Displaying all 15 publications

  1. Ng RL, Rajapathy K, Ishak Z
    Med J Malaysia, 2017 10;72(5):308-310.
    PMID: 29197888 MyJurnal
    Congenital arhinia is one of the rare craniofacial malformation that may cause severe respiratory distress at birth due to upper airway obstruction. Our patient, whose abnormalities were only detected after delivery in our centre, is the first reported case of congenital arhinia in Malaysia. Contrary to popular belief that neonates are obligate nasal breather, our patient adapted well to breathing through mouth before an elective tracheostomy was performed on day four of life.
  2. Karami A, Christianus A, Ishak Z, Syed MA, Courtenay SC
    Ecotoxicol Environ Saf, 2011 Sep;74(6):1558-66.
    PMID: 21636131 DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoenv.2011.05.012
    This study investigated the dose-dependent and time-course effects of intramuscular (i.m.) and intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) on the biomarkers EROD activity, GST activity, concentrations of BaP metabolites in bile, and visceral fat deposits (Lipid Somatic Index, LSI) in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus). Intraperitoneal injection resulted in 4.5 times higher accumulation of total selected biliary FACs than i.m. injection. Hepatic GST activities were inhibited by BaP via both injection methods. Dose-response relationships between BaP injection and both biliary FAC concentrations and hepatic GST activities were linear in the i.p. injected group but nonlinear in the i.m. injected fish. Hepatic EROD activity and LSI were not significantly affected by BaP exposure by either injection route. We conclude that i.p. is a more effective route of exposure than i.m. for future ecotoxicological studies of PAH exposure in C. gariepinus.
  3. Mohamed SH, Arifin A, Mohd Ishak ZA, Nizam A, Samsudin AR
    Med J Malaysia, 2004 May;59 Suppl B:147-8.
    PMID: 15468861
    The aim of this study was to evaluate the mechanical properties and glass transition temperature (Tg) of a denture base material prepared from high molecular weight poly methyl methacrylate (PMMA) and alumina (Al2O3). The glass transition temperature was studied by using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The effect of powder-to-liquid ratio was investigated. The result showed that the tensile properties and the Tg were slightly effected by the powder-to-liquid ratio. The ratio of 2.2:1 by weight of powder to liquid was found to be the best ratio for mixing the material to give the best result in this formulation.
  4. Nizam A, Mohamed SH, Arifin A, Mohd Ishak ZA, Samsudin AR
    Med J Malaysia, 2004 May;59 Suppl B:145-6.
    PMID: 15468860
    The aim of this study was to evaluate the tensile properties and water absorption of denture base material prepared from high molecular weight poly methyl methacrylate (PMMA) and alumina (Al2O3) as particulate filler. Specimens for mechanical testing were prepared by adding composite powder to the monomer followed by hand mixing as in dental laboratory procedure. The tensile strength of the prepared denture base material was slightly higher than commercial denture base material, while the water absorption was almost the same for all formulation of denture base materials.
  5. Mohamed SH, Arifin A, Mohd Ishak ZA, Nizam A, Samsudin AR
    Med J Malaysia, 2004 May;59 Suppl B:25-6.
    PMID: 15468801
    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of powder-to-liquid ratio on the glass transition temperature (Tg) and the tensile properties of denture base material prepared from poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and hydroxyapatite (HA) previously treated with 3-trimethoxysilylpropyl methacrylate (gamma-MPS). Specimens for mechanical testing were prepared by adding composites powder (PMMA, BPO and HA) to the monomer (MMA and EGDMA) followed by hand mixing as in dental laboratory description usage. The glass transition temperature was studied by using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). It was observed that the tensile properties and the Tg were affected by the powder-to-liquid ratio. The mechanical characterization of the materials were performed by using single edge notch-tension (SEN-T) specimens; the fracture toughness was slightly higher in formulation which contained HA filler compared to commercial denture base material.
  6. Wong AR, Ibrahim H, Van Rostenberghe H, Ishak Z, Radzi MJ
    J Paediatr Child Health, 2000 Dec;36(6):609-10.
    PMID: 11115044
    We present an unusual neonatal fungal infection, Hansenula anomala in a very low birthweight infant who underwent abdominal surgery for an omphalocele. Despite treatment with adequate doses of amphotericin B, the yeast continued to grow from the blood culture, and was only eradicated with the use of oral ketoconazole.
  7. Om AC, Ghazali AH, Keng CL, Ishak Z
    Trop Life Sci Res, 2009 Dec;20(2):71-7.
    PMID: 24575180 MyJurnal
    Introduction of diazotrophic rhizobacteria to oil palm tissues during the in vitro micropropagation process establishes an early associative interaction between the plant cells and bacteria. In the association, the diazotrophs provide the host plants with phytohormones and fixed nitrogen. This study was conducted to observe growth of bacterised tissue cultured oil palm plants under ex vitro conditions after 280 days of growth. Root dry weight, shoot dry weight, root volume, bacterial colonisation, leaf protein and chlorophyll content of the host plants were observed. The results revealed that the inocula successfully colonised roots of the host plants. Plants inoculated with Acetobacter diazotrophicus (R12) had more root dry weight and volume than plants inoculated with Azospirillum brasilense (Sp7). Leaf protein and chlorophyll content were higher in the bacterised plants compared to Control 2 plants (inoculated with killed Sp7). These results suggest that the diazotrophs successfully improved the growth of the host plant (oil palm) and minimised the amount of N fertiliser necessary for growth.
  8. Karami A, Christianus A, Ishak Z, Shamsuddin ZH, Masoumian M, Courtenay SC
    J Hazard Mater, 2012 May 15;215-216:108-14.
    PMID: 22417397 DOI: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2012.02.038
    This study examined the potential of Pseudomonas aeruginosa abundance in the intestines of fish as an indicator of exposure to benzo[a]pyrene (BaP). P. aeruginosa populations were enumerated in juvenile African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) injected intramuscularly three days previous with 0, 10, 30, 40, 50 or 70mg/kg of BaP. Hepatic EROD and GST activities and biliary fluorescent aromatic compounds (FACs) 1-OH BaP, 3-OH BaP, 7,8-D BaP and BaP were quantified to investigate agreements between the new indicator and established fish biomarkers. The shape of bacterial population (logarithm of colony-forming unit) dose-response curve generally matched those of biliary FACs concentrations. Conversely, the EROD and GST dose-response curves were generally the mirror images of the bacterial population curve. Changes in intestinal P. aeruginosa population appear to be an indirect effect of BaP exposure because exposure to 0-100μg/ml BaP had no effect on P. aeruginosa populations grown on agar plates containing BaP. Using intestinal P. aeruginosa population of fish as a universal indicator of BaP pollution in aquatic environments is discussed.Conversely, the EROD and GST dose-response curves were generally the mirror images of the bacterial population curve.
  9. Tahir NI, Shaari K, Abas F, Parveez GK, Ishak Z, Ramli US
    J Agric Food Chem, 2012 Nov 14;60(45):11201-10.
    PMID: 23116142 DOI: 10.1021/jf303267e
    The palm oil industry generates several byproducts, and more than half of the dry weight of the waste is of oil palm leaf whereby the tissue is underutilized. Recently, several research studies found promising potential of oil palm fronds as a source of nutraceutical due to its bioactive properties. However, the chemical composition of the tissue is still not deciphered. Using reversed-phase liquid chromatography (LC) electrospray mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), glycosylated apigenin and luteolin were separated and identified from oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) leaf and structures of the constituents were elucidated by collision-induced dissociation (CID) tandem MS. From 28 derivatives of the flavones, 9 compounds were conjugated with hydroxymethylglutaric (HMG) acid. Improved knowledge on oil palm especially on bioactive component of the leaf tissue will allow correlation of its beneficial effects and further promotes efficient utilization of this agriculture byproduct.
  10. Ting NC, Jansen J, Nagappan J, Ishak Z, Chin CW, Tan SG, et al.
    PLoS One, 2013;8(1):e53076.
    PMID: 23382832 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0053076
    Clonal reproduction of oil palm by means of tissue culture is a very inefficient process. Tissue culturability is known to be genotype dependent with some genotypes being more amenable to tissue culture than others. In this study, genetic linkage maps enriched with simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were developed for dura (ENL48) and pisifera (ML161), the two fruit forms of oil palm, Elaeis guineensis. The SSR markers were mapped onto earlier reported parental maps based on amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) markers. The new linkage map of ENL48 contains 148 markers (33 AFLPs, 38 RFLPs and 77 SSRs) in 23 linkage groups (LGs), covering a total map length of 798.0 cM. The ML161 map contains 240 markers (50 AFLPs, 71 RFLPs and 119 SSRs) in 24 LGs covering a total of 1,328.1 cM. Using the improved maps, two quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with tissue culturability were identified each for callusing rate and embryogenesis rate. A QTL for callogenesis was identified in LGD4b of ENL48 and explained 17.5% of the phenotypic variation. For embryogenesis rate, a QTL was detected on LGP16b in ML161 and explained 20.1% of the variation. This study is the first attempt to identify QTL associated with tissue culture amenity in oil palm which is an important step towards understanding the molecular processes underlying clonal regeneration of oil palm.
  11. Parveez GK, Bahariah B, Ayub NH, Masani MY, Rasid OA, Tarmizi AH, et al.
    Front Plant Sci, 2015;6:598.
    PMID: 26322053 DOI: 10.3389/fpls.2015.00598
    Biodegradable plastics, mainly polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB), which are traditionally produced by bacterial cells, have been produced in the cells of more than 15 plant species. Since the production of biodegradable plastics and the synthesis of oil in plants share the same substrate, acetyl-coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA), producing PHB in oil bearing crops, such as oil palm, will be advantageous. In this study, three bacterial genes, bktB, phaB, and phaC, which are required for the synthesis of PHB and selectable marker gene, bar, for herbicide Basta resistant, were transformed into embryogenic calli. A number of transformed embryogenic lines resistant to herbicide Basta were obtained and were later regenerated to produce few hundred plantlets. Molecular analyses, including polymerase chain reaction (PCR), Southern blot, and real-time PCR have demonstrated stable integration and expression of the transgenes in the oil palm genome. HPLC and Nile blue A staining analyses confirmed the synthesis of PHB in some of the plantlets.
  12. Chan PL, Rose RJ, Abdul Murad AM, Zainal Z, Ong PW, Ooi LC, et al.
    Plant Cell Rep, 2020 Nov;39(11):1395-1413.
    PMID: 32734510 DOI: 10.1007/s00299-020-02571-7
    KEY MESSAGE: Transcript profiling during the early induction phase of oil palm tissue culture and RNAi studies in a model somatic embryogenesis system showed that EgENOD93 expression is essential for somatic embryogenesis. Micropropagation of oil palm through tissue culture is vital for the generation of superior and uniform elite planting materials. Studies were carried out to identify genes to distinguish between leaf explants with the potential to develop into embryogenic or non-embryogenic callus. Oil palm cDNA microarrays were co-hybridized with cDNA probes of reference tissue, separately with embryo forming (media T527) and non-embryo (media T694) forming leaf explants sampled at Day 7, Day 14 and Day 21. Analysis of the normalized datasets has identified 77, 115 and 127 significantly differentially expressed genes at Day 7, Day 14, and Day 21, respectively. An early nodulin 93 protein gene (ENOD93), was highly expressed at Day 7, Day 14, and Day 21 and in callus (media T527), as assessed by RT-qPCR. Validation of EgENOD93 across tissue culture lines of different genetic background and media composition showed the potential of this gene as an embryogenic marker. In situ RNA hybridization and functional characterization in Medicago truncatula provided additional evidence that ENOD93 is essential for somatic embryogenesis. This study supports the suitability of EgENOD93 as a marker to predict the potential of leaf explants to produce embryogenic callus. Crosstalk among stresses, auxin, and Nod-factor like signalling molecules likely induces the expression of EgENOD93 for embryogenic callus formation.
  13. Selamat R, Raib J, Abdul Aziz NA, Zulkafly N, Ismail AN, W Mohamad WNA, et al.
    Ecol Food Nutr, 2019 11 22;59(3):263-278.
    PMID: 31755310 DOI: 10.1080/03670244.2019.1694922
    This study aimed to determine dietary practices and meal patterns among Malaysian overweight and obese school children at baseline. This study was part of a school-based obesity intervention study, My Body is Fit and Fabulous at School (MyBFF@school). It involved 1045 primary and 1041 secondary overweight and obese school children from a randomly selected 23 out of 1196 primary and 15 out of 416 secondary government schools in central Peninsular Malaysia. The results showed a significantly higher of adequate intake (4-8 servings/day) of cereals and grains among primary (54.7%) than secondary school children (48.2%). About 28.2% of primary and 32.6% of secondary school children had consumed adequate fruit (2 servings/day), while a very low percentage of both primary (5.0%) and secondary (3.6%) school children consumed adequate vegetables (3 servings/day). As for the meal patterns, school children in both primary and secondary were not taking breakfast regularly (mean±SD for primary: 3.16 ± 2.61 days/week vs secondary: 2.97 ± 2.52 days/week). There was also a significantly higher mean frequency of primary school children brought plain water to school than the secondary school children. In conclusion, urgent actions to address improper dietary practices and meal patterns of overweight and obese school children in Malaysia are warranted.
  14. Nur Zati Iwani AK, Jalaludin MY, Roslan FA, Mansor F, Md Zain F, Hong JYH, et al.
    Front Public Health, 2023;11:1097675.
    PMID: 37181686 DOI: 10.3389/fpubh.2023.1097675
    BACKGROUND: The increasing severity of obesity is expected to lead to more serious health effects. However, there is limited information on the prevalence and clinical characteristics of cardiometabolic risk factors in severely children affected by obesity in Malaysia. This baseline study aimed to investigate the prevalence of these factors and their association with obesity status among young children.

    METHODS: In this study, a cross-sectional design was employed using the baseline data obtained from the My Body Is Fit and Fabulous at school (MyBFF@school) intervention program involving obese school children. Obesity status was defined using the body mass index (BMI) z-score from the World Health Organization (WHO) growth chart. Cardiometabolic risk factors presented in this study included fasting plasma glucose (FPG), triglycerides (TGs), total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), blood pressure, acanthosis nigricans, insulin resistance (IR), and MetS. MetS was defined using the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) 2007 criteria. Descriptive data were presented accordingly. The association between cardiometabolic risk factors, such as obesity status, and acanthosis nigricans with MetS was measured using multivariate logistic regression, which was adjusted for gender, ethnicity, and strata.

    RESULTS: Out of 924 children, 38.4% (n = 355) were overweight, 43.6% (n = 403) were obese, and 18% (n = 166) were severely obese. The overall mean age was 9.9 ± 0.8 years. The prevalence of hypertension, high FPG, hypertriglyceridemia, low HDL-C, and the presence of acanthosis nigricans among severely children affected by obesity was 1.8%, 5.4%, 10.2%, 42.8%, and 83.7%, respectively. The prevalence of children affected by obesity who were at risk of MetS in <10-year-old and MetS >10-year-old was observed to be similar at 4.8%. Severely children affected by obesity had higher odds of high FPG [odds ratio (OR) = 3.27; 95% confdence interval (CI) 1.12, 9.55], hypertriglyceridemia (OR = 3.50; 95%CI 1.61, 7.64), low HDL-C (OR = 2.65; 95%CI 1.77, 3.98), acanthosis nigricans (OR = 13.49; 95%CI 8.26, 22.04), IR (OR = 14.35; 95%CI 8.84, 23.30), and MetS (OR = 14.03; 95%CI 3.97, 49.54) compared to overweight and children affected by obesity. The BMI z-score, waist circumference (WC), and percentage body fat showed a significant correlation with triglycerides, HDL-C, the TG: HDL-C ratio, and the homeostatic model assessment for IR (HOMA-IR) index.

    CONCLUSIONS: Severely children affected by obesity exhibit a higher prevalence of and are more likely to develop cardiometabolic risk factors compared to overweight and children affected by obesity. This group of children should be monitored closely and screened periodically for obesity-related health problems to institute early and comprehensive intervention.

  15. Ong-Abdullah M, Ordway JM, Jiang N, Ooi SE, Kok SY, Sarpan N, et al.
    Nature, 2015 Sep 24;525(7570):533-7.
    PMID: 26352475 DOI: 10.1038/nature15365
    Somaclonal variation arises in plants and animals when differentiated somatic cells are induced into a pluripotent state, but the resulting clones differ from each other and from their parents. In agriculture, somaclonal variation has hindered the micropropagation of elite hybrids and genetically modified crops, but the mechanism responsible remains unknown. The oil palm fruit 'mantled' abnormality is a somaclonal variant arising from tissue culture that drastically reduces yield, and has largely halted efforts to clone elite hybrids for oil production. Widely regarded as an epigenetic phenomenon, 'mantling' has defied explanation, but here we identify the MANTLED locus using epigenome-wide association studies of the African oil palm Elaeis guineensis. DNA hypomethylation of a LINE retrotransposon related to rice Karma, in the intron of the homeotic gene DEFICIENS, is common to all mantled clones and is associated with alternative splicing and premature termination. Dense methylation near the Karma splice site (termed the Good Karma epiallele) predicts normal fruit set, whereas hypomethylation (the Bad Karma epiallele) predicts homeotic transformation, parthenocarpy and marked loss of yield. Loss of Karma methylation and of small RNA in tissue culture contributes to the origin of mantled, while restoration in spontaneous revertants accounts for non-Mendelian inheritance. The ability to predict and cull mantling at the plantlet stage will facilitate the introduction of higher performing clones and optimize environmentally sensitive land resources.
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