new millennium has seen distinct changes in the pattern of gastrointestinal disease in the Asia-Pacific region. These changes are important as more than half of the world's population come from the region and therefore impact significantly on the global disease burden. The highest incidence of gastric cancer (GCA) has been reported from Asia and GCA remains a very important cancer. However time-trend studies have shown a decrease in GCA incidence in several countries in Asia. A rise in cardio-esophageal cancers as seen in the West has not been reported. On the other hand, colorectal cancer has been steadily increasing in Asia with age-standardized incidence rates of some countries approaching that of the West. The pattern of acid-related diseases has also changed. Gastroesophageal reflux disease is a fast emerging disease with an increasing prevalence of reflux esophagitis and reflux symptoms. The prevalence of peptic ulcer disease has at the same time declined in step with a decrease in H. pylori infection. Many of the changes taking place mirror the Western experience of several decades ago. Astute observation of the epidemiology of emerging diseases combined with good scientific work will allow a clearer understanding of the key processes underlying these changes. With rapid modernization, lifestyle changes have been blamed for an increase in several diseases including gastroesophageal reflux disease, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and colorectal cancer. A worrying trend has been the increase in obesity among Asians, which has been associated with an increase in metabolic diseases and various gastrointestinal cancers. Conversely, an improvement in living conditions has been closely linked to the decrease in GCA and H. pylori prevalence.
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a common disease in the West, which now appears to be also increasing in prevalence in the Asian Pacific region. The reasons for this changing epidemiology are two-fold: an increased awareness among doctors and patients, and/or a true increase in the prevalence of the disease. Prevalence rates of reflux esophagitis (RE) of up to 16% and prevalence of GERD symptoms of up to 9% have been reported in the Asian population. However, the frequency of strictures and Barrett's esophagus remain very low. Non-erosive reflux disease (NERD) appears to be the most common form of GERD among Asian patients accounting for 50-70% of cases with GERD. Among Asian patients differences can also be discerned among different ethnic groups. For example, in Malaysia where a multiracial society exists, RE is significantly more common among Indians compared to Chinese and Malays whereas NERD is more frequently seen in the Indian and Malays compared to the Chinese. The reasons for these differences are not known but may indicate both genetic factors and environmental factors peculiar to the particular racial group. GERD has also been increasing in the region demonstrating a time-lag phenomenon compared to the West. Differing predisposition to GERD among different ethnic groups would mean that such an increase would be more prominent among certain racial groups.
Chronic pancreatitis is a difficult disease to treat. Worldwide, alcohol is the most common aetiology but based on recent studies it is clear that genetic susceptibility plays an important role in determining disease. Several important genetic mutations have been identified. The prevalence of chronic pancreatitis appears to be lower in Asia although very high rates have been reported in parts of India. Severe intractable pain is the predominant presenting complaint of patients. The natural history of the disease and the onset of exocrine and endocrine insufficiency depend on the classification of disease as early onset, late-onset or alcohol associated. Complications of chronic pancreatitis are important and include pseudocyst formation, bile duct and duodenal strictures.
Helicobacter pylori infection has many different clinical outcomes. Not all infected persons need to be treated. Therefore, indications for treatment have to be clear, and several consensus guidelines have been formulated to aid the medical practitioner in this decision-making process. Triple therapy with a proton pump inhibitor (PPI), in combination with amoxicillin and clarithromycin is the established treatment of choice. For patients with penicillin hypersensitivity, metronidazole can be substituted for amoxicillin. Bacterial resistance to antibiotics is a major factor adversely affecting treatment success. Resistance to metronidazole has been reported in up to 80%, and resistance to clarithromycin in 2-10% of strains cultured. Resistance to either one of the antibiotics has been reported to result in a drop in efficacy of up to 50%. Emergence of resistance to both metronidazole and clarithromycin following failed therapy is a cause for concern; this underlines the need to use the best available first-line therapy. To avoid the emergence of resistance to both key antibiotics, the combination of metronidazole and clarithromycin should be avoided where possible. For failed treatment, several strategies can be employed. These include ensuring better compliance with repeat therapy, and maximizing the efficacy of repeat treatment by increasing dosage and duration of treatment, as well as altering the choice of drugs. Quadruple therapy incorporating a bismuth compound with a PPI, tetracycline and metronidazole has been a popular choice as a "rescue" therapy. Ranitidine bismuth citrate has been shown to be able to overcome metronidazole and clarithromycin resistance; it may be a useful compound drug to use in place of a PPI in "rescue" therapies. In the case of persistent treatment failures, it is useful to consider repeating gastroscopy and obtaining tissue for culture, and then prescribe antibiotics according to bacterial susceptibility patterns. It is also important in refractory cases to review the original indication for treatment and determine the importance of the indication.
The aim of the present study was to determine the risk factors for Helicobacter pylori in a dyspeptic Malaysian population. A cross-sectional survey of 1060 consecutive patients presenting with dyspepsia at the Endoscopic Unit, University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia from January 1994 to July 1995 was undertaken. All patients answered a detailed questionnaire and underwent endoscopy, with two antral biopsies taken for diagnosis of H. pylori using a rapid urease test. An overall H. pylori prevalence of 49.0% was recorded. Helicobacter pylori prevalence in relation to the major endoscopic diagnoses were as follows: non-ulcer dyspepsia (NUD) 31.2%; duodenal ulcer (DU) 91.4%; and gastric ulcer (GU) 74.1%. The prevalence among the races were as follows: Malay 16.4%; Chinese 48.5%; and Indians 61.8%. Multiple logistic regression analysis identified the following as independent risk factors: > 45 years old 1.5 (1.1,2.0); male gender 1.6 (1.2,2.1); ethnic group: Chinese 2.5 (1.7,3.7); Indians 4.9 (3.2,7.5); level of education: low 2.3 (1.5,3.5); middle 1.7 (1.1,2.6); and smoking 1.6 (1.2,2.3). Analysis was also performed on DU, GU and non-UD patients separately; in both DU and GU patients, H. pylori prevalence was high regardless of age, sex, race or level of education. However, in DU patients, Indian race had an independent risk factor (Odds ratio = 7.8 (1.2,48.4)). The findings in the NUD group reflected the findings in the ¿all patients' group; > 45 years old, male gender, Indian and Chinese race, and low level of education were also significant, independent risk factors. The overall differences in H. pylori prevalence between the different subgroups were mainly due to differences in the NUD group. The increased risk of H. pylori infection in Chinese and Indians points to either an inherent ethnic genetic predisposition or to socio-cultural practices peculiar to the particular race which may be responsible for transmission of the infection.
The link between Helicobacter. pylori and peptic ulcer disease in 1997 is an irrefutable one. The association between infection and ulcerogenesis has been shown to be biologically plausible with induction of epithelial inflammation and cell damage and its effect on gastrin/acid homeostasis. The association of H. pylori infection and peptic ulcer disease is a close and consistent one. There is ample evidence indicating that H. pylori eradication results in virtual abolition of ulcer relapse. Several studies have demonstrated that eradication of H. pylori results in ulcer healing and there is evidence showing a temporal relationship between infection and development of peptic ulcer disease.
Colorectal cancer (CRC), gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease are considered important emerging diseases in the Asia Pacific (AP) region. The incidence rate of CRC is the highest among gastrointestinal cancers in the region surpassing that of gastric cancer. However, population CRC screening is limited by availability of adequate health resources and financing. GERD is a highly prevalent disease in AP with the prevalence of GERD symptoms and reflux esophagitis reported to be increasing. The usage of proton pump inhibitors has also been reported to be high. The incidence and prevalence of IBD is not as high as in the west but is now an increasingly recognizable disease in the AP region. Being a complicated disease, IBD will pose a huge financial burden with the increasing use of expensive biological drugs. In tandem with the exponential increase in obesity and diabetes mellitus in AP, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease will become the most important liver disease in the region in the coming years. These emerging diseases reflect the continued fast-paced socioeconomic development in the region with marked lifestyle changes and increasing affluence.
The study of Helicobacter pylori in Malaysia has given several important insights into the epidemiology of the infection and pathogenesis of disease. Malaysia has a multiracial Asian population with three major Asian races living together-Malay, Chinese, and Indian. Races remain fairly distinct because of a paucity of interracial marriages. The "Racial Cohort Hypothesis" proposes that the infection occurs within racial groups rather than between. As such, the high prevalence among Indians (> 50%) and Chinese (40-50%) reflects the high prevalence in their countries of origin even though migration had taken place more than two generations before. The Malays have a comparatively low prevalence of about 10-20%. Despite the high prevalence of H. pylori, the Indians have a low gastric cancer incidence of less than 10 per 100 000 per year. This is in contrast to the Chinese who has an incidence in excess of 20 per 100 000 per year. We have called this the "Indian Enigma." The reason for this enigma is unclear and is the result of interaction between bacterial virulence factors, host susceptibility, and environmental factors. Phylogenetically, Chinese bacterial strains are distinct from Indians and Malays and are predominantly hpEastAsia/hsp EAsia. CagA EPIYA motifs among Chinese belong predominantly to the more virulent ABD motif. There is no clear distinguishing profile among host genetic factors. Environmental factors particularly diet may play an important role. Indians consume chilies and curries, which may be gastro protective, whereas Chinese consume more preserved and salted foods, which are thought to be carcinogenic.